CNN is a well known reliable news source and newspaper, so that is why I chose to do this research through this site. Meera Senthilingam is a CNN producer who focuses on health and wellness. Sethilingham has written many articles relating health and diseases around the world. She has a master’s degree in science and communication from Imperial College London and in the control of infectious diseases from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Since this article is about the bubonic plague, she would be a reliable researcher and source of evidence for this topic. Because of the authorship and known trust for this news source, this article is a reliable source of evidence.    The bubonic plague, plague, or black death is a potentially deadly and rare bacterial infection, spread by fleas or rats that have the yersinia pestis bacteria. Without treatment (which obviously wasn’t evident in many cases), the Bubonic Plague takes a life in a matter of days. Swollen lymph nodes, fever, chills, vomiting, headaches and muscle aches are common symptoms along with painful, large boils in areas such as the armpit. The plague is extremely contagious and can be transmitted through either a bite of an infected animal (flea or rat) or through the air of an infected person. There have been three pandemics of the black death throughout the world during various time periods. The first pandemic was in the Eastern Roman Empire after the emperor, Justinian was infected with the plague but had extensive treatment and survived. What came to be known as the Plague of Justinian killed between 25-50 million people over two centuries. The second appearance of the plague was in the late middle ages, and killed between 75-200 million people. The final appearance of the plague was concentration in Southwest China until it was found in San Francisco, Oregan, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado, Zambia, India, Peru, China, Madagascar, Republic of Congo, and other places had infected people. Luckily today and in the third pandemic, many people were able to be saved, for medicines have been found to treat the bubonic plague. But, in Madagascar, there is a slight, recurring appearance of the plague, revealing unsanitary conditions that are frightening to even imagine.In class, we studied the second pandemic of the bubonic plague. Although this epidemic was much more deadly because the treatment was unknown, this same infection was found in Madagascar, in present day (along with another type of the plague). The sanitary conditions in Madagascar, like those in the Late Middle Ages are not prestige and are another factor that is leading to the spread of the plague; both places, although the plague originated from a different place, was able to thrive because of the poor medical and living conditions. Like what we studied, the same disease and symptoms are present in Madagascar but what is different is the amount of people who have died and now, there is a treatment. The plague was a deadly disease that infected and killed many people in the Late Middle Ages and is unfortunately, still around today.

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