Communication the form of business or human occupation,

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Communication is an exchange of ideas, opinions, information, relationships
and so on that has a purpose and is presented personally or indirectly through
symbols or signals aimed at achieving organizational goals. Undoubtedly no
matter what the form of business or human occupation, communication is
important and indispensable. It is something that cannot be avoided
especially in the affairs of an organization. As stated by Zelko &
Dance (1965), “Communication is an important activity in an
organization”. Good and smooth communication is very important and takes
precedence over a business organization.

According to Narimah (2004) “Communication is a very important area for
all other areas, so that human deeds and behaviors can be said to be incomplete
without communication.” Initially communication was only for the sake
of singularity but with the rapid development and with the advent of human
civilization revolution, communication became more complex. When the rise
of the media emerged, the greater communication was triggered, the fact that
communication was a key area of ??product marketing as well as
manpower. Companies are beginning to realize that communication is the key
element or catalyst in the business world, especially to trigger corporate
image of a company.

According to Saodah, et. al (2004), “knowledge about communication
makes a person or organization more successful and competitive. This means
the efficiency of an organization depends on the extent to which communication
channels are working.

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Teamwork refers to
workers who work in a group that often doing work together and carry out tasks
in tandem to achieve team goals. A team comprises a combination of individuals who
have a dependent competence in terms of capabilities, expertise, skills and
knowledge and also have the accountability and commitment to the team’s
performance and they are willing to carry out joint assignments.

The term ‘teamwork’
provides the meaning of a group of people who work together for the  organization. It is also showing how human
works more effectively in a working group of diverse backgrounds. It does not
mean that each individual has no interest. On the other hand, the effectiveness
and efficiency of teamwork often go beyond individual interests and targets.
The most effective ‘teamwork’ is when all individuals engage and donate
harmoniously to achieving the same goals. There
are six major types of teams:

Ø  informal

Ø  traditional

Ø  problem solving

Ø  leadership


Ø  virtual

Informal Teams

Informal teams are generally formed for social
purposes. They can help to facilitate employee pursuits of common concerns,
such as improving work conditions. More frequently however, these teams form
out of a set of common concerns and interests, which may or may not be the same
as the organization’s. Leaders of these teams generally emerge from the
membership and are not appointed by anyone in the organization.


Traditional teams are the organizational groups
commonly thought of as departments or functional areas. Leaders or managers of
these teams are appointed by the organization and have legitimate power in the
team. The team is expected to produce a product, deliver a service, or perform
a function that the organization has assigned.

Problem-solving Teams

Problem-solving teams or task forces are formed when a
problem arises that cannot be solved within the standard organizational structure.
These teams are generally cross-functional; that is, the membership comes from
different areas of the organization, and are charged with finding a solution to
the problem.


Leadership teams are generally composed of management
brought together to span the boundaries between different functions in the
organization. In order for a product to be delivered to market, the heads of
finance, production, and marketing must interact and come up with a common
strategy for the product. At top management levels, teams are used in
developing goals and a strategic direction for the firm as a whole.


Self-directed teams are given autonomy over deciding how a job will be done. These
teams are provided with a goal by the organization, and then determine how to
achieve that goal. Frequently there is no assigned manager or leader and very
few, if any, status differences among the team members.

These teams are commonly allowed to choose new team
members, decide on work assignments, and may be given responsibility for
evaluating team members. They must meet quality standards and interact with
both buyers and suppliers, but otherwise have great freedom in determining what
the team does. Teams form around a particular project and a leader emerges for
that project. The team is responsible for carrying out the project, for
recruiting team members, and for evaluating them.


Technology is impacting how teams meet and function.
Collaborative software and conferencing systems have improved the ability for
employees to meet, conduct business, share documents, and make decisions
without ever being in the same location. While the basic dynamics of other
types of teams may still be relevant, the dynamics and management of virtual
teams can be very different. Issues can arise with a lack of facial or auditory
clues; participants must be taken at their word, even when video-conferencing tools
are used.

Accountability is impacted by taking a team virtual.
Each member is accountable for their tasks and to the team as a whole usually
with minimal supervision. Key factors in the success of a virtual team are
effective formation of the team, trust and collaboration between members, and excellent communication.

Understanding and
identifying teamwork features can help strengthen the organization to achieve
the goals set. There are four main features of teamwork:


Members in the
organization must understand and share views on the direction and goals that
the organization wishes to achieve.

Recognizing their
respective roles and functions can motivate members to take part in every
action and action that has been decided.

Work together can be
achieved if the collective effort is used as a working principle because all
the strengths and resources can be mobilized towards the achievement of one


Every member of the
organization should look into teamwork as an opportunity for achievement of
goals, meet the needs of life and provide social support during the crisis.

Viewing from a positive
perspective can create a cohesion amongst the next group of members of the
synergy power that drives the organization towards maximum performance.

The integration between
member roles and performance will encourage more creative ideas and reduce
disparity in opinion.


Not all members of the
organization really understand the role entrusted to them. This is because
there are those who prefer to work alone.

The big organization of
the organization to attract its members is to expose the opportunities that
will be enjoyed if they move in groups. In the early stages, more frequent
communication with fellow experts can enhance the ‘spirit de corp’ for them to
know each other and to understand the aspirations of the organization.


Each member has their
respective roles according to expertise.

The knowledge and
performance enhancement will be more prominent if each member contributes to
their skills and expertise.

Complete processes in
the organization will create stronger integration and be the cornerstone of
greater success.

Improved quality of work life and a reduction in
absenteeism and turnover all contribute to a positive impact on the bottom
line. Involving employees in teams helps the organization remain open to change
and new ideas. As long as teams are seen as a means of improving the
organization’s ability to meet competitive challenges, teams will be part of
the business world.


Active listening takes place when a listener focuses
his full attention on the speaker, avoids interrupting the speaker, remains non-judgmental
and shows genuine interest in the speaker. In addition to hearing the words,
full attention allows the listener to understand what’s being implied and read
nonverbal clues such as body language and facial expressions that may
contradict verbal words. Fully engaging in the discussion or conversation is
one of the most important aspects of active listening. An open, inviting
posture and occasional small verbal comments such as “yes” or “I understand”
can help uncover the root of most problems.

Listening should not be taken for granted. Before the
invention of writing, people conveyed virtually all knowledge through some
combination of showing and telling. Elders recited tribal histories to attentive
audiences. Listeners received religious teachings enthusiastically. Myths,
legends, folktales, and stories for
entertainment survived only because audiences were eager to listen. Nowadays,
however, we can gain information and entertainment through reading and
electronic recordings rather than through real-time listening. If we become
distracted and let our attention wander, we can go back and replay a recording.
Despite that fact, we can still gain at least four compelling benefits by
becoming more active and competent at real-time listening.


Become a
Better Student

When we focus on the material
presented in a classroom, we will be able to identify not only the words used
in a lecture but their emphasis and their more complex meanings. We will
take better notes, and we will more accurately remember the instructor’s
claims, information, and conclusions. Many times, instructors give verbal cues
about what information is important, specific expectations about assignments,
and even what material is likely to be on an exam, so careful listening can be


Become a
Better Friend

giving our best attention to people expressing thoughts and experiences that
are important to them, those individuals are likely to see we as someone who
cares about their well-being. This fact is especially true when we give our
attention only and refrain from interjecting opinions, judgments, and advice.

People Will Perceive We as
Intelligent and Perceptive

When listening well to others, we
reveal ourself as being curious and interested in people and events. In
addition, our ability to understand the meanings of what we hear will make we a
more knowledgeable and thoughtful person.

Good Listening Can Help Public

When listening well to others, we start to pick up more on the stylistic
components related to how people form arguments and present information. As a
result, we have the ability to analyze what we think works and doesn’t work in
others’ speeches, which can help we
transform our speeches in the process. For example, really paying
attention to how others cite sources orally during their speeches may
give ideas about how to more effectively cite sources in our presentation.


Listening is Not the Same as Hearing

Hearing refers to
the sounds that enter our ears. It is a physical process that, provided we do
not have any hearing problems, happens automatically. Listening means paying
attention not only to the story, but how it is told, the use of language and
voice, and how the other person uses his or her body. In other words, it
means being aware of both verbal and non-verbal messages. Our ability to
listen effectively depends on the degree to which we perceive and understand
these messages.

Listening is not a passive process. In
fact, the listener can, and should, be at least as engaged in the process as
the speaker. The phrase ‘active listening’ is used to describe this process of
being fully involved.

We Spend a lot of
Time Listening

Adults spend an average of 70% of
their time engaged in some sort of communication. Of this, research shows that
an average of 45% is spent listening compared to 30% speaking, 16% reading and
9% writing. (Adler, R. et al. 2001). That is, by any standards, a lot of time
listening. It is worthwhile taking a bit of extra time to ensure that we listen







Most people spend at least 45% of their
communication time listening. This is most used communication skill is not only
crucial in interpersonal communication, It also affects organizational
communication and helps determine success in education and in careers. The
business writer Kevin Murphy says ” The better you listen, the luckier you will


Communication is the means by which we form relationships with others.
By exchanging our feelings, thoughts, likes, dislikes, observations, and
intentions with each other, we form cooperative and interactive bonds with the
people in our lives. Understanding communication is necessary to understanding
our and others’ behavior, including behavior that is problematic or
challenging. Understanding communication is key to: ?

Understanding and improving relationships. ?

 Effective persuasion. ?

Effective instruction or teaching. ?

Understanding and improving group dynamics. ?

Understanding and resolving conflict. ?

Understanding, predicting, and responding to problematic
behavior.   ?

 Understanding, predicting, and
managing escalating behavior (crisis intervention).

Expressive and Receptive Communication

Communication is the exchange of messages between two or more people.
Communication can be viewed as a combination of expressive and receptive

Ø  Receptive communication is the process of
receiving and understanding a message from another person. It can be thought of
as “input” (to invoke information processing and the computer as a metaphor for
the human nervous system)

Ø  Expressive communication is the sending of a
message to another person. It can be thought of as “output”.

Understanding the relative strength of these two processes within a
person can help us understand their behavior. For example, it might help us
understand a person who engages in repetitive, aggressive communication when we
notice that although talkative, he has difficulty understanding and retaining incoming
information. What seems like intentional, stubborn, defiant behavior really has
its root in the problems the individual has with processing incoming
information and making sense of it.   Observing the relative strength
of expressive and receptive processes can aid us in not only understanding and
interpreting a person’s behavior; it can help us improve instruction, design
structure and develop communication strategies to improve processing in the
short and long term.

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