CHAPTER
2

LITERATURE
REVIEW

2.1 INTRODUCTION

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            Poultry farming is one of the fields
of the industry of agriculture which is
broad and emphasizes on smoothness in every process to ensure profitable
returns and environmentally friendly process. Due to the health and wellness of
the livestock, some factors must be focused in obtaining an ideal setting when
the livestock process takes place.

This
chapter will provide the review from previous research that is related to this
final year project. Previous literatures are
studied on the standard poultry requirement and the cause of
ventilation/exhaust fan failure during breeding and vibration analysis.

 

2.2 STANDARD POULTRY
REQUIREMENT

 

2.2.1 PLACE TO BUILD
POULTRY HOUSE

            To build a chicken house,
entrepreneurs should choose an appropriate
location. Choosing a less appropriate location can affect operational
efficiency and farming. The process of location selection will affect the
comfort of the chicken and the surrounding community. This is because
activities generated by both parties can cause a negative impact on each other if the selection process of the venue
is not done correctly.

The
site of a poultry house should be 200 meters from the municipality, housing,
tourism, industrial, placement and public utilities. The chicken house should
have good ventilation not less than 500 meters from the poultry field other (Unit unggas, 2006). Other than that
the field should not lie at least 100 meters from main water sources. (Krishi, 2014) Selection of
irregular chicken house construction can cause disturbance to surrounding
environment. Among the disorders resulting from the poultry process is the smell associated with the poultry
operation specifically fresh waste products and decompositions such as carcasses,
fur and bedding/garbage. The smell can
cause discomfort to the chicken and the surrounding community. Usually, the disturbances that is often reported
is the odor of ammonia resulting from the
fattening chicken feed. (Gerber, Opio, & Steinfeld, 2008)

The
conclusion is that the selection of poultry house construction is an important
factor in the livestock breeding process to ensure that it is environmental
friendly. Every construction should take into account the distance of the
chickens from populated areas, water sources and other poultry houses.

 

2.2.2 CONSTRUCTION OF
POULTRY HOUSE

            Chicken house construction should consider
the area, the comfort, and the type of ventilation. The area of the chicken
house is the most crucial factor in the construction for the entire process as
it affects the daily activity of chickens such as for feeding, exercise,
breeding, nesting and roosting. All poultry houses need some form of
ventilation to ensure an adequate supply of oxygen while removing carbon
dioxide and other waste gases.

The
broilers are intensively kept in the whole-time period where the floor area
should be from 0.80 to 1.00 square. Feet. (Unit unggas, 2006). For open type
poultry house, the construction should take into account that the length of the
chicken house depends on the number, type of bird and the system of
preservation. Width should not exceeds 9 meters or 30 feet to prevent the
accumulation of ammonia in the cage. (Krishi, 2014). Table 2.1 shows the
minimum requirement for breeding space according to the types of birds and the
type of breeding environment:

 

Table 2.1 minimum requirement for breeding space (Darre & Ph, n.d.)

Type of Bird

Square feet/bird inside

Square feet/bird outside runs

Bantam Chicken
Laying Hens
Large Chickens
Quail
Pheasant
Ducks
Geese

1
1.5
2
1
5
3
6

4
8
10
4
25
15
18

 

 

            The tunnel ventilation is the most
effective aeration system for large poultry house in hot weather. The system is
popular in high-temperature areas. Ventilation
exhaust will be placed at one end of the house or in the middle from the
poultry house and the air will be pulled
through it according to the length of the chicken house, It is aimed at
removing heat, humidity, and dust. For
cooling and reducing temperature pressure in
a poultry breeding, the evaporative
cooling pad will be installed on the opposite side of the fan exhaust. But if
too much water is added to the cooling pad, it may lead to higher relative
humidity and changing the temperature in the poultry house. (Glatz, 2008). Figure 2.2.2
show tunnel ventilation type for poultry house.

Figure
2.2.2: tunnel ventilation type for poultry house

            For recommendation, the use of
tunnel ventilation is suitable with Malaysia environment. This is because the temperature
in Malaysia is capable to read 40°c which is high and taxing to the livestock. Through
this, breeders in Malaysia are able to follow the minimum requirements required
by each chicken.

 

2.2.3 PARAMETER FOR
LIVESTOCK

            Livestock
condition is a focus on poultry
house, where getting the right value for comfort and health to the poultry is a key
factor. This includes the temperature, air flow, humidity and content in airborne inside the poultry house.

            Firstly, relative humidity on animal
health and welfare are accounted whereby for incubation, more hydration will
increase the death of the chicken embryo. Humidity levels will also contribute
to the difficulty for the respiration of the chicken.
Humidity will have a negative effect if it is not controlled properly where it
will produce an outbreak of virus at 20-35 percent humidity and bacteria as
well as fungi at 55-75 percent humidity. Ideal humidity for chicken breeding
for a 4-week-old one breeding cycle is 60 percent humidity rate, but if the age
is above 4 weeks, humidity content should be between 60-65 percent (XIONG, MENG, GAO, TANG, & ZHANG, 2017). The control of
temperature is a way to get a correct humidity level that is appropriate for
the poultry. The stable rate for moisture content is between 57 and 71 percent for
the chickens, whereby the ventilation system is sometimes controlled by air
humidity. The suitable temperature has been concluded to be at a 25° C for
standard humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature are ranged between 20 °C and
31°C (Seedorf et al., 1998). In Malaysia,
tunnel ventilation system is commonly used which is a modern ventilation
system, involving evaporative cooling pad and exhaust fans which affect the
environmental condition inside the house. There are two commonly used methods
of the ventilation control which is a manual and automatic control. The reading
for both methods are between 28 ° C and 38 ° C and it exceeds the temperature
range of 20 ° C and 27 ° C as recommended by Department of Veterinary Service
to control closed systems. Relative humidity is recorded at a satisfactory rate
within 70% and 80% for both methods (Ong, L.P., Muniady, K., How, S.P., Yip, L.S. and Lim,
2014)

            Next, the type of content in the airborne in the poultry
house needs to be considered. Table 2.2
shows the type of airborne that occur in the poultry
house and the allowable internal environmental condition.

 

 

 

 

 

Table
2.2: type of airborne that occur in the poultry house and allowable internal
environmental condition. (Sulaiman et al., 2005)

Items

Reading

Temperature, T (°C)
Relative Humidity, RH (%)
Ammonia, NH3 (ppm)
Hydrogen Sulfi de, H2S (ppm)
Carbon Dioxide, CO2 (%)
Carbon
Monoxide, CO (%)

20 – 27
60 – 80
<20 <5 <0.3 0                An experiment was conducted in Malaysia, whereby the reading of oxygen, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide did not exceed the acceptable limit as recommended to operate a closed house system. (Ong, L.P., Muniady, K., How, S.P., Yip, L.S. and Lim, 2014). The amount of ammonia needs to be controlled to ensure good home air quality because of high ammonia concentration can reduce weight gain and increase susceptibility to disease. This will result in a contraction of common disease affecting poultry is irritation to mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and the conjunctivae and corneas of the eyes. (Teitel, M. A Levi, V.Chao, M.Barrak, E.Barlev, 2012)             Next is the condition of the air flow in the poultry house which is closely related to the ventilation system. The selection of the component of the ventilation system will affect the condition of the air flow. Factors affecting ventilation efficiency are the motor type and fan. The fan components involved are commonly includes fan drive (direct coupled or belt was driven), construction material, fan housing, using shutters, guards, cones and deflectors, location, size, thermostat location, and maintenance. (Teitel, M. A Levi, V.Chao, M.Barrak, E.Barlev, 2012)             As the conclusion, the ideal temperature can produce ideal humidity for the process breeding. The amount of ammonia must be controlled to get ideal weight and minimal contraction of disease.   2.3 VENTILATION SYSTEM             For this project, we will focus on the modern type of ventilation available in Malaysia. Most breeders use type tunnel ventilation system for livestock process.   2.3.1 TUNNEL VENTILATION SYSTEM             There are basically five reasons why we must ventilate poultry house which are to remove heat, to remove excess moisture, to minimize dust and odors, to limit the build-up of harmful gases such as ammonia and carbon dioxide and to provide oxygen for respiration. The two most important reasons are the removing built up heat and moisture. The time of the year determines which of these is of primary concern. The tunnel ventilation is a system where exhaust fans are located at one end of the house and evaporate cooling pads are installed on the opposite side. The air was pulled through this evaporate cooling pads, down the house, and out of the fans, like the wind tunnel. Figure 2.1 show illustration of tunnel ventilation. Figure 2.1: Illustration of tunnel ventilation. Air velocity for tunnel ventilation is usually in the range of 350- to 400-feet-per-minute (fpm), which is equivalent to 4- to 5-mph. (Bucklin, Jacob, Mather, Leary, & Naas, 2015). High-speed air velocity will produce wind effects which will reduce the temperature of effectiveness felt by fully-feathered birds by as much as 5.5-7°C. The "effective" temperature created by the wind-chill effect must be estimated and varies according to bird age and size with actual air temperature. Figure 2.2 show graph of the wind-chill effect created by high-velocity airflow to different age and size birds (Fallis, 2013). Figure 2.2: the wind-chill effect created by high-velocity airflow to different age and size birds.(Fallis, 2013)             The wind-chill effect becomes less pronounced as air temperatures rise above 32°C; above 38°C the air begins to warm instead of cool.             As a conclusion, tunnel ventilation system is a very well-suited system for the environment condition where the weather in Malaysia can reach 40 degrees.     2.4 VENTILATION/ EXHAUST FAN             Ventilation/exhaust fans is an engine for a mechanical ventilation system for a poultry house. It works to change the flow of ventilation to ensure the poultry is always healthy and full of comfort. The fan is also a component that takes care of the environment for poultry, which can be a factor in the health of the breeders while in the poultry house. Fan management is critical to keeping the birds alive in hot weather. For the breeders, selecting the proper fan is one of the most important decisions to make. It is important when it comes to cost for purchase, but the performance is the main criteria because it can affect the breeding process. Also, performance in the coming years must be in selecting the criteria. Often, the cheapest fan is not the best option (tabler & Wells, 2016). Figure 2.4 show ventilation fan used in poultry house; Figure 2.4 show ventilation fan used in poultry house     2.4.1 PERFORMANCE OF EXHAUST FAN             Fan performance is the general term that represents air flow rate, which measures how much air can flow through it in each timeframe under specified operating conditions such as static pressure. Airflow rate is commonly measured in cubic meters per hour (m³/h) (or cubic feet per minute (cfm) if using imperial units). Fans with higher air flow rate or performance will move more air (Brown, 2015). Methods to measure fan performance and efficiency assessing both criteria requires measurement of air flow rate, electrical power and operating conditions, including static pressure, barometric pressure, and temperature (Dunlop & Grant, 2012). To calculate the actual rotational speed (rpm), take the tachometer reading (blade counts) and divide it by the number of blades on the fan.   Converting airspeed (m/s) into air flow rate (m³/h):   The formula for calculating the air flow rate (m³/h):             Size of exhaust fan will also affect fan effectiveness level in which bigger diameter of the fan can create more efficacy. Table 2.4 shows fan test results for efficiency based on fan size and 0.10 inches of H2O (Miller & Gerald, 2010).     Table 2.4: Fan test results for efficiency based on fan size and 0.10 inches of H2O. Diameter of fan (Inches) Efficiency rating Median rating cfm/W Top ¼ rating cfm/W <16 16 to 20 22 to 35 36 to 46 48 to 56 >56

7.9
10.3
13.0
15.9
18.9
20.1

8.7
11.2
14.6
17.2
20.4
21.5

 

2.4.2 FAILURE OF
VENTILATION FAN

            Normal wear and the dirty
environment during operations can create an unexpected
result in which a surprising loss of
system efficiency and an associated rise in operating costs is observed. While performing maintenance might take some time,
the payoffs can be significant. To reduce the failure of ventilation fan,
poultry producer should properly perform maintenance to maximize efficiency and
save on energy costs. (Frazier, 2016)

 

2.4.2.1 PHYSICAL FAILURE

            Proper installation is one of satisfactory
operation needs to be prioritized on any
machine. Though the design of individual
components of a machine has advanced significantly and equal care in its
integration into the system and proper installation is necessary to meet the
design intended. It is noted that well-designed machines can cause a failure to operate smoothly if the installation
does not follow standard (Balla, Sinha, & Rao, 2005).    

Pulleys
on the fan and the motor must be properly aligned. If they are out of
alignment, the fan belt will rapidly wear and need premature replacement (Garrett & Wicklein, n.d.). Figure 2.5 below
shows the vorrect and incorrect alignment
of motor and fan pulleys.

Figure
2.5: Correct and incorrect alignment of motor and fan pulleys. (Garrett &
Wicklein, n.d.)

 

2.4.2.2 DIRTY ENVIRONMENT ( DUST )

            One of the airborne particle is dust where 85 percent of its mass consist organic material. (Hartung & Saleh, 2007). To control its accumulation, usage of ventilation fan must be at high performance, but after a while, accumulation of dust at the fan blade can reduce the performance. Activities in the chicken house produces a lot of fine dust which smaller than 10 µm or can be referred to as particulate matter 10 (PM10) and in most cases, they exceed the ambient air quality standard set by the European Union, EU. EU has set the limit for concentrations of particles smaller than 10. For that reason, the EU has set limits for concentrations of particles smaller than 10 µm (PM10) and of particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) in ambient air. (Aarnink et al., 2009). Dust from swine barns originates from the feed, bedding material, manure and the animals themselves. Many of the respirable dust particles are odorous because of their fecal origin. The factors determining the amount of dust in confinement includes animal activity, the temperature where the temperature level will determine the level of daily activity of the poultry, relative humidity will develop two factors namely dust generation and it affects the viability of airborne microbial contaminants, and ventilation rate, stocking density, and feeding methods (ZHANG, 2006). A fan shutter that is partially open due to dirt accumulation, and therefore heavier, shutter imparts significantly more resistance to airflow. A swift cleaning of the shutters resulted in the fan moving 47% more air per minute while using 8.3% less electrical current. (Garrett & Wicklein, n.d.)

 

2.4 VIBRATION ANALYSIS

            Machines have been created to help
people improve their work quality. As an example, in the industry, the use of
machines becomes a major medium for producing products. The
maintenance of a machine can be done with guided by condition based maintenance
which is called vibration analysis. It is because every machine will produce a vibration when it is operating. vibration
resulting from the machine can be the guide to the engineer to detect the
condition of the machine. Vibration usually occurs because of the dynamic
effects of manufacturing tolerances, clearances, rolling and rubbing contact
between machine parts and out-of-balance forces in rotating and reciprocating members.
Often, small insignificant vibrations can excite the resonant frequencies of some
other structural parts and be amplified into major vibration and noise sources (Bruel & Kjaer, 1982).

            A vibration study, it covers the
mechanical condition and the dynamic behavior
of the entire machine line from stock preparation to finishing, or of specific
machine sections in troubleshooting. The main objectives when performing a
vibration study are to map the dynamic behavior
of the machine from current to targeted speeds, yielding the most cost-effective
approach to foreseeing problems. Next is to evaluate how rebuilds will affect
the dynamic behavior of the machine and
its consequences at current or increased speeds. Besides that, it used to locate
and eliminate vibration sources currently having a detrimental effect on the
machinery or process (Vierck, 2007).

 

2.4.1 BEARING FAILURE

            The damaged bearing can cause damage to the fan. there are 12
types of primary causes of bearing failure which is excessive load,
overheating, true brinelling, normal fatigue failure, contamination, lubricant
failure, false brinelling, reverse loading,
corrosion, loose fits, tight fits, and misalignment (Wysoclci & Feest, 1997). Improper installation can give effect to bearing life.
Furthermore, the belt drives used on fans also have a large effect on the
bearing life. The combination of the sheaves selected and their mountings can
make the difference between having a bearing last its expected life and having
it fail prematurely. Proper lubrication and maintenance are
essential for long bearing life. An adequate supply of clean lubricant must be
present always to prevent damage particularly due to metal-to-metal contact. They are the primary cause of the failure due to inadequate lubrication contributing 36
percent of failure rate, the second cause is the normal fatigue contributing to
34 percent. Besides that, contamination also contributes to 14 percent of the
failure rate and other causes such as faulty mounting, static vibration, incorrect
fits, and electric current contributes to a mere 16 percent (Eugene., 2000). Besides that, an imbalance that occurs during the operation
can cause bearing failure. As the machine speed increases, the
effects of imbalance become greater. Imbalance can severely reduce bearing life
as well as causing undue machine
vibration (Taneja, 2012).

 

2.4.2
FAN VIBRATION ANALYSIS

            In the current industry, the use of Fault Condition Monitoring or Condition-Based
Maintenance can avoid downtime and also reduce total cost of products. (Erkaya & Saban, 2014). The use of an accelerometer sensor to acquire displacement
signal as it will be placed on the motor or fan bearing. These sensors should
be installed on radial and axial location on motor and fan bearing. Through
this method, it will detect all the vibration
components including bearing vibration, unbalance,
misalignment, electrical faults, blade pass (aerodynamic disturbances) and belt
frequencies (Connection Technology Center,
n.d.).

 

2.4.2.1 MISALIGNMENT

            One of common failure on the vibration on the fan is a
misalignment. Nevertheless, in practice,
this ideal condition rarely exists, and the shaft tends to suffer from some
degree of misalignment while rotating inside its bushing. Misalignment is a result
of asymmetric bearing loading, elastic
deflection of the shaft, under an imposed under load or its own weight. Next, it occurs
from thermal distortion of the shaft and distortions caused by bearing housing
support. Misalignment also can occur during manufacturing tolerances due to
inaccurate machining, casting and forging. Besides
that, misalignment occurs when errors due
to installation and assembly defects. However, general characterization of the behavior of misaligned bearings is very complex
(Jang & Khonsari, 2015). Shaft misalignment is the deviation of
relative shaft position from a colinear axis of rotation measured at the points
of power transmission when equipment is running at normal operating conditions.
Figure 2.4.2.1 show shaft misalignment.

Figure
2.4.2.1 show shaft misalignment (Reliability, 2015)

For a flexible coupling to accept both
parallel and angular misalignment there must be at least two points where the
coupling can flex to accommodate the misalignment condition. Measuring in the
horizontal and vertical planes produces four deviations, each of which must be
within the specified tolerance values. Take the largest of these four
deviations, measured in microns, and divide by the axial distance between the
points of power transmission, measured in mm; this gives the maximum deviation
in microns/mm. There are three factors that influence alignment in rotating
machinery which is the speed of the drive train, the maximum deviation at
either flexing point or point of power transmission and the distance between
the flexing points or points of power transmission (Reliability, 2015).

 

2.4.2.2
IMBALANCE

 

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