Colorectal Cancer, or colon cancer, is a type of cancer that occurs in the digestive system: more specifically, it starts in the colon or the rectal. It is the fourth most common type of cancer in the United States. Although it can be inflicted upon children, it is mostly found in adults over 50 years of age. It begins with a polyp that can start to obtain cancer cells. It then grows on the inner lining of the colon, therefore causing colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer can be diagnosed in numerous ways. It can be recognized through colonoscopies, biopsies, and blood tests. Colonoscopies observe the colon and the rectal which can pick up any polyps that might be growing along the lining. Biopsies remove some tissue from the lining and detects any types of imbalances in the cells. Blood tests are beneficial because the polyps often cause internal bleeding, which can be diagnosed using a blood test. But people can respond differently to colorectal cancer treatment or diagnosis method. The prognosis of this type of cancer fully depends on the person, and how they handle what they have. There are also different stages, each having their own risks of survival. Survival for Stage I colon cancer is 93%. Stage II is between 72% and 85% and Stage III is 44% to 83%. But Stage IV colon cancer only has an 8% chance of survival.In a large intestine without colorectal cancer, it starts at the cecum and goes through the sections of the colon until going through the rectum. Rising up the ascending colon, the food then enters the transverse colon. Lastly it reaches the last stage of the colon, which is the descending colon that leads into the rectum without difficulty. With colon cancer, there is a tumor, or more than one tumor, plaguing either the colon or the rectum. More specifically, a polyp forms. Without treatment, it can grow larger and could eventually kill the diseased patient.There are many different treatment methods to deal with colorectal cancer. Local treatments, or therapies, consists of surgery, radiation therapy, or embolization. The surgery will depend on which section the polyp or tumor is affecting. The radiation therapy can either be external or internal: external puts a radiation beam outside of the body that resembles an x-ray machine and the internal method puts a “radioactive source” into the body and next to the tumor. The last local treatment for colorectal cancer is ablation, which destroys the tumors without removing them from the body. But there are systemic treatments, which is using drugs to reach the cancer cells inside of your body, instead of using surgery or radiation. These methods include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Systemic chemotherapy is where drugs are injected into the veins so they can enter your bloodstream and try to fight off the cancer. Targeted therapy is also inserting a drug into the vein when the chemo treatment isn’t working. Lastly, immunotherapy can be used as a systematic method to treat colon cancer. Unlike the other drugs where they help fight off the cancer, immunotherapy uses the medicine to get the person’s immune system to get rid of the cancer cells themselves. They are many signs that can signal colorectal cancer. Some red flags include a change in intestinal habits and problems in the digestive system, such as diarrhea or constipation. Other signs include discomfort or pain in the abdomen, such as cramps gas pains, and bloating, non-explanatory weight loss, rectal bleeding, and fatigue. There is no known hereditary aspect to colon cancer, or any way that it is spread through germs like influenza, for example. It usually starts at a lymph node, either in the colon or the rectum. Colon cancer first spreads to these nodes and then disperses into other parts of the body. If the cancer infects the colon, it will most likely go straight to the liver. But for rectal cancer, it may bypass the liver completely and go straight to the lungs. Other organs that colorectal cancer can spread to include the bones, brain, and even the abdominal cavity lining. It can also infect other lymph nodes throughout the body.Colorectal cancer, although not having a specified diet, can be prevented with a few healthy diet changes. For example, including more fruits and vegetables into the patients diet can cleanse the body with necessary antioxidants. Switching hite flour and bread with whole grain food products also aids in preventing colorectal cancer. Switching decreases the glycemic load and adds more nutritional value. Milk can also help in fighting against colorectal cancer. It contains key nutrients such as calcium and vitamin D, which can help avert colorectal cancer in the body.In conclusion, colorectal cancer affects the body in numerous ways.  Statistics on an article about colon cancer states that an estimated 135,00 people will be diagnosed with this type of cancer each year. But, among them, there will be 50,000 deaths caused my colon cancer. Concluding my previous statement, only 64.9% of individuals will survive for five years or more. Although colorectal cancer will continue its stages, there are multiple forms of treatment that can prevent it, and, with proper help, people influenced by it could live a normal life.

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