Chapter to themes or topics; beliefs and practices

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Chapter 3






This chapter present
the methods used in this study. It discusses the research
design, research locale, participants of the study, sampling procedure,
research instrument, administration of instrument, data analysis and research


Research design

study utilized the qualitative research which is often
described as a naturalistic, interpretative approach, concerned with exploring
phenomena from the interior (Flick, 2009). The acquired data from the Focus
Group Discussion (FGD) and Key Informant Interview (KII) were analyzed
according to themes or topics; beliefs and practices on maternal childcare of
the Matigsalug. 


study was conducted among the Matigsalug women in Barangay Kalagangan, San
Fernando Bukidnon. Matigsalug Tribe is a group of indigenous people living
along the “Salug”or river. Base on the study of Morales (2014) cited that the Matigsalug
people as small dark brown complexion and curly
hair. The name of their tribe was derived from “Matig” which means a place of
origin and “Salug” which refers to river. In general, the Matigsalug people are
known as “people of river”.The life of the tribe revolves in animistic spirit
believing that there is spirit that lives’ in water, land, trees and rock.

Kalagangan, has a total land area of 5,888 and its population. Barangay
Kalagangan belongs to the 8th Barangay in the municipality of San Fernando,
located in the south eastern most portion of the province of Bukidnon.

2015 census, the Municipality of San Fernando has a total population of 56,138
with a density of 80 inhabitants per square kilometer. Many portions of this
municipality are inhabited by the Matigsalug tribe like Barangay Kalagangan.

barangay’s main source of income is on planting corn, sweet potato, abaca, rice
and other crops. Hunting and fishing activities are still part of their daily
life due to the presence of rivers, like Pulangi River and forest. Elementary
and High School are available together with other facilities like covered
court, day care center and health center. The barangay has a special hall for special
tribal meeting, ritual and venue for solving conflicts. This hall is called Pamuhatan Hall which is designed for
significant purpose.



2.Map of Municipality of San Fernando




Participants of the Study

participants of this study were the women of Matigsalug tribe who were
practicing different beliefs in maternal and childcare. Six (6) women were
selected purposively in Kalagangan, San Fernando Bukidnon. Of the six
respondents, three were in their fifties; two were almost sixty, and one was in
her forties. All of them are married while one of them is a widow. More or less
the number of children they are is 8.


          The study utilized purposive sampling
since it is the most effective technique when one needs to study complex set of
maternal and childcare practices of a tribe. Selected respondents were regarded
as expert on indigenous knowledge. Purposive sampling is fundamental to the
quality of data gathering. Crossman (2017) said that purposive sample isa non-probability sample that is selected
based on the characteristics of the population and the objective of study.

 Research Instrument

researchers utilized a modified form of questionnaire from Morales (2014) which
is a set of interview questions. They also employed the focus group discussion
(FGD) for this study. A focus group discussion (FGD) is defined as semi-structured group discussions which yield
qualitative data on the community level by facilitating interaction between

The Key Informant Interview (KII) was also
utilized in this study to provide additional supports of the data. In-depth interview guides that
are related to indigenous maternal and childcare practices among Matigsalug
tribe are used.  The responses from the respondents were audio-tape, recorded, examined, and analyzed. These data were categorized for purposes of
classification and summarization.

Administration of the Instrument

          The researchers asked permission from
the barangay administrator to conduct the study. When the barangay captain
approved the study, the respondents were informed as to what the study was all
about and its purpose. An orientation was conducted to clarify to the
respondents the objectives and purpose of the study. They were also assured on
the confidentiality of the data gathered and research ethics.

          After the orientation, the researchers
conducted the focus group discussion (FGD) among the 6 Matigsalug women who
were chosen purposively as the participants of this study. The answer of the
respondents during the interview was treated with confidentiality.



Research Ethics   

          The researchers considered several
research ethics in conducting the study such as to informed consent from the,
participant respect and accept whatever answers were given and protect
confidentially of the information.

Categories: Ethics


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