Chapter 1


Background of the Study

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Teaching as a profession has been universally recognized and
accepted as a science and a form of ability art. A greater look at its effect
on the population being taught, points for a greater emphasis on the
methodologies and various ways of imparting knowledge to the young,

Salandanan 2007).

Information Technology as the science of
managing and processing information using 
computers has greatly advanced in the last decade in both developed and
developing countries. Educational
Innovations which refers to  as
the process of making changes to something established by introducing something
new to educational process has greatly changed the way people learn,
communicate and do business. Previous empirical studies world over have
highlighted the roles of a computer as an instructional tool in the classroom,
particularly in enriching the teaching and learning of Mathematics (Mubichakani,
2012; Wanjala, 2005). However, it is surprising that most schools are yet to
integrate its use in the teaching and learning of the subject.

Burgos National high school is a public secondary school
located at barangay New Poblacion, Burgos, La Union. It was created with the enactment
 of Municipal Resolution no. 29 on December
1966. Despite of its 51 years existence, most teachers are still using the
traditional way of

knowledge to its students. This situation motivated the researcher to develop a
study entitled  ” ICT in Mathematics
instruction among grade 10 learners and junior high school mathematics teachers
in the public secondary  school of
Burgos, Schools Division of La Union.

In relation to the field of study as being emphasize, this
study is delimited to the following considerations: The extent of adequacy
of  ICT instructional materials?  Types of 
ICT use  in Mathematics
Instruction, Capability of Teachers  to
use technology in Mathematics Instruction, Constraints encountered by teachers
in using technology in mathematics instruction and the possible solutions to
solve or minimize constraints encountered by teachers in using technology in
mathematics instruction in the public secondary schools of Burgos District,
Division of La Union.

Society is in constant change, and the secondary school
program must keep pace. For too many years, the secondary Mathematics program
was static. Our contemporary world demands a kind of mathematical knowledge
that is very different from that require in the past.

     ICT capability involves technical and
cognitive proficiency to access, use, develop, create and communicate
information appropriately, using ICT tools. 
Learners demonstrate this capability by applying technology purposefully
to solve problems, analyses and exchange


information, develop ideas, create
models and control devices. They are discriminating in their use of information
and ICT tools, and systematic in reviewing and evaluating the contribution that
ICT can make to their work as it progresses. ICT capability is much broader
than acquiring a set of technical competencies in software applications,
although clearly these are important. ICT capability involves the appropriate
selection, use and evaluation of ICT. In essence, learners need to know what
ICT is available, when to use it and why it is appropriate for the task.

Knowledge and basic skills compose a large part of learning
in mathematics. Technology is ubiquitous. It affects the lives of the students
and teachers in dozens of ways every day. As a digital natives, our
students  needs teachers who are willing
to step beyond the way they were taught into a classroom bustling with
possibilities for transmitting, developing, and assessing skills. Students
wants to explore and express their understanding of new content by connecting
it to real world tools that they know and love. And be mindful that some
digital natives know everything and more about, getting beyond goggle and
assessing the validity and suitability of individual websites.

According to Heddens, James W. ( 1988, sixth edition ),  the popularity of serious questions
concerning the teaching of mathematics. Obviously, technology has had a major
impact outside the classroom.



However, is the use of technology appropriate inside the
classroom? Preparing learner`s to function successfully in the real world is a
primary goal of mathematics instruction. Since technology is part of the real
world, school system and teachers have an obligation to teach learners` how to
use the technology.

In the
twentieth century schools encounter a number of difficulties including
integration of information and communication technologies into the teaching and
learning scenario, education curriculum and change in methods in pursuit of
developing learner lifelong learning skills. Strategy of Implementation of
Information and Communication Technologies in the Lithuanian Education (2001)
emphasizes the main causes that lead to the necessity to utilize ICT in
education: changes in economy, social and education science areas.

The growing placement of microcomputers in classroom is
supported by school administrators, teachers and parents. If we make
assumptions that technology is a viable tool of mathematics instruction, when
should computer be introduce into the instructional program?

Salandanan ( 2006 ), says that Technology assisted
strategies are aimed at providing valuable skills through instructional devices
that can be viewed and heard, updated information such as recent discoveries
and communicated are learned through pictures, films, tapes and television. Integration which is an Act of
combining into an integral whole, for example in this context it is the  application of technology into teaching and
learning to assist, enhance and extend student knowledge. Integration of information
technologies into the system of education was

by a number of authors such as Hargreaves (1994), Lawton (1994), Lai (2001),
Ringstaff (1995), Murray and Campbell (2000), Billowes (1999), and others. It
was emphasized that the change in teaching and learning while integrating
information and communication technologies is a long process which requires a
lot of resources and depends on every individual teacher, thus creating a
number of barriers and difficulties. One
of the most important trends in the present education system is the change and
restructuration in the teaching/learning process integrating technological
innovations. The main restructuration element of the change of the teaching

teaching/learning methods incorporate problem-solving learning, cooperative
learning, orientation to real goals and the change in the teacher roles
(Masters, Yelland 2002). Computer software which is the collection of computer programs
and related data that provides the  instructions
telling what to do.

highest barrier to integration of information and communication technologies
into the teaching/learning process is the change as such. Schools can play a
very important role in integrating ICT into the system of education. It is
worth mentioning that not only ministries should tale how the process of
integration should be organized, but also schools could give feedback on
difficulties they are facing integrating ICT into curriculum and suggesting
what could be done differently.

A school
can achieve good result by simply providing ample time in the area of ICT by
devoting teacher`s activities outside the class. During these events teachers
should be acquainted with innovations in information and communication technology
area, and should be explained in detail how to use these innovations and
integrate them into the process of teaching/learning. ICT advent to the school
conducts the need of reorganization of the teaching and learning and even of school
management and structure it begins process of change. Fullan (1993) asserts
that change is a complex phenomenon, whereas the teaching and learning change
is even a more complex and complicated process and presents several principles
which, according to him, lead to the successful change process.

     In these principles Fullan (1999)
emphasizes that change is a complicated process, because it is necessary to
change power structures and because a great number of people participate in
this process, including teachers, principals, school managers, learners and
their families.

cannot be required from the people who lead school or from the government;
however, support of the latter is particularly important Fullan (1999) also
notices that during the change the problems arise and conflicts emerge and that
it is necessary to learn from them, not to look at them as a negative
phenomenon. Change requires cooperation, however, this cooperation has to allow
for and foster the difference in opinions and approaches. According to him, the
whole process of change has to be flexible and its efficiency depends on the plan
of change, if it is designed and how specific it is.

are, certainly, a number of barriers, including teacher development and change
process, to successful integration of technologies into the teaching/learning
process. Until these barriers exist, the learners will not be able to take full
advantage of the opportunities provided by information and communication

          Therefore, continued development,
training, and mentorship are essential for an effective teacher’s development

Framework of the Study

term ICT as utilized to education, are those technologies include computers,
the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and

television), and telephony that can
facilitate not only delivery of instruction, but also learning processes

         (Gulbahar 2007) stress that ICT
requires up-to-date hardware and software. Using up-to-date hardware and
software resources is a key feature in the diffusion of technology but a rare
experience in educational institutions. High-speed internet connection is
another prerequisite for integrating ICT into the teaching-learning situation.
But unfortunately internet access is very poor. The use of ICT in the mathematics classroom has
long been a topic for consideration by mathematics educators. Various form of
ICT tools use in mathematics include: portables, graphic calculators and
computerized graphing, specialized software, programmable toys or floor robots,
spreadsheets and databases. Studies have shown that a range of portable devices
exists which allow pupils to collect data, and manipulate it using spreadsheets
and databases for work in numeracy. Some portable equipment also enables the
study of math to move out of the classroom and to incorporate fieldwork
investigations (Moseley and Higgins 1999).

Many researchers have
pointed out that a school’s ICT vision is essential to effective ICT
integration (Anderson & Dexter, 2000). Bennett (1996, p. 60) stressed the
importance of a “well-defined mission that describes technology’s place in
education”. In line with this idea, Ertmer (1999) wrote, “A vision gives us a
place to start, a goal to reach for, as well as a compass along the way” (p.
54). Also, Means and Olson (1997) recommend that teachers and schools must
develop a vision before they make substantial investments in hardware and
software. In other words, users of technology must have a fundamental belief in
the value of innovation or the innovation is doomed to failure. Teachers must
have opportunities to study, discern, redirect, and confer their practice.

rapid evolution of information and communication technology (ICT) and Innovations of new values though
solutions that meet new requirements and inarticulate needs is changing the
face of education and making information universal. Understanding the upshot of
the ICT in the education system, the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and
Department of Education provided most of the schools with computer units and
peripherals. Some of the teachers in these schools have undergone ICT

        ICT has become an imperative tool in
enhancing the learners`   learning
aptitude for them to connect amid the content of the teacher tips and
technology applications which encourage them to go into and expand their
creativity with the use of technology. It should also expand into the knowledge
of the community, for their deeper understanding, engagement and involvement in
realizing the importance of technology.
ICT which refers to a range of technological tools and resources used to
communicate, and to create, to disseminate, to store and manage information.  Technologies do not refer to only the
computers, but also broadly to Internet, broadcasting technologies (such as
radio and television), telephones (including mobile phones), CDs and DVDs.

this new technology could not take the place of the educators in the classroom.
It is not a solution for all educational problems either (Wang & Woo,
2007). ICT is certainly an effective tool that permits us to link various
learning communities together in new and different ways (Tailor, 2000). It
provides great possibilities for effective communication between teachers and students
in varying and innovative ways.

Teacher which referred
as person who instills knowledge, attitudes and skills  have been found to be major forward planner of
the use of new technologies in instructional settings. The teachers’ beliefs
about teaching and learning with ICT are central to integration. Mwelese and
Wanjala (2014) indicate that to be successful in computer use and integration,
the role of the student, and their role as teachers in enhancing themselves
towards Technology based instructions for more efficient, effective and evocative
 mathematics instruction. Thus, the

successful use of ICT into classroom
largely depends on teachers’ attitudes and belief concerning the whole process.
Indeed, it has been conjure up that thought towards computers affect teachers’
use of computers in the classroom and the likelihood of them benefiting from training
(Kluever, et al, 1994).

This study wants  to find out on the adequacy of ICT  instructional Material, the capability of
teachers in using ICT, constraints in the use of ICT in teaching – learning
processes and provide suggested solutions on the constraints encountered in the
use of ICT in mathematics instruction at the same time  it enhance researchers to employs an adept
fusion or hybrid technologies anchored on an artistic and systematic creation
of activities intended to bring the 21st century learners to a
noteworthy and unforgettable learning experiences.       

TheDepEd higher ups formulated policies and programs,
initiated projects for them to realized the importance of technology in the
educational world . This has also been done in Indonesia, Malaysia, Uzbekistan
and Vietnam. In Asia and the pacific, including emerging countries, teachers in
primary, secondary and tertiary levels are being trained in the use of ICT in
education with varying degree of scope. Most of the training programs carry
general objectives aimed at developing awareness, knowledge and skills in
either the use of computers in teaching and learning (IPS, 2003





















Figure 1

of the Study

( Input )

( Process )

( Output )

. ICT instructional
materials and
capability of teachers
to use technology in
grade 10 mathematics
. Constraints
encountered by
teachers using ICT in grade 10
mathematics instruction

 analysis of

Effective grade 10
instruction using
adequate ICT tools
 and materials by
well trained
Design strategic
plan in solving
 constraints in the
 use of ICT in





Statement of the Problem

           The researcher aim to develop ICT in Mathematics Instructions among grade
10 Learners in the public secondary schools of Burgos, Schools Division of La
Union that will identify, determine, suggest and develop particular technologies
to fit the needs and desire of people moving around the educational world.

Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions:

is the extent of adequacy of  ICT
instructional materials? 

is the level of capability of teachers to use technology in mathematics

is the degree of seriousness of constraints encountered by teachers in the use
of technology in mathematics instructions?

is the degree of effectiveness of solutions to solve or minimize

the   constraints encountered by teachers in the
use of technology

mathematics instructions?

Null Hypotheses

          The null
hypotheses of this research were the following:

is no significant difference between the perception on the adequacy of  ICT instructional materials.

is no significant difference between the perception  on the  capability of teachers to use technology in
mathematics instructions.


is no significant difference between perception on the constraints encountered
by teachers in the use of technology in mathematics instructions.

is no significant difference between perception on the  effectiveness of solutions to solve or
minimize the   constraints encountered by
teachers in the use of technology   in  
mathematics instructions.

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