Chapter TwoThe Review of the Related Literature Climate Change is a major issue in the world today. Climate change had a major impact on the timing of phenological events happening in all ecosystems. These phenological events include, but are not limited to,  premature flowering of plants and earlier mating seasons. Climate change is also affecting the amount of accumulated heat and causing more heat to be accumulated faster. This can be measured in  growing degree days (GDD). This study focuses the effects of climate change and GDD on the emergence of 12 butterfly species- Cabbage White (Pieris rapae), Common Buckeye (Junonia coenia), Common Sootywing (Pholisora catullus), Common Wood-nymph (Cercyonis pegala), Eastern Tailed-Blue (Everes comyntas), Great Spangled Fritillary (Speyeria cybele), Orange Sulphur (Colias eurytheme), Pipevine Swallowtail (battus philenor), Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta), Spring Azure (Celastrina ladon echo), Monarch (Danaus plexippus), Mourning Cloak (Nymphalis antiopa). These 12 species were specifically chosen because they are a part of a phenological study conducted by Nature’s Notebook that focuses on butterflies of high concern. This study will provide a better understanding of how temperature and GDD affect butterfly behavior. Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary is located in Lothian, Maryland. It runs along the Patuxent River. It includes many habitats such as freshwater wetlands, and is home to many plants and animals. It was founded by the Friends of Jug Bay-an organization whose mission is to preserve the sanctuary-in 1986 (About Us, n.d.). Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary Glendening Preserve has a plot of land filled with a variety of plants that attract butterflies and/or are essential to the butterfly life cycle. At Jug Bay, butterflies can be monitored on a regular basis by anyone who pleases. Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary and  Nature’s Notebook  phenology site paired up for a phenology study that began in 2013 in which 12 specific butterfly species are monitored and tracked at the Glendening Butterfly Garden located at Jug Bay. The Glendening Butterfly Garden is where all field work for this study was collected.Nature’s Notebook Nature’s Notebook- a website run by the United States National Phenology Network-is a citizen science site in which professional and citizen scientist can record sightings of over 1,000 plant and animals life cycles. This site includes information from all over the United States. Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary is one observation site that is monitored on Nature’s Notebook. When a butterfly is observed at Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary it can be entered into Nature’s Notebook for all other citizen scientist to see. The 12 butterflies involved in this study are a part of a phenology study conducted by Nature’s Nature’s Notebook that focuses on Butterflies of high concern. Butterflies and Moths of North America (BAMONA) and Weather Underground Butterflies and Moths of North America  is a database that possesses information on an array of butterfly species. This site is enabled citizen scientist to upload sightings of these butterflies found in their area. . The sighting are offered after they are uploaded to test the validity of the sighting. Making BAMOVA a reliable source for these butterfly sightings. The website includes a map a listing of the sighting organized by observation date or verification date (About BAMONA). Weather Underground (wunderground.com)  is a database that holds historical weather data that  includes weekly accumulated growing degree days, temperatures, precipitation, wind speed, and sky conditions (things like cloud or sunny).The Butterfly Butterflies and moths are a part of the kingdom Animalia, class Insecta, and order Lepidoptera. The word Lepidoptera is derived from the greek word, lepido- scale- and ptera- wing. Butterflies are usually recognized by their vibrant colors and patterns on their wings. Butterflies are often used as an indicator species-an organism whose presence or absence represents the condition of a certain environment- for many reasons. Butterflies are poikilothermic animals. This means that their activity is greatly affected by the weather and alot of butterfly species are constrained by climate. Butterflies are fecund which means that they have a high-dispersal ability and a more frequent life cycle. Therefore changes in their abundance and distribution can be easily detected over short periods of time. Butterflies have a high public profile and there is already an abundance of historical butterfly data available for use (Roy & Sparks, 2000). Butterflies are univoltine species, species whom complete their life cycle in one year. Making them a good indicator species because certain developmental happen at multiple parts of the year. Therefore, the temperature may affect different aspects of growth. (Fenberg, 2016) The aspect of growth affected will indicate in which season the change in climate occur. For all these reasons butterflies are used in many studies as an indicator species in climate change and other aspects of environmental health. The Life Cycle of the Butterfly The butterfly life cycle on cost of four stages of metamorphosis- a greek word which means transformation or change in shape (Butterfly Life Cycle, n.d.). These four stages include the egg, larva (caterpillar), pupa (Chrysalis), and adult. The life cycle may take months up to a full year. Only adult female butterflies can lay eggs. This can happen in the summer spring or fall . The eggs are often very small and laid in large numbers. Once ready to lay eggs, the butterfly finds a host plants and lays the eggs there. The host plants are crucial to the caterpillars because this is what they will eat once hatched. The caterpillar stage, also known as the feeding or larva stage, is the second phase of the butterfly life cycle. In this stage the butterfly eats so much that it sheds its skin about 4 or 5 times and can grow up to 100 times their original size. Also, the food eaten during this time period is stored for use later as an adult butterfly. The third stage in the butterfly life cycle is the pupa stage, also known as the transition or chrysalis stage. The chrysalis can exist in many places for example in leaves or on a tree branch; the location depends on the species. Inside the chrysalis the larva cells will be developing into the adult butterfly features. This is where all the beautiful wings develop, the butterfly also grows legs and eyes of the adult butterfly form. The final stage of the butterfly cycle is the adult butterfly. Some species only live in this stage for one to two weeks, but other hibernating species may live months in this stage. This is the most common form associated with butterflies. Instead of the many small legs, small antenna, and tiny eyes; adult butterflies have large antenna, wings, long legs, and compound eyes. Adult butterflies can fly which is a major difference between caterpillars and adult butterflies. After becoming an adult butterfly, the butterfly does not grow anymore. Adult butterflies are now focused on mating and reproducing rather than eating. In fact, many species do not feed at all during this stage (Butterfly Life Cycle, n.d.).Background of Butterfly Species Studied All of the butterflies in this study are being observed less and less, making them butterflies of high concern. They are a part of Nature’s Notebook phenology study for this reason. The twelve butterflies species in this study include the following: Cabbage White (Pieris rapae), Common Buckeye (Junonia coenia), Common Sootywing (Pholisora catullus), Common Wood-nymph (Cercyonis pegala), Eastern Tailed-Blue (Everes comyntas), Great Spangled Fritillary (Speyeria cybele), Orange Sulphur (Colias eurytheme), Pipevine Swallowtail (battus philenor), Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta), Spring Azure (Celastrina ladon echo), Monarch (Danaus plexippus), Mourning Cloak (Nymphalis antiopa). The Cabbage White (Pieris rapae) is identified by its white wings with a black tip. Female adults have two black spots in the middle of their wings. Male Cabbage Whites have one black spot. The underside of their hindwing is usually a yellow or a grayish green. They are fairly small with a wingspan of 4.8-5.8 centimeters. Their host plants for their eggs and caterpillars are plants of the Brassicaceae family. The eggs are laid on the underside of these host plants. The adult butterfly feeds on nectar from many plants. They are usually found in open spaces, cities and suburbs or central Canada or southern United States  (Butterflies and Moths of North America | collecting and sharing data about Lepidoptera, 2018). The common buckeye  (Junonia coenia) is identified by its brown with with two orange bars and two orange spots. Their wingspan ranges from 4.2-7 centimeters.They reside in open, sunny areas in the south. Their flight is usually in two or three brood in october. The male adults usually patrol for females to mate with or to fight off other insects. Females lay eggs on the upside of the host plants which are mostly plants from the snapdragon family or the acanthus family  (Butterflies and Moths of North America | collecting and sharing data about Lepidoptera, 2018). The common sootywing is identified by its glossy black wing with small white spots on the far end of the sign. The female having more white spots. their wingspan averages between 2.5-3.3 centimeters. As adults they like to bask with their wings open. Females lay eggs on the upside of the host plants which are Lambsquarters, amaranths, and cockscomb.  As adults, they feed on nectar of many plants including ogbane, marjoram, oxalis, white clover, common milkweed, peppermint, cucumber, and melon. Males fly along roadsides in a zigzag flight near the ground. Both sexes visit low flowers(University of California, Davis). The Common Wood-Nymph (Cercyonis pegala) is identified by its brown wing with two large yellow eyespots on it. Their wingspan averages from 4.5-7.6 centimeter. As caterpillars, they do not feed as most caterpillars do. Instead , they hibernate until spring. in the life cycle females emerge sooner than males. As an adult they like to feed on rotting fruit and nectar. They are usually found in large grassy areas. Common Wood Nymphs are found in most parts of the USA including southeastern states, Texas, Florida, and Maine (Butterflies and Moths of North America | collecting and sharing data about Lepidoptera, 2018).The Eastern Tailed-Blue (Everes comyntas) have a wingspan of 2.2-2.9 centimeters and are identified by their narrow tail. The upper side of the adult male is an iridescent blue;females emerged in the summer are brown, females emerged in the spring are  smaller with blue at the wing bases. The underside of the wing is pale gray with black bar at end of cell, distinct black spots, and three large orange spots. Caterpillars are laid on budding flowers. After the caterpillars that, they eat the flowers and go into hibernation.  The caterpillar host plants include plants in the pea family. In regard to their flight, they have three broods between April and November (Butterflies and Moths of North America | collecting and sharing data about Lepidoptera, 2018). The Great Spangled Fritillary (Speyeria cybele) has a wingspan of 6.3 – 10.1 centimeters, and is identified by its vibrant orange color in males. The female is a darker brown. Both male and female have black scales on the bottom of their wings. Eggs are laid during the late summer near their caterpillar host plants, violets. They tend to reside in open and moist places (Butterflies and Moths of North America | collecting and sharing data about Lepidoptera, 2018). The Orange Sulphur (Colias eurytheme) identification can vary. The most common one has yellow wings with orange overlay and yellow veins in males; and yellow or white wings with spots and a black border in females. their caterpillar host plants include plants in the pea family and they are usually found in clover or alfalfa fields. As an adult they feed on nectar of the following plants: dandelion, milkweed, goldenrod, and aster  (Butterflies and Moths of North America | collecting and sharing data about Lepidoptera, 2018). The Pipevine Swallowtail (battus philenor) is a larder butterfly with a wingspan of 7-13 centimeters. They are commonly identified by their iridescent blue wings. Swallowtails in general are seen to change their pupae color based on environmental factors as they develop (Stefanescu, 2004) . Thus, making them an ideal indicator organism. The Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta) are identified by their brown wings with red and white details. In the winter they are duller and smaller. The Red Admiral has a very rapid flight. The Spring Azure (Celastrina ladon echo) has a wingspan of 2.2-3.5 and is identified by their blue wings for male and blue with some black at outer edge of forewing. The caterpillar hosts plants include a variety of woody shrubs. Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) are known for their migration Northern America in the late summer and autumn to their overwintering sites in central Mexico. Monarchs get most of their needed nutrients from nectar where they convert sugar to lipids. Once the butterflies reach Mexico they do little feeding, instead they maintain themselves by metabolizing lipid reserves.Their wingspan is about 10 centimeters and they are identified by their bright orange wings with black veins and white spots. The Mourning Cloak (Nymphalis antiopa) has a wingspan of about 5.7-10.1 centimeters  They are identified by their purple-black wings with bright yellow border and iridescent blue spots. They usually have one flight from June-July. Their caterpillar host plants include mostly willow trees. Mourning Cloaks do not have a specific habitat because they migrate and roam. They usually are found in heavily wooded places.Climate Change and its Effects Climate refers to the temperature and weather conditions of a certain area. Climate change is when the a long lasting change in theses weather patterns occurs. Lately climate has been a major issue all over the world. It is increasingly becoming more of a problem as time goes on. Climate change can caused naturally or by humans. Emissions of factory gases and clearing out of forests causes air pollution and holes in the ozone. This climate change is causing shifts in species geographical distribution, abundance, and community composition (Zografou, et al., 2014).  One of the major issues of climate change is the extreme temperatures. Climate change has a major effect on all wildlife and it is causing phenology shifts. The general trend in phenological events shows that spring events on the northern hemisphere are now beginning earlier.  For example, emergence dates of some adult butterflies have become 6.4 days earlier per degree celsius (Roy, et al., 2015). Climate change can either effect butterflies direct or indirectly. . Directly, by changing adult activity and juvenile development (shifting their emergence dates, and entire life cycle). Indirectly by impacting their growth and negatively affecting their host plants (Saunders, Ries, Oberhauser, Thogmartin & Zipkin, 2012)Butterfly Emergence and Growing Degree Days The growing degree day (GDD) is commonly used by farmers to help determine the best time to plant a crop but, the growing degree day also is a very important factor in determining the emergence of butterflies. An important aspect of GDD there are no units associatedwith the value.GDD values can be correlated with an event in an organism’s life, in the case of this study it is correlated with butterfly emergence. (Danneberger & Cushnahan, 2014) Degree Days are a measure of accumulated heat index. (Keame, Briscoe, Karoly, Porter, Norgate, & Sunnucks, 2010). The basic equation to calculate accumulated growing degree days is the following :MDD=(Tmax+Tmin)/2-Tbase. Tmin is are the air temperatures maximum and minimum. Tbase is the base temperature (McMaster, 1997). The number of growing degree days is dependent on temperature as shown in the equation. Therefore, if climate change is causing temperatures to rise, the amount of accumulated degree days will also rise and there will be more accumulated days in total. This will result in these phenological shifts mentioned earlier as well as earlier butterfly emergence. It is important to try to predict these shifts and the GDD has been used in many studies to do so.  (Cayton, Haddad, Gross, Diamond, & Ries, 2015)Summary Butterflies are a very important indicator species because of their quick life cycle. Their life cycle consist of four stages-the egg,larva,pupa and adult. These all commence in the span of as short as one month or as long as one year,. All in all, climate change is a major threat to phenology and all ecosystems. This climate change is due to human waste. The emissions of greenhouse gases and deforestation projects cause gases to be trapped in the Earth’s atmosphere and as a result temperatures are rising. In response to these new temperatures phenological events are shifting. These phenological events include but are not limited to early budding in flowers, early mating in animals, and earlier emergence in butterflies. Growing Degree Days can be used to predict these phenological shifts. In this study all field work was done at Jug bay Wetlands Sanctuary in which the butterfly garden has virus plants to attract butterflies making it home for many species of butterflies. Twelve butterfly species involved in a Phenology study for butterflies of high concern conducted by Nature’s Notebook are being monitored to track their emergence and compare the dates to the amount of accumulated growing degree days for their week of emergence. Weather Underground is a database that has records of growing degree days dating back many years. Works CitedAbout BAMONA. (n.d.). Retrieved January 4,2018, from Butterflies and Moths of North   America : http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/aboutAbout Us. (n.d.). Retrieved January 04, 2018, from http://www.jugbay.org/aboutButterfly Life Cycle. (n.d.). (T. Drexel University, Producer) Retrieved from http://www.ansp.org/explore/explore/online-exhibits/butterflies/lifecycle/About Us. (n.d.). Retrieved January 5, 2018, from About Us | Jug Bay Wetlands Sanctuary:    http://www.jugbay.org/aboutButterflies and Moths of North America | collecting and sharing data about Lepidoptera. (2018, January 02). Retrieved January 07, 2018, from Butterflies and Moths of -https://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/Cabbageworm, Pieris rapae (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). (n.d.). SpringerReference. doi:10.1007/springerreference_85637Cayton, H. L., Haddad, N. M., Gross, K., Diamond, S. E., & Ries, L. (2015). Do growing degree days predict phenology across butterfly species? Ecology , 96 (6), 1473-1479.Danneberger, T. K., & Cushnahan, M. (2014). Growing Degree Days New Zealand Sports Turf Journal .Fenberg, S. S. (2016). Exploring the universal ecological responses to climate change in a univoltine butterfly. Journal of Animal Ecology , 85 (3), 739-748.Lacey , E., Bassan , S., Dai Vo, T., & Ryan , K. (2012). The phenology of the Cabbage White Butterfly – the effect of climate change. 31-44.Mcmaster, G. (1997). Growing degree-days: one equation, two interpretations. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 87(4), 291-300. doi:10.1016/s0168-1923(97)00027-0Roy, D. B., & Sparks, T. H. (2000). Phenology of British butterflies and climate change. Global Change Biology , 6 (4), 407-416.Roy, D. B., Oliver, T. H., Botham, S. M., Beckmann, B., Brereton, T., Dennis, L. R., et al. (2015). Similarities in butterfly emergence dates among populations suggest local adaptation to climate. Global Change Biology , 21 (9), 3313-3322.Saunders, S. P., Ries, L., Oberhauser, K. S., Thogmartin, W. E., & Zipkin, E. F. (2017). Local and cross-seasonal associations of climate and land use with abundance of monarch butterflies Danaus plexippus. Ecography. doi:10.1111/ecog.02719Stefanescu, C. (2004). Seasonal change in pupation behavior and pupal moriality in a swallowtail butterfly. Animal Biodiversity and Conversation, 27(2), 25-36.University of California, Davis. (n.d.). Pholisora catullus. Retrieved 01 07, 2018, from Art Shapiro’s Butterfly Site: http://butterfly.ucdavis.edu/butterfly/Pholisora/catullusZografou, K., Kati, V., Grill, A., Wilson, R. J., Tzirkalli, E., Pamperis, L. N., et al. (2014). Signals of Climate Change in Butterfly Communities in a Mediterranean Protected Area. PLoS ONE , 9 (1).Definitions of Terms and Abbreviations1. Abundance- (biology) The evenness of distribution of individuals per species in a community2. Butterfly duration- the amount of time a butterfly is found in one area3. Butterfly emergence- the time when the butterfly completes its metamorphosis and emerges from its chrysalis as an adult butterfly.4. Climate change- a change in a region’s climate pattern5. Greenhouse gases- a gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation, ex. Carbon dioxide and chlorofluorocarbons6. Growing Degree Day-  (GDD) is used to estimate the growth and development of plants. It is a measure of heat accumulation.7. Indicator species- a species whose presence or absence represents the health of an environment8. Lepidoptera- the class that encompasses butterfly and moth species9.     Nature’s Notebook- a national, online program where amateur and professional naturalists regularly record observations of plants and animals to generate long-term data sets used for scientific discovery and decision-making.10.   Phylogeny- the study of plant and animal life cycle events and how variations in climate and habitat factors influence them.11.   Univoltine species- a species who completes their life cycle in one year

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