Cell-cell will be discussing synaptic signaling in more

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Cell-cell communication is essential for the survival of an
organism. There are a variety of ways cells communicate including by direct
contact, local signaling, and long-distance signaling. Direct-contact signaling
involves the plasma membrane and occurs via cell junctions (gap junctions in
animal cells and plasmodesmata in plant cells) and surface molecules, which
allow cells to recognize and communicate with one another from their respective
surface proteins. Local signaling includes paracrine signaling (e.g. growth
factors released to neighboring cells). Long-distance signaling is endocrine signaling;
cells release hormones that travel in the circulatory system to cells all
around the body. Typically, cells communicate using chemical signals—a cell
releases a chemical (ligand) and it binds to a receptor in the target cell,
creating a response. Non-target cells do not have the necessary receptor for
the ligand.


I will be discussing synaptic signaling in more detail. Neurons
communicate with neurons and other cells via synaptic signaling (also knows as neurotransmission).

When a pre-synaptic neuron reaches threshold, an action potential (an electrical
impulse) is fired. The threshold potential is the voltage at which an action
potential can be triggered due to sodium concentration. The action potential
travels down the axon and results in the release of neurotransmitters, which
are signaling molecules, from the axon terminal. The neurotransmitters diffuse
across the synapse, the space in between two neurons, and bind to receptors in
the post-synaptic neuron. The effect can be either excitatory or inhibitory and
the resulting changes can be ephemeral or long-living.   

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