Chapter chapter. Using a minimum of 5 sentences,

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Chapter 2 review


Heredity and conception

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on the chapter reading, describe three facts or ideas that you find most
memorable from the chapter. Using a minimum of 5 sentences, explain your reason
for selecting each of the points you found most memorable.


Chromosomes are a rod shape structure that is
made up of genes and are found in the nuclei of the cells. There are 23 pairs
of chromosomes in a human and 46 chromosomes in total.  Each of the chromosomes contain different types
of genes.  Genes are made of deoxyribonucleic
acid (DNA) and are the basic building blocks of heredity and development.


Permanent alteration in the chromosomes
(genes) that can usually produce harmful or non- harmful characteristics.
Provides raw material of evolution.


A procedure done to determine the presence of
various disorders. They draw and examine the fetal cells sloughed off into the amniotic
fluid. Amniotic fluid is the fluid that surrounds the fetus in the womb.

The reason I have chose
these 3 points was because in some way I connect to them. I am a biology major
so all these points really are a point of interest to me. I find it so amusing
how some microscopic structure determines many things that may impact us. Those
23 pairs of chromosomes impact the way we are living and are also a big role in
evolution. Mutations are something that is really interesting to learn. There are
may types of mutations, but many people believe there are just one and that
they are obviously harmful. There are 4 types of mutations: substitution,
insertion, deletions, and frameshift. Substitution is where there is an exchange
between pairs and this can seriously can affect the organism. Insertions is
when extra base are inserted into a new place in the DNA, and they can range
from 1 to thousands base pairs. Now deletions are where sections of the DNA can
be los or deleted and the base pairs deleted can range from 1 to thousands. Lastly,
frameshift is when the codons are completely changed and cannot be decoded;
this can cause serious issues. I remember when my mom was pregnant with my
younger sister and they wanted to perform Amniocentesis on her, but she did not
let herself. Its nice to see how technology has advanced and that there is ways
to see if your baby is going to be born with any diseases.  

the chapter and find three images (pictures, graphs, diagrams) that capture
your interest. Briefly describe each image, and explain why
you find these images interesting or significant. Include page numbers where
images can be found in the chapter.

2.1 pg 48

This image is about chromosomes, where they can
be found in the cell and what they are composed of (DNA). I chose these image
because it really helps me understand a bit more about the location of the
chromosomes. This image gives an overview of the composition of the chromosome
and how it’s a double helix strand and not a single strand.  

2.3 pg 55

This image is a table of many disorders, the
table shows the disorder, when it was found, a description of the disorder, and
the treatment if there is some. I found this image very interesting because it
showed me a few of many disorders out there. These disorders are manly caused
by mutations in the DNA strand. Many of the disorders can be treated and not

2.6 pg 58

This images shows a diagram of the process of
amniocentesis. This images really explained the process of what amniocentesis
is. It shows where the needle penetrates, and what layers of the skin it goes
through. It also shows the centrifuged fluid, it shows the separation of the
fluid and the cells.












Part II- Chapter content

the difference between a gene and a chromosome, and explain how a baby’s sex is

Many believe that chromosome and gene are
the same, but they are not. One of the major differences between them is that
one is the actual structure while the other one is inside the structure. A
chromosome is a threadlike structure made up of nucleic acids and protein. A
chromosome is found in the nucleus of the cells. Chromosomes carry genetic
information in form of a gene. Now a gene is a small portion of DNA that is a
code of a specific characteristic. Agene is found inside the DNA, and the DNA
is inside the chromosome.

Discuss the causes and
characteristics associated with chromosomal and genetic abnormalities.

The cause of chromosomal abnormalities is usually caused by
mutations or an error in cell division. A chromosome abnormality is caused by a
change in the structure or in the number. 
The most severe chromosome abnormalities are caused due to the lost or
gain of chromosomes, this affects the genes and can be fatal.

Many believe there is only one type of mutations but there
are four types of mutations: substitution, insertion, deletion, and frameshift.
Not all mutations are dangerous like many people believe. Substation mutation
is when the bases exchange with one another, this type of mutations is very
serious. Now, insertions are when DNA bases change by adding a piece of DNA,
this makes a protein that may not function correctly. Deletion mutation is when
DNA bases are removed or lost, causing alterations of the proteins function.
Lastly, frameshit when an addition deletion occurs and cause the nucletoids to
shift, causing a shift in the reading in the codon altering the protein




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