Concrete is used on a regular basis in various structures, such as
motorways, so they have to be able to support large volumes of weight and
tension across long periods of time. This means making the concrete stronger
during its processing. This can be achieved by the addition of more solid materials
into the mixture, making it more sturdy once constructed. These materials may
include large stones. Another way to make concrete stronger is using
reinforcement techniques. This can include positioning steel beams in the
material, making it ideal for structures such as motorway bridges or factory
buildings.

vi) Smart materials are designed materials that have one or more properties that can be
significantly changed in a controlled fashion by external stimuli, such as
stress, temperature, moisture, pH, electric or magnetic fields. This means that these materials can be used
for a number of applications. One example of this could be water proof paint on
cars: a primer base coat and clear coat provide protection for a cars
professional finish from weather. If the correct properties that are required
were not present in the various layers of paint, the car would not be resistant
to weather. Another example could be when heat is applied to fire sprinklers; a
latch is released causing the sprinklers to activate. Moreover, piezoelectric
materials can be used in children’s shoes: the impact in the sole causes a
small electric current to be produced, resulting in a sudden flash of light.

Task 2 (M1)

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Steel alloy has many uses
and contains other materials, such as iron. Low carbon steels generally contain less than
0.25% carbon and cannot be strengthened by heat-treating (strengthening can
only be accomplished through cold working). The low carbon material is
relatively soft and weak, but has extremely good ductility and toughness. In
addition, it is machineable, weld-able, and is relatively inexpensive to produce.
Moreover, Medium carbon steels
have carbon concentrations between 0.25% and 0.60%. These steels may be
heat-treated by quenching, and then tempering to improve their mechanical
properties. On a strength-to-cost basis, the heat-treated medium carbon steels
provide tremendous load carrying ability.

In addition, aluminum alloys contain magnesium, which has a light weight and dense structure. This
makes is a good material to use when constructing in the BIW stages of
manufacturing. This is one of the most effective and widely used alloying
elements for aluminum. Alloys in this series possess moderate to high
strength characteristics, as well as good weldablility and resistance to
corrosion in the marine environment. This differs from steel, as its alloy
contains iron; this means that under the wrong weather conditions, steel has a
tendency to rust. Overall I would say that aluminium alloy is the better
material to use for constructing a car’s body work and/ or chassis. 

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