Central CanadaThe oil and gas industry is the largest industry in the entire world and one of the most important. Alberta’s economy alone is one of the highest because of the oil industry. Alberta is the most valuable province to Canada as oil is in high demand, and since oil is important for many things to function, it keeps Canadians and the rest of the world alive while we find an alternative to fossil fuels. Oil is needed for us humans to create almost everything we have. Without the oil industries around the world, cars wouldn’t be able to run, factories wouldn’t work, there wouldn’t be electricity, tractors wouldn’t be able to collect crops, homes wouldn’t be heated, and nothing that is made of plastic would be made. Clearly, oil is the most important resource we have, and that’s why Alberta’s oil has a huge impact on Canada. The oil from Alberta is making an average 3.2% increase each year to the Canadian GDP. Oil is a very important resource in Canada and the world. The only problem is, we’re running out of oil.Eastern CanadaFishing is very popular in a particular part of a Canada. In Eastern Canada there is huge amount of fish in the Grand Banks where many people go fishing. Fishing in Canada began when early settlers from Europe came and started fishing. They realized how many fish there were and built a settlement nearby for easy access to fish. More than 80% of Canada’s fish are exported to other countries. This helped the economy in the beginning by adding an additional 44 billion dollars. Most people fish in the Grand Banks as there are many fish, shallow water, and many nutrients which helps for healthy fish. Recently they had to make policies regarding the fishing because people were overfishing and changes in natural conditions. Overall, fishing now, is adding 1 billion dollars yearly to the economy. This is how the eastern fishing industry helps Canada.Southern CanadaMining is a major industry that makes Canada’s economy. Mining in Ontario is very major. From mining, we get nickel, gold, copper, and zinc. The areas in which we mine, take up about 500 km2. From these minerals we find, we get about 10.8 billion dollars annually from exporting the minerals to other countries. About 60% of the materials we find are sent off to other countries for a lot of money. Right now, mining is adding 6.8 billion dollars to the economy each year. This is how mining happens in Ontario and why it’s important to Canada.Question 4: National/Global ProblemsNorthern CanadaClimate change is affecting the entire world, especially Northern Canada. The ice in the North is melting at an alarming rate. The ice melting has many different side effects such as global temperatures increasing and affecting ocean circulation. 75% of greenhouse gases are from transportation and cars so, representatives of Canada said that cars will be reducing emissions and finding an alternative to industrial greenhouse gases. This means less greenhouse gases which results in the climate slowly steadying. Canada is also making companies invest more in creating Green technologies which will help with greenhouse gases. Overall this will help climate change and slowly stop the ice in the north from melting.Southern CanadaDeforestation is a huge problem Canada. Some major effects from deforestation include loss of animal habitats, climate change, desertification, soil erosion, and flooding. All of these can change the land drastically. Deforestation affects the water cycle. It stops the moisture from returning to the atmosphere. So without the trees, none of the moisture goes back to the atmosphere. The main reason deforestation happens, is because of farming. They need to clear out land for crops. Another loss from deforestation is that many animals lose their habitat. Many species live in the trees and now won’t have anywhere to live. We can help stop the effects of deforestation by planting more trees, going paperless, and eat vegetarian meals as often as possible. Going paperless can help a lot. 38% of Ontario’s wood is used for paper. We can save a lot of trees if people try. In southern Canada they are re planting trees where they are being cut. This will keep the amount of trees stable. In some areas they are planting two trees for every tree cut down so that they increase tree population. They are also promoting natural stuff more often in advertisements. This is how Canada is trying to fix deforestation in southern Canada.Central CanadaIn Central Canada, there is a lot of pollution. This is because of the Alberta oil sands. There is a chemical called PM2.5 that can cause asthma attacks, hospitalization, and can cause death. Central Canada is on track to have the absolute worst air quality in all of Canada. Other chemicals can also get into your lungs which can cause lung cancer. Some environmental effects of air pollution include acidification of plants, crops not growing, and trees dying. Canada is trying to fix the air pollution problem by conserving energy to stop the production of the smoke from factories. This will slow down the amounts of smoke going into the air. Canada also created programs to help slow down the air pollution. They are planting more gardens to produce fresh crops. The food that will be grown won’t be harvested with any machines that emit dangerous chemicals in the air. This is how Canada is trying to fix air pollution in the south.Question 5: demographic characteristicsNorthern CanadaIn Northern Canada there is mostly Inuits. At the time when they came, all the southern land was taken by other Indians, so they settles in the north of Canada. The Inuit have been living there for thousands of years, which is why they are still, there today. They’ve adapted to the cold weather and have gotten used to their lifestyle. The Inuit diet consists of fish and hunted arctic animals. The main reason the Inuit are still in northern Canada, is because they are used to their lifestyle and the northern weather.Eastern CanadaMost common people in eastern Canada are the French. In Quebec they are all speaking French. The reasons for so many French speaking people are in Quebec is because the French first settled there in the St. Lawrence river. The person who came first was Samuel de Champlain. The area they settled in was originally called New France. The reason Quebec is the only French speaking part of Canada, is because of the seven year war. The British beat the French and made a treaty. The British gave the freedom in Quebec and this is also why we learn French in schools. This is why Quebec is full of French population.Western CanadaThe most common native group in western Canada is Cree. For thousands of years the Cree were spread over the forests. They would eat both animals and plants. They would also canoe in the rivers to obtain fish. Cree people today are still hunting as they feel it is a part of who they are. They are still allowed to do cultural practices like rituals. There are approximately 200,000 Cree in Canada.western Canada is taken up by mountains which limits space. The majority of the Cree people live along Alberta.Question 6: Urban GrowthEastern CanadaIn eastern Canada there are many different types of cities and rural areas. One city that I will focus on is Montreal in Quebec. Montreal’s population is continuing to rise of population. Most people are coming from French speaking countries and moving to Montreal. This is because Quebec is the only French speaking area in Canada. Recently Montreal began preparing for a huge spike in urban growth. They are expecting 50,000 new residents by 2030. Montreal is creating more jobs which is why they expect this spike. This is the recent urban growth for Montreal.Western CanadaIn western Canada there is one main city everyone looks at. Which is Vancouver in British Columbia. Vancouver’s population isn’t growing as fast as others. But, the population is still growing. Right now, there are around 650,000 residents in Vancouver. More new houses are being built in downtown Vancouver. This is for the new residents in the coming years. The majority of Vancouver is urban and not many rural areas are available. Vancouver is rebuilding many old buildings. This is the urban growth of Vancouver recently.Central CanadaIn central Canada there is one main city. The city is Calgary which is in Alberta. Calgary’s population is rising at a fast, steady pace. Most of Calgary is already urban, and there is a small amount that is still rural. Calgary isn’t allowing much urban growth. Their population is. 1.2 million. The density is also 1329/km2. From 2006-2011 they experienced a ten percent increase in population. Calgary is trying to remove most rural areas and turning it into an urban area. This will attract more residents. They are creating more jobs to get more people into the city later in the years. This is Calgary’s urban growth.

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