CONCRETE College Of Education, Jalandhar ABSTRACT The paper

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Ms. Mridhu Sharma

The Institute of Company Secretaries of India

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Ms. Shifali Sonik

M.G.N College Of Education, Jalandhar



The paper shows that environment is one
of the essential public assets of a human system, and it must be therefore
specially protected. According to our present knowledge, the sustainability is
necessary for all human systems and it is necessary to invoke the sustainable
development principles in all human system assets. Sustainable development is
understood as a development that does not erode ecological, social or politic
systems on which it depends, but it explicitly approves ecological limitation
under the economic activity frame and it has full comprehension for support of
human needs. The paper summarises the conditions for sustainable development, methods,
tools and techniques to solve the problems of environment and the tasks of
executive governance in the environmental segment.

Key words: Environment, Human System, Sustainability,
Sustainability Management, 


The paper summarizes the
results of the systematic study of environment in the recent 30 years. It
starts from cognition of the studied subject on the present level and
summarizes the conditions and limits of sustainable development, as well as the
tools, methods and techniques used to solve the environment problems and tasks
of executive governance in the environmental segment. The environment itself is
a system of systems that, from the viewpoint of human existence and
development, is a part of the superior system of systems, the human system.
From the given fact that it is evidently impossible to elevate the environment
existence and return to original state under the interests connected with human
existence and development, but, simultaneously, it is impossible to damage the
environment irresponsibly, because it creates the medium necessary for human
existence itself. Therefore, we have to introduce the compromises that respect
human needs and environment into the practice, based on our knowledge and
experience. Their impact and benefits are monitored in the way that allows
carrying out the corrective measures if they seem to be necessary. Based on
recent cognition, sustainability (sustainable development), is not only related
to the environment, but also to the entire human system and it basic assets
(i.e. public assets) on which the human lives are dependent. Basic human system
assets are human lives, health and security; environment; property and public
welfare; infrastructures and technologies, in particular those that belong to
the critical ones . The sustainability assessment in general sense is the formalized
process for identification, prediction and assessment of potential impact of
arbitrary inputs including the variants for society sustainable development
(e.g. legal rules, ordinances, regulations, political intent, plan, program,
and project). From the viewpoint of present cognition of human system and its
assets, the mentioned assessment might be performed always at good governance
of territory.



From the
system viewpoint, the sustainable system has attributes as productivity,
resilience, adaptability and vulnerability, and therefore, sometimes it is not
easy to find a suitable reference state or conditions:

reference point of sustainability is a demanded future state (scenarios,
techniques and foresight).

reference points are, on the one hand, inputs and, on the other hand, outputs
of system processes (ecological trace, product life times etc.).

We can
thus assume the context given in Figure 1. Since these attributes are mutually
tied up, in the relation to the existence of system, the sustainability is on
the peak. The decision making. On system adaptive capacity is defined by the
relation given in the decision matrix in table 1 (3).

is often misinterpreted as the goal that we all strive for. In fact,
sustainability is not an achievable final state, since it is rather the basic
characteristics of a dynamically developed system. Thus, sustainability
is permanent adaptation to changing conditions. This
adaptive property is natural to all ecosystems. It is only a question of
education to introduce the adaptive procedures to the public administration
decision-making on human, i.e. socio-ecologic-technical system (3). For the
implementation in practice it holds

pieces of knowledge:



Fig. 1 Relation among sustainability, vulnerability and


Table 1













1. Criticality is directed to
failures and hazards, while sustainability deals with the

Therefore, more and more important are the approaches and procedures that

deal with
the sustainable infrastructure, namely both, the grey one and the green one.

for searching the sustainable elements is the following:

– list of

– key
impacts induced by human activities,

– Identification
of receptors,

– Identification
of ways of impacts spread,

– Identification
of the secondary and further order impacts on main and other receptors.

approach can be used only for grey (i.e. by human created) infrastructure,

the green
infrastructure cannot be investigated in the way that its parts are separately
analyzed, since landscape and ecosystems create a complex super system, i.e.
system of Systems (1).

2. The landscape
sustainability is also connected with its sensitivity; the assessment is done
by scoring, i.e. decision matrix in Table 2.


3. The human needs, however,
depend mostly on functions of ecosystems, and therefore, it is necessary to
understand the ecosystem functions, because:

– The
ecosystem functions vary and thus influence the human health,

– Responses
of ecosystems to human activity (intended or non-intended) are not always

they can cumulate, affect vicariously or retrospectively, and through the

links to create emergency up to critical situations. Therefore, the procedure
in which we define firstly the grey/engineering infrastructure for human
settlements and, after that, the proposal is transformed into the landscape is
incorrect as it completely ignores possible cumulative, long term and delayed
impacts on environment sources and ecosystems services. Therefore, it is
necessary to search for the solution suitable for local conditions; i.e. it is
site specifications.

4. The orientation to the
interface of grey and green infrastructures relays on technologies that might
solve present and future problems. New technologies, however, bring in
uncertainty and vagueness into green infrastructure, because the technology
impacts on environment are hard to forecast. Therefore, it is necessary to use
and process the methodology of foresight not only on technological level, but
also on societal level, i.e. societal foresight aimed at the trends of behavior
of grey infrastructure (i.e. theory of normal accident, highly reliable organization,
industrial ecology) and green infrastructure (adaptive environmental
management, industrial ecology etc.) (3).


DECISION MATRIX ON LANDSCAPE SUSTAINABILITY                                    Table 2


Sensitivity of

Sensitivity of
elements of

of aesthetic
of landscape

of landscape

of landscape

Value of


Type 1








Type 2


















humans did not come in the environment with intent to subvert the nature. The problems
started at the time when humans tried to separate themselves from the nature,
and they placed technology / engineering between themselves and the nature.
Initially, it was not evident, the biosphere has kept its reserves and it
contrived to equilibrate with a range of activities. However, the human
activity has been progressively taking on the intensity and in some directions
the biosphere has been globally affected. The present worldwide problems are of
a global character. Apart from the environment contamination, other major
global problems involve the questions of peace and war, the differences between
developed and developing countries, providing the food for future population,
energy demand, lack of water, soil, sources, as well as the questions of health
care, culture and education. THEREFORE, it is necessary to introduce STRATEGIC,
SYSTEM AND PROACTIVE MANAGEMENT, based on a realistic, systematic and proactive
view of human system and its problems. The given view is necessary from the following

have been getting to a certain life standard that they do not repudiate; this standard
is conditioned by interventions to nature.

environment is an adaptable system. During their development, the humans have accumulated
much knowledge and experience, and therefore, they are supposed to know the
ways to limit the interventions to a system, so that to ensure the system
development in the direction supporting the mankind’s development.

many humans, the environment today represents a stylish stalking horse which
makes them take up the actions that have nothing in common with real
environment (e.g. the reality that the soil is left unexploited does not
prosper to environment). For decision-making, a model of environment that is
restricted to human medium has been used, because the aim of human strive is to
ensure the human society development, i.e. by recent words said the such
development trajectory of whole environment system that onward enables
humankind development. Based on the present knowledge, each quality management,
including environmental management, must carry out the decision-making process
with respect to the following goals:

– To prevent emergency situations and to localize emergency situations
(the accidents can origin in the frame of both, individual components or even
in the frame of the whole environment system),

– To ensure the healthy development of human society,

– To implement ecological programmes in the socio-economic sphere. The
management must monitor:

– Impacts of anthropogenic activities into the environment that can be
divided into:

• Pollution
of environment component (may be either of the material character, manifested
by concentrations of agents or of physical origin manifested by noise, heat,
electromagnetic oscillation etc.

• Biologic
diversity, i.e. reduction of number of species, change of species composition etc.,

• Deterioration
of health state of human population, – pressure of anthropogenic sphere on environment that is divided to:

• Emissions
of agents (or better wastes of human activities) into natural medium,

• Consumption
of renewable sources.



Since its
origin, the basic function of state has been to ensure the protection and development
of a given human society which is impossible without ensuring the safe space in
that the human society has been living. The management of state includes
generally the concepts of government, control and office hearing of the public
affairs. It represents the conscious activity that is directed to the
determination and control of course of topical processes for achievement of
appointed goals. It puts individual activities in harmony and it fulfils
general functions of the whole, i.e. the state / territory / object /
organisation etc. The governance is the form of activity of authorities,
particularly executive ones that consists in organizing and practical
implementation of tasks given by managing team / state management / territory /
object / organisation in harmony with laws and the other legal rules.


to the basic tools of state for management directed to sustainability


management (strategic, tactical, operational) based on qualified data,
knowledge, professional assessments, qualified decision-making methods,
land-use planning, correct sitting, designing, building, operation,
maintenance, reparation and renovation of buildings, technologies and

citizen’s education, schooling and training,

specific education of technical and management workers,

technical, health, ecological, cyber and other standards, norms and rules
including the best practice procedures, i.e. tools for control/regulation of
processes that may or might lead to disaster occurrence or to the increase of
its impact,

inspections and audits,

executive security forces for qualified response to emergency and critical

• systems
for critical situations defeating,

security (land-use and spatial), emergency, continuity, crisis and contingency

• specific
system for defeating the critical situations – safety, emergency, continuity
and crisis management.

analysis of the development of environment and the development of political,
social and economic situation worldwide shows that it is necessary to solve the
cases and actions that by their intensity induce the critical situations
leading to relevant crises of the type denoted as a humanitarian catastrophe or
social crisis.

from the viewpoint of human security, human system development, conservation of
quality environment, existence, stability and development of state must comprise
a safety concept connected with the concepts of development codified and implemented
by safety management. O the basic (usual) level of management, the target is
security and sustainable development, thus connecting emergency and crisis
management. The goal of human society management is to ensure the protection
of: human lives, health and security; property, welfare; environment; infrastructures
and technologies, which are inevitable for human survival, i.e. the
mobilisation and co-ordination of utilization of national sources (energy,
labour force, production capability, food and agriculture, resources, telecommunications
etc.), the co-ordination of such activities as they are notification system, rescue
system and medical services that reduce impacts of natural or other disasters
and ensures the continuity of activity of public administration, the adherence
of legislation and also generate the conditions for start of development. The
land and regional development is manifested by the construction of industrial
regions coming closer and closer to the residential zones. Possibility of harm
thus increases, and society (community) is not willing to accept all risks.
This is the reason for the necessity of risk management and consecutively risk
engineering that includes risk assessment, risk reduction and harm explanation.
In short, the risk engineering is connected with technical systems (only in
advanced forms, the human factor influence on complex process safety is considered)
and in the broader sense, it is possible to generalize it to renewal of
landscape with utilization of engineering approaches. Therefore, the risk
engineering plays such an important role. Its target, on the one hand, is the
optimum protection of humans, property and environment, and, on the other hand,
the optimum renewal of damaged landscape with utilization of engineering
procedures and findings. Both concepts require structured a system approach and
qualified utilization of planning the scenarios for decision-making support.

territory management understood as strategic and proactive territory safety management
differs from normal environment management in the following items:

• It is
directed to the long-term sustainability.

• The aim
is the system integrity (including the so called ecological integrity) because ecosystem
services/utilities (i.e. utilities that environment offers to humans) promotes live
supporting functions.

• It
considers the human as an element of system and it integrates human activity
with environment protection.

• It
sentient reacts to human needs in the system contexts. It includes quality
environment management.



From the viewpoint
of society needs, it is necessary to ensure the further development of economy
on the one hand and, on the other hand, to reduce the environment contamination
and to ensure the environment protection. The artistic creation is the high
degree of proficiency. The complex problems of the human/nature relation are
based on certain philosophical foundations in each historical era. The present
period can be characterized as the era in which the humans incessantly start turning
the higher merry-go-round of substances and energies in order to satisfy their
needs, with reality that the bulk of these substances is growing much faster
than the human needs. On one side it displays deficiencies of resources and energy
(resource stocks have been stretched) and on the other side it wastes with resources
and with energy. Sustainability considers the nature and human from the
viewpoint of optimum development of the whole biosphere. The ecological
behaviour should not be reduced to the riotous discussions around the nuclear
power plants and water structures or industrial complexes. We must plan and
build big structures. At the same time, we must consider the impacts of these
constructions on the environment and human health.



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p. In


PROCHÁZKOVÁ, D. Strategic Safety Management of Territory and Organisation.

Karolinum, 2011, 399 p., in print. In Czech. ISBN 978-80-01-04844-3

PROCHÁZKOVÁ, D. 5 Research Reports to Ministry of Agriculture project

„Auxiliary Multi-Criteria System for Decision-making Supporting the

Development of Land and Human Seats”. Praha:
MZe ?R, 2005-2007, 1023 p. In


PROCHÁZKOVÁ, D. (ed.): Environmental Monitoring and Adjacent Problems.

?EÚ and
MŽP ?R, 1993, 356 p.

PROCHÁZKOVÁ, D. Environmental Monitoring the Czech Republic. I. Conception.

Study for MŽP ?R. ?EÚ, 1993, 465 p. In Czech.

Categories: Decision Making


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