Category Archive : Articles

The United States' approach to foreign policy had not changed
conceptually from the days it signed its independence. These ideas were
primarily based on protecting US interests overseas and restricting foreign
influences in the Americas.Once they furthered themselves politically and
economically, they gained the status of being a world power and they still
wanted more.They figured they had to strengthen the country industrially as
they needed worldwide markets for its growing industrial and agricultural
surpluses as well as sources of raw materials for manufacturing.They could
only achieve these foreign markets with more concentrated efforts on its foreign
policy as America was principally guided by economic motives.
The internal economic growth of the United States made them want to
look outward for foreign markets.Export earnings increased from 450 million to
over a billion from 1870 to the early 1890's.US business's were soon
overpowering foreign competition as even American steelmakers could easily
compete with any British producer in the world.Everything seemed to be inciting
the US to expand abroad.Expansionists throughout America emphasized the
resources of what other lands could provide and the wealth that could result from
their establishment.For example, Cuba offered an abundance of sugar
plantations and land in Panama would offer America control of the canal.
The economic benefits of a foreign land can be seen through an example
of Americans exploring the distant islands of Hawaii.During the course of the
early 1800s, missionaries from America traversed on a laborious voyage to
Hawaii and ended up settling there. They offered accounts of incredible
economic opportunities and possibilities in the Hawaiian islands. Consequently,
other Americans proceeded to Hawaii to become sugar planters and to establish

US Family Structure: Colonial to Domestic Structure
The ideals of an American household from the late 18th century to the late 19th century shifts from a colonial to a domestic family.This is partially due to the change in economic and social conditions.European immigrants and middle-class white families conform to the new ideal, while other groups, such as the Native Americans, Mexicans, and African Americans, choose to live in alternative family systems.The dominant class also outwardly expresses their opinions towards these nonconforming groups.The ability of a group to assimilate to the domestic ideal is largely based on the economic and social status of the group.
The dominant family system of the late 18th century consists of colonial family ideology. In the late 1700's the primary concept of a family is that of an organic and productive unit in which the father is the head with everyone having a significant and respected role.The perception of colonial family does not include intimate and emotional relationships amongst family members; rather the family is treated as more of a task-oriented functional system responsible for itself as a whole.Sometimes the family is even called its own "little commonwealth" (Morantz-Sanchez).The family is hierarchical with the husband as the head of the family and the woman being subordinate.However, the colonial man must govern his wife carefully and properly; the ideal family conditions include married couples are chase to one another.Professor Ulrich, who studied this period by looking at court depositions, proclaims the woman as a "deputy" husband.This notion, along with the idea that each family member participates in task-oriented work signifies that while there may be a hierarchy all roles are respected.Furthermore, children, who are considered the responsibility of the family, have a short childhood ending at about the age of seve…

America acquired a lot of land over a short period time starting from about 1783 to about 1848. America did so in a few different ways such as war, treaty, annexation and purchase. In this essay I will discuss some of the different states we gained and how we gain them.
The original thirteen colonies were acquired by a battle or a war known as The American Revolution. The Americans fought Britain for freedom, rights and land. After a successful battle the British were forced to sign the Treaty of Paris in 1783. This treaty gave America the thirteen colonies and the other side of the Mississippi river.
In 1803 the leader of France, Napoleon offered the U.S. to purchase Louisiana. Although the Constitution made no provision for the acquisition of new land, Jefferson decided to go with a more loose constitution and called this a treaty. The Louisiana Purchase was the greatest real estate deal in world history, because it doubled the U.S. in size and it only cost about 15 million dollars in gold.
After that in 1818 and 1819 Spain sold Florida to the U.S. and we just took west Florida with it. In 1842 a treaty with Britain gives us northern Minnesota in which we later discover is full of extremely valuable that boosted America’s economy.
For about nine years Texas wasn’t part of any country and very much wanted to become part of the U.S. be we kept on refusing because of slavery abolishment in the north. In 1845 the U.S. decided it would allow Texas to be part of U.S. territory so we had the Texas Annexation.
In 1846 after a successful victory over Britain in a battle which was fought over a very large piece of land, the Americans came to a compromise with the British. America decided that it would take Oregon Country by treaty and allow the British to keep the northern half of the land that was fought over.
In 1853 America acquires another very large piece of land from Mexico. After the war the Mexican signed a treaty giving us…

The Vietnam War was the subject matter of many debates during the 1960’s and the 1970’s. War advocates and anti-war activists voiced their opinions all throughout the nation about our country's involvement in Vietnam. People from all walks of life, from politicians to hippies, spoke out about the war.It was made clear throughout the country that everyone had their own view on the war.
From New York to Los Angeles, demonstrations and rallies of either supporting or protesting against America's involvement in the Vietnam War were held everywhere. One of the main issues of debate was the federal draft.Young Americans across the country were being forced to leave behind their future to fight in Vietnam.Anti-war activists felt that American involvement in Vietnam was inadequate in helping to end the war and that the United States was involved for the wrong reasons. Others considered it as a patriotic duty to serve.
Regardless of ones attitude towards the war, many others agreed; therefore, those who strongly followed their beliefs were the ones to speak out and educate others about their perspectives. Among the most outspoken were these Americans:
1. Tim O'Brien, a U.S. veteran who served in Vietnam
2. Spiro T. Agnew, the vice president to Richard Nixon
3. John F. Kerry, also a Vietnam veteran and the former lieutenant governor
These men have attitudes toward the subject of the draft conscription and the ethics of complying or evading the draft.An analysis of their opinions will help Americans form their positions in the ongoing debate of conscription and the draft.
Although each activist supported a different position on the subject, good arguments were made from each side. Tim O'Brien was a Vietnam veteran and author who wrote about his experiences and tribulations during the war. In his book, On the Rainy Ri…

The Constitutional Convention met in Philadelphia in May 1787 for the purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation. Almost immediately, delegates unanimously agreed on the need to replace the Articles with a new document that created a stronger central government. However, the delegates could agree on little else after that.
The crafting of the U.S. Constitution highlighted the intense conflicts that existed in 1787 between states large and small, between north and south, and between a variety of different political philosophies. But rather than defeating the process, the conflicts between delegates resulted in compromises that strengthened and improved the document. The process of compromise exhibited by the delegates was in many ways reflected in the flexibility the document allowed for continuous political debate, compromise, and adaptation.
The delegates based their initial design of government on political theories and their own experience with government under the Articles. The rest of the issues presented themselves in the form of debates over representation, the enumeration of slaves, the control of commerce, the protection of individual rights, and the amount of power granted to the people.
Delegates understood that the Articles of Confederation had been severely hampered by the inability to collect taxes and to enforce any of its laws. They also realized that without a strong central government to establish a line of credit, negotiate uniform trade laws, and guarantee domestic peace, they would gain no respect in the world arena and would become an easy target for invasion. The states had taken to petty arguments and jealous behaviors amongst themselves and showed no sign of mutual respect. Therefore, the power to tax, the power of enforcement of the law, and the creation of a national government that was superior to the government of the states became priorities at the Convention.

After the Revolution, the 13 colonies set up a very weak national government under the powers of the Articles of the Confederation. This new government was not able to create revenue for the nation. It was not able to support foreign trade. The 13 states were in fact more powerful individually, than in whole. This bought many problems like the exchange of currency. Many of the states made there own separate currency, which some states would not except. They were placing taxes against other state's goods. The wealthy was not liking this at all because the loss of profit from the trade industry. States could not stabilize trade with foreign countries.
This led to the Great convention in Philadelphia. Each state would send delegates except Rhode Island. The delegates then lock the doors and began work on a new government. The delegates started off really slow. Arguing over the power the government should have and the power of the states. Smaller states wanted to retain power like what was in the articles of confederation with only 1 vote per state. But the lager states wanted to have power by population rather than equality. Not much progress was made; they were at a full stopping point. The southern states were so upset because they felt that they were not being represented equally. They were about to walk out until the Great Compromise. The compromise was that two houses were to be made, a lower house- based of population and an upper house- were every state had equal in vote.
The Delegates then started to work on the power of the President. Soon they had three houses of government, the executive, legislative, and the judiciary.The three houses had a system of checks and balances, were one had no power over every thing. The President was in charge of the army but did not have the power to go to war, Congress did. Congress could create laws but the President could veto them.Each house had power over each other.

The existence of United States of America as a separate independent country was declared during the American Revolution of 1789. Thus, Americans still had to fight for their independence in the War of 1812 against Great Britain. This war was considered to be America's second Revolution. And due to the expansionist issues over slavery after the Mexican-American War the conflict broke into a Civil War that devastated the Southern states. Many consider the Civil War to be the Third American Revolution, which is a reasonable point due to the settlement of the argument of abolition of slavery during this war.
The main reason that started the Civil War was the secession of Southern states from the Union in 1860-1861, after the election of Abraham Lincoln as president. Thus the battle fronts organized on both eastern and western sides of Appalachian Mountains and along the Atlantic coast of the states. Northern forces were much superior in numbers, equipment and supplies that were provided by the industrialization of the region and extensive railroad system. South had the only advantages of fighting on the home grounds and fighting a defensive war. In the course of battles Union naval fleet held a blockade of the Confederate shores, thus jeopardizing even the prosperous Southern cotton trade. On land, eastern front locked into a stalemate towards the end of 1862 between Washington, DC and Richmond, VA. While, quite successful Unionist forces in the west occupied most of the Mississippi river. At that point Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation that reshaped the war into the fight against slavery for the Union troops. Thus also allowing the recruitment of blacks into the army, Northern army experienced a good reinforcement that allowed it to push for victory in the war. Civil War proved to be the bloodiest war that US experienced so far, but the end was reached by May of 1865. North won and thus declared all slaves on the US terr…

In 1829, Andrew Jackson enacted a law that forced all Indians to move west to land that was set aside for them.Before the Indians settled on their new land, more white settlers moved in and searched for gold.They took away land set aside for the Indians.The whites again moved westward to California, and once again, the government took land, which it had given to the Indians, and called it "Manifest Destiny".In 1877, Chief Joseph chose between peace and war with the white man, and he changed the future of his people forever, when he chose war.During the war, the white men continued their immoral acts upon the Indians.The U.S. Army engaged in endless slaughter and massacres based on lies and deceptions.Along with their purposes for war, these reasons made the U.S. Army guilty of gross inhumanity towards the Indians in their long and costly war.
The U.S. Army's purposes when they went to war were not just, because all that brought them into war was their greed for more land.When the whites landed in America, the Indians took them in, gave them land, and taught them the skills they needed to survive in the new world."All this, of course, was taken as a sign of weakness" (Wounded Knee 1) and the Indians were sent packing West.The white settlers took advantage of the Indians' kindness and took over their territories.More and more people were shipped across the Atlantic.To make room for them, they took over land that used to belong to the Indians.The Indians attempted to save their tribes from extinction by attacking many white settlements that had originally belonged to them."The Indians attacked fifty-two settlements, completely destroying twelve of them". (Wounded Knee 4)This was taken as a sign of war by the new settlers, so they retaliated in a much stronger effort.The U.S. Army took the Indians to war to fulfill their own greed and took over the land they claimed…

President Woodrow Wilson announces his Declaration of War in April of 1917.The United States wanted nothing to do with this war, yet were somehow dragged in.It all started in March of 1917 when Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany decided that unrestricted submarine warfare was the only way to stop war goods from getting overseas.Then, the Zimmerman Telegram came into the picture.This telegram was sent to Mexico from Germany asking them to attack America.With this, Wilson decided that it was a good idea to enter World War I with his declaration of war in 1917.Without the arrival of the Americans, it is likely that the Germans would have won the war.After the war was won, however, Wilson made his 14 Points.These 14 Points focused on repairing the World and achieving American objectives.
The Germans seriously underestimated the potential impact of American involvement.They engaged in unrestricted submarine warfare and killed innocent Americans.This happened because of the sinking of the Lusitania in 1915.This was a passenger ship moving between America and England, which had passengers from both countries.128 Americans died on that ship, and Wilson thought that Germany should pay.After the Lusitania was sunk, America found out about the Zimmerman Telegram.
In March of 1917, Germany sent Mexico a telegraph asking if they would attack America.President Wilson thought that something should be done since they were being dragged into war.This is when Wilson announces his declaration of war in April of 1917.Wilson asked congress to declare war on Germany, which was approved on April 6th.Wilson wanted to "make the world safe for democracy."
The Armistice began on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month in 1918.116,000 United States soldiers dead along with a total of 9.3 million killed in the war.Peace talks were made at the Versailles Conference and Wilson, on his way to Paris, …

In the late 40's Herbert Feis, a United States' State Department analysis, determined that a certain Arab nation in the Middle East has "one of the greatest material prizes in world history": oil reserves.The United States government has bargained over $100 billion in military goods, services, and Cold War-era bases, compatible with U.S. needs, in exchange for the largest importation of this Arab oil from any other nation in the world.Since the end of World War II no other middle-eastern country has had more influence, connected more ties, or assimilated more partnerships with the United States than the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has.
Though the Saudi Arabian nation has been established on the Arabian Peninsula since the early 18th century, King Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud founded modern Saudi Arabia on September 23, 1932 under the constitution of the Holy Koran.During King Abdul Aziz Bin Abdul Rahman Al-Saud's reign the nation began a long and prosperous period of economic growth, thanks in part to the discovery of vast oil supplies located throughout the Arabian Peninsula.The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia comprises almost four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, an area approximately one-third the size of the continental United States, and contains Islamic Holy cities of Mecca and Medina.Today, Saudi Arabia is ruled by King Fahd bin Abdulaziz, who has been a strong political influence over neighboring Arab nations since his reign began.In 1988 he initiated talks to put an end to the Iraq-Iran conflict, and was one of thefirst members to sign the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.Also in 1990 during the Persian Gulf conflict, he supported U.S. military action in the country in exchange for assistance in protecting the Saudi territory from being taken over by Iraq.King Fahd bin Abdulaziz has also openly showed support and backing for the Palestinian cause during the last decade.
Saudi Arabi…