Chapter 1



Soil deposits exist in an extremely irregular manner in
nature thereby producing an infinite variety of combination which will affect
the strength of the soil and many other soil parameter.  Engineers are often
faced with the problem of constructing facilities on or with soils, regarding sufficient
strength to support the loads imposed upon them either during construction or
during the service life of the structure .Many areas of India consists of soils
with high silt contents, low strengths and poor bearing capacities .The poor
engineering performance of such soils has forced Engineers to attempt to
improve the engineering properties of poor quality soils .There are various
methods that could be used to improve the performance of poor quality soils.
The choice of a particular method depends mainly on the type of soil to be
improved, its characteristics and the type and degree of improvement desired in
a particular application. Stabilization of soils is an effective method for
improving the properties of soil and pavement system performance.

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Soil stabilization is a process which improves the physical
properties of soil, such as increasing shear strength, bearing capacity etc.
which can be done by use of controlled compaction or addition of suitable
admixtures like cement, lime and waste materials like fly ash, phosphor gypsum
etc. The technique of soil stabilization using plastic can be effectively used
to meet the challenges of society, to reduce the quantities of waste, producing
useful material from non-useful waste materials.

Increased use of plastics in day to day consumer
applications has resulted in the municipal solid waste, an ever growing
fraction of plastic materials which were used for a short time and then
discarded. The linear consumption patterns of plastic bags involving single
usage and then disposal has led to environmental challenges such as diminishing
landfill space, marine and urban littering. There is, therefore a growing need
to find alternative uses of reclaimed plastic bag waste to lengthen the usage
time of the plastic material and thereby save the degrading environment. The
concept of reinforcing soil masses with strips of plastic cover may be
relatively, a new development. In contrast, the use of random-materials as
reinforcement for soil is probably not older than written history, but only
sparsely represented.

Utilizing new soil
stabilization technology, a process of cross-linking of soil and plastic can
replace traditional road/house construction methods in an environmentally friendly and effective way.













Chapter 2




F.C. Chebet and D.

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Cape Town,
South Africa

This paper presents a laboratory investigation and concluded
that there was resultant increase in shear strength and bearing capacity of
sandy soil: Klipheuwel and Cape Flat sands due to random addition of strips of
high density polyethylene material from plastic shopping bags. Series of direct
shear tests and bench-scape plate loading tests were undertaken on soil-plastic
composites Strips of plastic material were used as reinforcement inclusions at
concentrations of up to 0.3% by weight. Investigations were made for the effect
of varying dimensions of strips using strip lengths from 15 mm to 45 mm and
strip widths from 6 mm to 18 mm. Soil strength parameters were obtained for
composite specimen identified the extent of soil improvement.


2.2 Soil Stabilization by using Plastic Waste

Arpitha G C,
Dayanandha B V, Kiran kumar patil and Shruti Neeralagi

Department of Civil Engineering, Amruta Institute of
Engineering and Management Sciences, Bidadi, Bangalore (India)

 From the study, it
was conclude that plastic bottle strips can be used to increase the CBR value
of a soil considerably.  The maximum CBR
value can be achieved when 2% amount of plastic bottle strips are added to the
soil and the value decreases when further amount of plastic bottle strips is
added. Therefore the optimum proportion of strips cut from plastic bags to be
added to the soil for reinforcement was 2% of the total weight of the soil. But
it decreases when further amount of plastic bags strips is added. 


2.3 Soil stabilization by using
Plastic waste

V. Mallikarjuna and T.
Bindu Mani

Department of Civil Engineering, V.R. Siddhartha Engineering
College, Vijayawada.

In this paper, it was concluded that CBR percentage of the
soil fused with plastic strips goes on increasing up to 4% plastic content in
the soil and thereon it decreases with increase in plastic content. Hence it
was concluded that 4% plastic content was the optimum content of plastic waste
in the soil.


2.4 Soil Stabilization using Plastic

Jasmin Varghese Kalliyath,
Jithin Thomas Joy, Jeny Merin Paul, and Antony Mathew Vadakkel.

Department of Civil Engineering Amal Jyothi College of
Engineering, Kanjirapally.

This paper suggests that if plastic fiber were properly
mixed and applied with soil it can be used as a good soil stabilization technique.
It was observed that the replacement of 0.5% plastic fibers to the expansive
clayey soil reduced its OMC and increased the Maximum Dry Density. The
unconfined compressive strength of the soil was found to be increased for 0.5%.
With 1% replacement it was observed that the MDD & UCC was less than the
0.5% replacement of plastic fibers to the expansive soil. Further increase in
the plastic replacement showed decrease in the MDD and the Unconfined
Compressive Strength of soil. The increase in the Maximum Dry Density of the
soil is due to the decrease in the number of voids with the addition of plastic
which leads to effective compaction and also increase in the cohesion.


2.5 Soil Stabilization using Plastic

Dr. Babitharani.H,
Ashwini D G, Pavan siva kumar.Ch, Dimple Bahri, Koushik.B, Sindhu Shankar

Department of Civil Engineering, SET, Jain University, India

 From this study we
can conclude that the soil which is reinforced with fiber is one of the effective
ground improvement technique especially in engineering projects on weak soil
where it acts as a substitute for deep/raft foundations, reducing the cost as
well as energy. The result from the UCS test for soil reinforced with fiber are
similar, for reinforcement of 0.05%, 0.15% and 0.25%, the increase in UCS from
the initial value are 35.31%, 1.1% and 8.8% respectively. It was observed that this
increment was substantial and applying this method for soil sample was



Prof. Harish C,
Ashwini HM

Department of Civil Engineering, East West Institute of
Technology, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.

In this study increase in the strength of soil is seen by
using plastic stripes which were made out of plastic wastage in making the
payment. California Bearing Ratio test was conducted for soil mixed with
plastic strips to find the maximum dry density and optimum moisture content.
The CBR tests were conducted for the red soil and black cotton soil, and it was
found that strength of soil was increased resulting bearing ratio of 2.9 for
red soil and 3.3 for black cotton soil while adding the 0.7% of plastic stripes
to red soil and 0.5% for the black cotton soil.








Chapter 3



To provide a solution for the disposal of indecomposable
and upgradable plastic waste.

To alter the soil condition in the site by using
plastic waste.

To provide an economical solution for soil
stabilization using plastic waste.

To determine the optimum plastic content to be

To increase the density and California Bearing Raito
(CBR) of soil using plastic as a reinforcement.






















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