Journal 4
. 4. (a) This is true, as stated in the textbook, “Any synthetic or
natural chemical can be harmful if ingested in a large quantity.” Also
some chemicals that are not toxic can be more dangerous then toxic
chemicals. It all matters on the chemical concentration and on the
amount of detection are found.

(b) This statement is true in some part, small dosages or small
exposures to toxic chemicals we should not worry about because our
body can genetically adapt and clear out such chemicals. There are
three ways that it is possible to be exposed to harmful chemicals and
have there effects be insignificant. Enzymes found in the liver help
break down, dilute or excrete small amounts of most toxins to keep
them from reaching a harmful level. Individual cells have enzymes that
can repair damage to DNA and protein molecules. And, cells in some
parts of the body reproduce fast enough to replace damaged cells.

(c) This is not true; genetic engineering can not reduce or eliminate
all types of exposures to toxic chemicals especially if we are faced
with a large abundance of a certain type of toxic chemical.

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. 6. I think that pollution levels should be set to protect everyone
including the most sensitive and the average person. The most
sensitive people so not make up most of the population but they do
make up some of it and they also deserve to be able and go outside
too. Also, if the population outside effects the most sensitive person
it probably also effects the average person but at a different level.

I think it is beneficial to all to set the population level to protect

. 7. (a) Lifestyle
1. I go tanning ( skin cancer
2. Drive a car ( car crash
3. Take airplanes ( plane crash
4. Drink alcohol
5. I don’t eat that healthy or really exercise
(b) Live in a city
1. Can get hit by a car or t
2. Pollution
3. Around smokers (second hand smoke
4. Everyone lives pretty close to one another ( can catch

(c) What you do for a living ( Student
1. Stress
2. Can get sick easily ( always around people



Some of these risks are voluntary and some are involuntary. Going
tanning, drinking alcohol, not eating healthy, not exercising are all
voluntary risks. If I want I can do something to avoid the risk. While
other risks you can not avoid such as the pollution in your area…

Reduction of risks:
1. Eat Healthy
2. Exercise
3. Be aware of your surrounding
4. Avoid dangerous situations
5. Do not to drink alcohol or do drugs
I actually plan on trying to be aware of my surrounding; I think
that this one is very important this can avoid a lot of risks. I
also plan on trying to eat healthy which will probably happen
for a day or two and then I will most likely go back to my old
ways. I would like to say that I will exercise but I do not have
energy to, when ever I think of exercise I never want to do it,
I rather watch TV. I never try and get myself in dangerous
situations, so I think that will be easy to part take in. I do
not do drugs but I do drink which I probably will not change or

Chapter 12
. 2. It is rational for a poor couple in a developing country to have
four or five children. This is true because the more children you have
the more children you can send off to work and make money for the
family to survive. Also, in developing countries the infant mortality
rate is very high, so some of the children that a family might have
will die at an early age because they do not have proper resources.

Some changes that might induce such a couple to consider their
behavior irrational is that the infant mortality rate might decrease
and also there is less need for their children to work, so they do not
need as many kids. Having that many kids would serve as a negative
because they do not need to work but their family does still have to
take care of them, so there are more mouths that need to be fed.

. 4. This would not immediately stop global population growth because of
the age structure. The age structure is the proportion of the
population at each age level. It would take at least another 50 years
to stabilize the pollution growth.

. 8. (a) I agree, if the United States want to try and achieve a certain
number of population growth then they have to reduce the amount of
immigrants they allow into the country.

(b) This should be done by watching the borders more carefully and
more strictly and making sure that they do not let in too many people.

Also we should put a limit on how many people can become citizens each
year to try and reduce the amounts of immigrants. Also, maybe we
should have stricter laws about illegal immigrants and what happens
when we find them in the United States.

(c) I disagree, I do not think that the Untied States should give
families financial incentives to have more children to prevent
eventual population declines. I think this because if money is
involved it is very likely that a lot of families are going to want
and partake in this and this can cause a reverse effect of what they
planned it would cause an overpopulation, which would be another

(d) I agree, I think it would be a good idea to try and stabilize the
population. If this is done, then we can reduce unnecessary resource
waste and consumption because we would know how much we need to
produce according to the population and in return we would have less
waste. Also, if there are less people then there would less waste
altogether, which would help with our pollution levels in the United

(d) I agree, I think that everyone should have the right to have as
many children as they want as long as they are able to support the
kids financial and they are not depending on the government for money.

Even though it goes against my response for question d about
stabilizing the population because you can not possible stabilizes the
population if you allow everyone to have as many children as they

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