gg——————————————————————————– naval building race: Admiral Tirpitz –

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A. Economic
Imperialism at home and abroad – In one generation
Africa – direct possession (1902: only Liberia, founded by former American slaves remains independent)
Asia and Near East: economic and diplomatic pressure
Economic concessions and extra-territorial privileges: Ottoman Empire – most vulnerable; China – most vulnerable; Japan – modernizing rapidly; India – firmly in British hands;
Importance to Europe: keeps fat on European economy; colonial rule a reproach to democracy; encouraged feelings of national and racial superiority;
“Pan” movements – a form of imperialism
Technology and science: materialism
B. Social
Human welfare: serfdom gone (except in Russia); surgery and anesthetics perfected; life span longer; Victorian middle class morality in decline; spread of literacy.
Peace movements: “pipe dream of peace”.
Aristocratic remainders.
Neglect of the proletariat.
C. Intellectual
1. European cultural heritage
2. Ideologies of progress:
conservatism – delaying action not progress (aristocracy)
liberalism – freedom, law, representative government (upper middle class)
radicalism – remove class distinctions, anti-clerical (lower middle class)
socialism – collectivist doctrine (city workers)
new left – syndicalism
D. Political
1. the nation-state: language and race
2. parliamentary government
3. parties:
tied to class and ideology
lack of responsibility
too many of them
4. Differing forms
separation of powers only in the USA
king or president a figurehead in Britain and France
search for majorities in parliament
Britain: the cabinet held the whip
France and Italy: parliament held the whip
5. Extension of the suffrage
6. Exceptions to democratization
Germany: only has external form of it, the Reichstag is a “debating chamber”
Austria-Hungary: maintaining monarchy in polyglot confusion
Russia: a struggle between Duma and Ministry
E. Military
1. popular militarism
Boer War
naval building race: Admiral Tirpitz – risk theory
Three-year army law: France 1913
Tripoli campaign in Italy, 1911
2. Comparative figures on army increase, 1870-1914:
1870 1914
Russia 700,000 1,300,000
France 380,000 846,000
Germany 403,000 812,000
Austria-Hungary 247,000 424,000
Britain 302,000 381,000
Italy 334,000 305,000
Japan 70,000 250,000
U.S.A. 37,000 98,000
3. military expenditure
Germany and Russia had the largest budgets in 1914
Britain and Germany spent most per capita:
Germany $8.52
Britain $8.53
U.S.A. $0.32
F. Diplomatic
1. Alliance System
1870 – 1890: Bismarck in control
1890 – 1907: balance against Germany
2. Testing the system
Russo-Japanese War, 1904-5
First Morocco Crisis, 1905-6
Bosnian Annexation Crisis, 1908
Second Morocco Crisis, 1911
Haldane Mission, 1912
3. Tensions in the Balkans
Hapsburg Empire in turmoil
South Slav Problem
First Balkan War, 1912-13
Second Balkan War, 1913

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Nationalism, System. Nationalism: a philosophy that is purely

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Nationalism, militarism, imperialism, and the system of alliances were four
main factors that pressed the great powers towards this explosive war.”
(Clock Magazine, 1915 Aug. 17). Although Francis Ferdinand was
assassinated and sparked the beginning of the war, this however was not the
main cause. The four major roles that played in the cause of World War I
were Nationalism, Militarism, Imperialism, and the Alliance System.

Nationalism: a philosophy that is purely focused on patriotism,
loyalty to one’s nation and seeing its nation as the superior nation. In
example of a nationalistic cause in the war, Austria-Hungary was getting
apprehensive when the Slavs in northern part of their empire wanted to
unite with Serbia. Of course, having a strong nationalism in Austria-
Hungary, Austria-Hungary started being concerned. They did not want to
lose their land and power to Serbia, and sooner or later, this lead to
Austria preparing themselves for a conflict/battle in case it ever broke

Militarism: a philosophy that bases one’s organization purely on the
strict ideas of strong military, control over aggression, and mass
production of weaponry and any other military supplies. The first conflict
started when Germany became jealous of Great Britain’s Navy and their
increased naval production. At the time, Britain had the best all-around
Navy in Europe, including the dreadnoughts; a ship designed to be superior
to any other ever constructed. Threatened by this, Germany started a huge,
mass production of weaponry, ships, and any other military means that meant
conflict. Doing so, Germany wished to go in competition against Britain
and their Navy, and hopefully scare them into submission.

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Imperialism: a philosophy stating that, to create or reform a country
into a powerful country, it must take over all means of political,
economical and military status of another country through aggression.

Europe at this time was very focused on imperialism. The entire struggle
for power, wealth and superiority can be pinpointed by this concept.

Countries in Europe had colonies almost in every continent during this time
(mostly Africa and Southeast Asia). The numbers of colonies grew massively
in a very short amount of time. Sooner or later, conflicts and
competitions started rising when colonies were fighting over the areas they
colonized over. Some fought because another colony invaded them, some
fought to take over a colony, and some fought just because their countries
were involved in conflict due to militarism and other issues.

The Alliance System played a major role in the World War. Perhaps we
can label the alliance system as the conflict itself. That is because
there were 2 alliance systems during the World War and those two allies
were the two sides that fought each other in World War I. First was the
Triple Entente, which consisted of Great Britain, France and Russia. The
other was called the Triple Alliance, which consisted of Austria-Hungary,
Germany and Italy. Initially, Germany formed the Triple Alliance with
Austria and Italy. France immediately felt threatened and formed an
alliance with Great Britain and Russia. The two alliances swore to each
other that when one of the members of the alliance was threatened or
attacked, the alliance would come and aid them. Such idea like this played
in the part of the “chain reaction” leading to World War One.

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