Chapter 1Introduction”Shipping is perhaps the most international of all the world’s great industries, and also one of the most dangerous” (OMI, 2011). Developing new methods of transportation, introducing numerous technical innovations, increasing traffic surveillance and control, continuous improvement of technology, etc, are some of the range of approaches that have been introduced to enhance maritime transport safety. Nevertheless, accidents with catastrophic consequences still happen, which implies that all these measures are not sufficiently effective.Seafarers are typically male workers, but there are few females, who work in the ocean with a minimum contract of six months to nine months. Supplying more than 20% of the world’s maritime workforce, the Philippines remains to be one of the top source country for seafarers. In year 2011, seafarers constitute more than a quarter of the 1.5 million Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs) who helped maintain the stability and growth of the Philippine economy. In fact, remittances from sea-based OFWs alone reached a record high of US$ 4.34 billion which was 12% higher than what was remitted in 2010. (Pinoy sailors remit over US$ 4 billion in 2011 Online. 2012 cited 2012 Feb. Available from http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/ story/249538/pinoyabroad/pinoy-sailors-remit-over-4-billion-in-2011.) Recent figures, THE hard-earned money sent by Filipino seafarers has reached $3.8 Billion from January to August of 2016 or 1.9 percent higher compared last year of the said period. In a statement, BSP Deputy Governor and officer-in-charge Nestor A. Espenilla Jr. supposed that cash remittances from sea-based workers fell moderately by 1.9 percent to reach $3.8 billion while land-based workers rose by 6.5 percent to $13.1 billion. (http://unitedfilipinoseafarers.com.ph/seafarers-remittances-1-9-first-half-2016/)Factors such as low labor costs, competence in the English language, and better work habits contribute to the high demand for Filipino seafarers. Hence, the Philippines is projected to supply this demand for seafarers globally in the next 10 years. However, several studies have shown that seafaring occupation had a higher mortality compared to other working groups. They hurdle work-related challenges such as fatigue, loneliness, boredom, overwork and injuries due to a hazardous working environment just to support their loved ones.Continuous recognition of the increasing number of fatigue related issues, its degrading effects on the human performance and how it has contributed either directly to many major marine accidents. The Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB, 2004) of United Kingdom, conducted a study, examined all the collisions, groundings, contacts, and near collisions that had occurred in the UK waters from 1995 to 2003 and found that almost one-third of all groundings involved a fatigued officer who was alone on the bridge at night at the time of incident.Increased safety awareness and environmental protection depend not only on the qualification and training of the crew or on the high technology in ship construction and equipment, but more so on living and working conditions onboard and the health and well-being of the crew and their families. The aim of this research is to bring to attention the hard life of seafarers onboard ships and how much the majority of seafarers suffer as a result of poor living and working conditions onboard, and how their fatigue could affect the individual and for the bigger picture on the organization. This research is also to emphasize that the safety and health and the general living and working conditions are inter-linked in many ways, and the seafaring profession needs a global approach to the improvement of these conditions.Background of the studyIn the maritime sector, human error is believed as a factor of 90% of collisions at sea, and in 75% of shipboard fires and explosions. It is essential that the individual crew take responsibility for his own health and actions if this unpredictable type of human error is to be avoided. To be safe, the individual crew must understand the limitations under which he is working, and because a room for mistakes always take place, he must be willing to have his health checked and actions verifies either by himself (double checking- a vital habit) or by somebody else. (Chauvel, 1997, p.165).A tragedy or terrible accident is never wanted. But, in reality they do happen. They are not intended to, but they do happen. Its either on the management fault or in crew’s fault. The shipping company must ensure that their crews are properly trained and experienced to be at sea, onboard a ship. A ship never sails with a crew of students i.e without the requisite knowledge and competence. The Philippines contribution of in the world of mariners is estimated about 20 percent of seafarers globally. It was assessed that the Philippines is perfectly implementing the required trainings, certification of competencies according to the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification, and Watchkeeping for Seafarers 1978 as amended (STCW) and in year 2000 in the month of December, it was included on the so-called “STCW” White List of the IMO (Fitzpatrick and Anderson, 2005). It became the 30th member of the International Labor Organization to ratify the Maritime Labor Convention of 2006, last August 20th 2012 and soon thereafter the Government introducing provisions such as social security, medical care, sickness benefit, old-age benefit, employment injury benefit, maternity benefit, invalidity benefit, and survivors’ benefit (ILO,2017).Skuld P&I Club has had to deal with many cases over the years which were either directly related to fatigue or where it played a significant role. These ranged from minor personal injuries to major fires, collisions and groundings.Three particular cases include:Grounding of a cargo vessel south of Greece where the Master believed he was sufficiently well rested but nevertheless fell asleep in a chair next to the chart table in such a position that the Bosun could not see the Master was asleep. The vessel, on autopilot and with the deadman alarm turned off, subsequently grounded at speed causing severe damage.A Chief Engineer, who had been working extensively on main engine repairs without good rest for almost 2 days, began to undertake maintenance on the vessel’s thermal oil system. He hurried the dangerous task of cleaning out the system of waste material, leading to a significant engine room fire which ultimately leads to his own death as well as further casualties on board.A crewman on board a ship passing the Iberian Peninsula suffered a psychological breakdown and had a misadventure that lead to him perishing in the sea. Investigations revealed that the seafarer had served 7 months without a break on the ship, and had joined her without leave immediately after his previous ship service ended.All of these matters were entirely preventable. (www.marineinsight.com)Describing the potential hazards of seafaring, the Director-General of the ILO, Michel Hansenne stated that, “The dangers to which ship owners and governments are exposed are financial or political in nature, but seafarers are exposed to physical risks which threaten their very lives. Since 194, 180 ships of more than 500 tons have been lost at sea, causing the death of 1,200 seafarers and many passengers. In the first six months of 1996, twice as many human lives were lost at sea that in the whole 1995.”Statement of the ProblemThe main concern of this study is to assess the risk factors of Ship Crewing Agencies to the Principals and the health hazards that the seafarers acquiring while on board. To achieve the set-out objectives, solutions to the following questions were answered:How is simple fatigue of a seafarer can cause some possible huge marine accidents?What must be done for the health stability of the seafarers?How effective is the implementation of the international legislation on ship Can anything be done to reduce to the barest minimum the human error syndrome in the marine casualties?What monitoring and feedback mechanisms are embedded into principals and seafarers?Hypotheses of the dissertation In order to achieve the aim previously declared, the research of the dissertation is carried out mainly based on several hypotheses that concern the basic premises of this study. These hypotheses are mainly related to the qualification of the seafarers to be assessed. The first hypothesis is that the seafarers are physically and mentally healthy, which means that the requirements for the physical examination in STCW are fully fulfilled. The second hypothesis is that there are no significant changes in their families, which means that no distressing family events happen during their absence. So the factor of stress from family is excluded too. The third hypothesis is that accidental factors, such as participation of search and rescue of distressed vessels, should be excluded.Significance of the StudyUnderstanding onboard seafarers, how is fatigue condition affects as an individual and in an organization. Standard operating procedures are being performed to be able to meet both expectations of seafarers to company vice versa. This study will have contribution and a better perspective of the Seafarers, Principals, Government and society as a whole. As such, the results of this thesis will be useful to specific sectors in the following ways:For the Ship Crewing Industry:Helping the Agency Directors to clearly identify the common health hazards found while on board.To provide safety awareness instructions to prospect seafarersTo eliminate the future cost for the medical repatriations of the seafarersEnsuring to produce the optimum quality seafarersStrategic monitoring and feedbacks from the principals and seafarersFor the Principals:To conduct health awareness on their own fleet.Setting up a good environment to their own fleets for the seafarers not to feel homesickness.Improving the seafarers’ quality in the compliances of the ship crewing agencyEnabling principals to understand the factors that needs to address in order for the ship crewing agency comply to their requirements. For the seafarers:Reducing the possibility of the acquiring diseases or health hazards found on boardEnforcing health awareness for them to be easily proposed and approved by the ship crewing agency and principals.Creating optimum efficiency once hiredSpreading better opportunities to tell colleagues about known health hazards.High employability rate is more likely to happenFor the Government:Providing new information on ship crewing management and principals practices that could shed new understanding on the characteristics of such operations.Providing a rationale for policy review improvement especially as the accreditation process of the three sectors which are seafarers, principals and ship crewing agencies.Scopes and Limitations of the StudyArguably there are some limitations to this research. Firstly the validity of the findings would have been enhanced with a larger sample size in terms of scope of respondent profile and range of countries sampled. It is not felt however that the sample size obtained unduly compromised the findings of the research especially in light of their support by existing literature both for the maritime industry and other industries. Secondly, this research focused on the philosophy on leadership training, not on leadership training operational methods and strategies as such. Further research will be needed to analyse the methods and tools for optimum leadership training. In spite of these possible limitations of the study, it is hoped that these recommendations can bring about dialogue on the subject and ultimately a new approach to current leadership training in MET institutions. It is understood that leadership is emergent and complex especially in the maritime context. Leadership is also one of the most important elements for the safe operation of ships. It is therefore necessary that, despite its 73 complexity, the issue of leadership should be comprehensively addressed by the maritime community. Leadership training can make a significant contribution to safety, security and the protection of the marine environment and for the sustainability of the maritime industry. This work is a contribution in this direction and it is expected that further research will in future explore this area in a more in-depth fashion especially with reference to a wider sample and the practical analysis of leadership training methods and tools.

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