Category Archive : Articles

"December 7, 1941 was the opening battle of the Second World War for the United States of America.But Pearl Harbor also marked the closing of one historical period and the opening of another.America finally ended its self-imposed isolation from world affairs on that day, and for the next 50 years was to be deeply involved in the global struggle against fascism and then against communism."
W.G. Hyland explains that the massacre at Pearl Harbor put an end to American isolationism and began the era of international awareness.Until this point the United States did not want to involve itself in World War II which had been going on in Europe.Americans had many different views toward the war, which resulted in the inactivity of Americans until the massacre at Pearl Harbor.The U.S. was forced to engage in World War II at this time because innocent Americans had been killed and they could no longer set back and let disastrous actions take place.The U.S. was very hesitant to join in worldwide destruction because of past problems and present issues.
After 1918 came a feeling, amounting almost to a national neurosis, that the United States had been tricked into the First World War.The sentiment was carefully nourished by a revisionist campaign."The country retreated into isolation lasting throughout the era of the Long Armistice from 1918 to 1939". During the years form 1929 to 1941 the U.S. was suffering from the Great Depression.Americans were worried about surviving the depression rather than helping foreign countries with their problems.The economy was in a severe decline; harsh living conditions and economic shortages were punishing the public.First and foremost Americans wanted to rise out of the depression and live in peace and prosperity.European conflicts did not register in the minds of Americans and therefore isolationism was the prevalent view of the American public.
The Europea…

Today as Americans, our top concern is our war on terror, national security. Prior to September 11th 2001 American has lived with no fear excluding the elderly who had witnessed the attack on Pearl Harbor.We did not have any knowledge that terrorists would or could attack us here at home, nor did we really pay attention to words like Al Quadi or Taliban.Now as we are considered victims we are aware of the terrorist groups and of course the notorious Osama Bin Ladin.Now that we're no longer just saviors of terrorist's attacks we can learn and set the standard to all countries victims or witnesses on how to maintain national security. On the 11th of September an everyday tool of transportation was used as a weapon to destroy and massacre.As we have stepped back to understand the reasoning, which only a terrorist can comprehend more importantly, we have focused on how to prevent an event like this happening again.
On September 20,2001 President Bush proposes a new Office of Homeland Security which he has make his top priority since.In November 2002 Bush singed the Homeland Security Act."He started that this Act is to protect our citizens against the dangers of a new era. With my signature, this act of Congress will create a new Department of Homeland Security, ensuring that our efforts to defend this country are comprehensive and united. The new department will analyze threats, will guard our borders and airports, protect our critical infrastructure, and coordinate the response of our nation for future emergencies. The Department of Homeland Security will focus the full resources of the American government on the safety of the American people. This essential reform was carefully considered by Congress and enacted with strong bipartisan majorities. From the morning of September the 11th, 2001, to this hour, America has been engaged in an unprecedented effort to defend our freedom and our security."As of…

The War of the Roses was a war for the thrown of England. When Edward III died in
1377, he left no direct heir to the throne of England. It was decided that his son, Edward III’s
grandson, should inherit the throne.However Henry, Duke of Lancaster opposed of this, and
died in the vain as his life was spent in pursuit of the kingdom. The single most probable event
that was responsible for the starting of the War of the Roses was when in 1399,Henry
Bolingbroke seized the throne from Edward’s grandson Richard II and declared himself King
Henry IV.Even though Henry IV was not the best and most ideal King, his son Henry V
inherited the kingdom and proved to be a great King. A few months after being crowned, Henry
once more regained the throne. He held it for only a few months and then Edward captured Henry
and seized power for himself again. After Henry V died he left his two sons, Richard and
Edward, to the care of their uncle Richard.However the two boys were murdered and Richard
(the uncle) pronounced himself King.However there was another who claimed the thrown.
Henry Tudor rose to the occasion and laid claim on the thrown of England.On August 22nd,
1485, Richard and Henry met at Bosworth. By the end of the day, Henry was crowned King of
England, and Richard was dead.Henry's only opposition was a few Lords and Nobel's, these
men were either in support of Henry or dead by1490.By Henry's marriage of the last of the
Yorkist line, Joan of Brittany in 1403,the War of the Roses could be defined as over.

The Family Feud That Lasted Thirty Years
Most wars in history have been very noble wars fought between men of two different sides, battling for the power over the people of a country.William Lace argues that, "There was nothing noble about the Wars of the Roses [though,] because brothers fought brothers, fathers fought sons, prisoners were executed without trials, and battles were won only by last minute deception"(10-11).Throughout the events of the Wars of the Roses, the Battle of Barnet is one battle that makes an impact on British politics and society.
The events of the Wars of the Roses are nothing more than feuds within the Plantagenets family.Because three very powerful noblemen, York, Salisbury, and Warwick are not invited to a council meeting where the other nobles are trying to discuss different ways to protect the king, they feel that they are being plotted against.With an army of about five thousand men, York and company leads an attack on London where Henry I and twenty-five hundred men meet them (Lace 28).Lace describes the start of the war saying,"The Wars of the Roses, brewing for years, finally breaks out when the armies of Richard, duke of York, and Edmund Beaufort, duke of Somerset, meet in the little town of Saint Albans on May 22, 1485"(28).When the Battle of Saint Albans starts, there is much bloody hand to hand combat but at the end, York, Salisbury, and Warwick pull out victorious.To Henry's surprise, when the battle is over York bows before him and swears his loyalty to the crown and is then named Protector of London (Lace 28).
On July 10, 1460, the next major battle takes place at North Hampton where York's army defeats Henry's army and Henry is captured once again.York then goes to London and proclaims he is the rightful king of England, but Parliament will not accept this.Parliament decides to make an agreement with York and lets Henry reclai…

WAR OF THE ROSES:HOW IT STARTED AND THE RESULTS
"O! Pity, pity; gentle Heaven, pity.
The red rose and the white rose on his face.
The fatal colours of our striving houses."
The War of the Roses basically began because Edward III had too many sons.The kings during this historical period were either tyrants, crazy, or not intelligent.Conflicts and betrayals sparked everywhere.And thus, the War of the Roses was the most complex and influential war in English history.
Edward III had won many of victories but his death was sadly ignominious for such a momentous reign-for King Edward had time and again humbled the French during his campaigns in the Hundred Years War, wreaking destruction their lands and thrashing their navies and armies at the celebrated battles of Sluys and Crecy. ("War of the Roses").He died in 1377 and his son Edward the Black Prince became king and even captured the French king.Unfortunately for him, he was past his prime and the French fought back and reclaimed most of what was lost in less than a decade.Then Edward III's eldest son, Richard II, took claim to the throne.Richard II was a tyrant, egomaniac, and had an evil temperament.He killed his uncle, Thomas of Woodstock, for exiling Richard's close friend and lover Michael De La Pole.In addition, word got out that Henry of Bolingbroke had intent to betray the king.Thomas of Mowbry, Earl
of Nottingham, warned Henry to be cautious of the king.However, when the king heard, he went looking for the man who gave warning.Henry and Thomas accused each other and the king decided the matter was to be decided with trial by combat.However, before the fight could begin, the king exiled both men.It was a bad idea to alienate someone as powerful as Henry in such a way.A little time later, the king decided to claim Henry's vast estate. When Henry heard of this he was infuriated.Henry broke exile, ga…

1. The main players of the War between the Roses
Henry VI became King of England at the young age of one, succeeding his father Henry V. He was incapable of following in his mighty predecessor’s footsteps.Fractions in the court dominated him all his life.
Margaret was the daughter of the powerful French noble Rene of Anjou,was married to Henry VI to strengthen ties with France.She was beautiful, fiery, blunt, and was a loyal friend as well as a dangerous enemy. Her blatant favoritism caused much resentment in England, and set sparks which would later flare up into the Wars of the Roses.
Somerset escalated the clash between the two families enormously. He was the bastard grandson of John of Gaunt and one of the King’s closest relations, who handled a great amount of power. He supported King Henry VI and the Queen during the King’s breakdown.
William de la Pole was a magnate of moderate power who came to exercise much control in the Lancastrian circle.
Richard Plantagenet was a man of many titles and lands who was filled with a passion to raise his family to what he saw as their proper due.He was also the father of Edward IV and Richard III. His relationship with King Henry was amiable atfirst and his claim to the throne was considered strong enough for him to become heir to Henry VI.
Salisbury staunchly stood by York at all times, even when York later endangered both of them with his arrogance.His devotion was paid back by death.
Richard, the Earl of Warwick, was the most powerful noble ever seen in England. Richard was York’s nephew and a firm defender of that party, continuing to fight alongside his cousin Edward after York’s death.He eventually was the person who placed Edward on the throne.
Edward IV, Earl of March, was handsome and skilled.He fought by his father’s side during the early years of the Wars of the Roses. When his father was killed at Wakefield, he became leader of the Yorkist cause. In…

Newspapers are a major influence on the way people perceive the world. It is
a source which connects readers to many different topics of interest. Newspapers have
also become a competitive business. With a desire to increase circulation and obtain more
advertising revenue, a different type of journalism was developed in the late 1900's. The press industry began to evolve into a media that had not been seen before. Critics were labeling this new style of publishing all types names such as jingoism, sensationalism, and as it is wildly known today, yellow journalism. Many battles between publishers to get thefirst scope of a story created a market that would become almost fictional and have serious consequences on the stability of society.Thefirst most notable incident was the Spanish-American War, known as the "Newspaper War". With the use of sensationalism and yellow journalism the newspaper industry exploited the American population and government to instigate a declaration of war on Spain.
In the mid-1890s, Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) and William Hearst (San
Francisco Examiner) transformed newspapers with sensational and scandalous news
coverage. This turned the high drama of life into a cheap melodrama and led to stories being
twisted into the forms best suited for sales by the hollering newsboy at the corner of every
New York intersection.The main event in the press was the growing controversy in Cuba. Cuba and Puerto Rico were the only remnants of Spain’s once vast empire in the New World (Brenan 211). The Spanish government was using unconventional and sometimes brutal methods to control the uprising in Cuba. Stories about the Cuban rebellion sold papers, and continued to appear. Every little bit of Cuban turmoil drew public attention. Newspapers started reporting atrocities and many mass executions of prisoners and sympathizers in detention camps. Although some of the reported e…

The War of 1812 also know as “The Second American War for Independance” (Bailey pg. 233) was fought between the meeger forces of the American government and the supreme power of Great Britain. The war ended in 1815 with the treaty of Gehnt, this treaty wasnt really a treaty but an armastice or surrender of arms. The American military suffered from defeat after defeat during the begining of the war, these loses could be contributed to by the lack of citizen support in the time of war, also the lack in size and power of the American military. These factor validate the statement that the War of 1812 was the “Worst fought American war.”
At the begining of the war America was fighting with Great Britain for regress of greivances such as forcefull impressment of sailors, and seizure of American cargos. Plus the extraction of British troups from the Ohio valley which was previously promised in two former treaties, Jays treaty and the Treaty of Paris. The regress of grievances was just a stepping stone for American ambition, after the start of the war Americans thought wouldnt it be great if we could add Canada and Spanish Florida to our ever expanding bounderies. But the backing of the war wasnt there politicaly the northern merchants were affraid of the deletion of trade options with Britain because of the war. The southern farmers were also against the war because Britain was there main purchaser of cotton and indigo. On the other hand you have to Backcountry farmers who need more room to expand there farms or find better soil for crops who wanted to the war to expand there expansion areas. Support also came from the deep southern farmers who wanted Florida for there own. The ideas between both of these groups created political disunity between the states, making them quarel among themselvesweakening the national government.
As we travel back a little in time we come to Jefferson’s

The War of 1812 also know as “The Second American War for Independance” (Bailey pg. 233) was fought between the meeger forces of the American government and the supreme power of Great Britain. The war ended in 1815 with the treaty of Gehnt, this treaty wasnt really a treaty but an armastice or surrender of arms. The American military suffered from defeat after defeat during the begining of the war, these loses could be contributed to by the lack of citizen support in the time of war, also the lack in size and power of the American military. These factor validate the statement that the War of 1812 was the “Worst fought American war.”
At the begining of the war America was fighting with Great Britain for regress of greivances such as forcefull impressment of sailors, and seizure of American cargos. Plus the extraction of British troups from the Ohio valley which was previously promised in two former treaties, Jays treaty and the Treaty of Paris. The regress of grievances was just a stepping stone for American ambition, after the start of the war Americans thought wouldnt it be great if we could add Canada and Spanish Florida to our ever expanding bounderies. But the backing of the war wasnt there politicaly the northern merchants were affraid of the deletion of trade options with Britain because of the war. The southern farmers were also against the war because Britain was there main purchaser of cotton and indigo. On the other hand you have to Backcountry farmers who need more room to expand there farms or find better soil for crops who wanted to the war to expand there expansion areas. Support also came from the deep southern farmers who wanted Florida for there own. The ideas between both of these groups created political disunity between the states, making them quarel among themselvesweakening the national government.
As we travel back a little in time we come to Jefferson’s

Before the year of 1812, there was a great gap between the Russia elite and the Russian lower class.But then the great French ruler, Napoleon, decided to invade Russia to gain more land and power for himself.But out of nowhere, the Russian people rose to the challenge, especially the peasant class, and defeated him.This war brought together the two classes and had a huge impact on how the noble class thought about their serfs and their country.
When Napoleon invaded Russia, there was a huge outcry to stop the coming "infidels" from taking their country.Nobody knew how this war was going to change the country forever.Many later historians have said this war was a watershed in Russian history.When reading, "Cavalry Maiden" by Nadezhda Durova, you can see that there are major changes that are occurring during this time.One of thefirst signs of this is in the very beginning of her story.She is staying with a family while in the field, which this family was a peasant family.As you read you can see that there is a special bond between to two.
Durova, who is a noble, is actually concerned on how she sees her.The peasant asks her, thinking she is a man, if she will remember her.If you read other accounts with the noble and peasant interaction, you can see that this type of interaction doesn't occur very often.You usually hear of how the owners treat their serfs in a manner that in some cases can be very inhumane.You hear of how they will beat their serfs, worked them to death, and barley give them enough food to survive on, or sometimes non-at all.But here you have a noble and peasant who are interacting together and are generally concerned with each other's welfare.This would be generally unheard of until this war.Another good example of this is that an actual woman is fighting, and leading this war.She is taking a very active role in the defense of her country.
The…

By any criteria the years following the war of 1812, otherwise known as the "Era of Good Feelings," must be considered a time of exceptional growth and development in the United States, but above all it should be considered a time of evolution and ripening of American nationalism, unification, and economic progress.The War of 1812 was a very problematic war.States did not fulfill their duties, while commanders and leaders were not informed or supplied enough to keep up the war.What was awakened during this time and afterwards is something much greater than victory.The war was not just about Britain holding land and impressing American sailors into their navy; it was a second war of independence.It was thefirst war as a united country, and it was a small new nation against a large European empire.
The war of 1812 began long before war was ever declared.It began right after the war of independence.The British were not too fond of the U.S. breaking away from their empire, and they soon figured out that many revolts were because the U.S. had fought and won.The British began to tax U.S. merchants, hassled their ships, and continued the disrespect of American sovereignty; however, the British soon crossed the line when they began to impress U.S. sailors into their navy.
On June 22, 1807, the British attacked the U.S.S. Chesapeake and took sailors who they claimed were British citizens1.In fact, the British seized not only their own deserters, but also impressed a sizeable number of United State citizens; estimates suggest six thousand or more.2After this incident, Jefferson ordered British warships to leave American waters and demanded an end to the practice of impressments.The British did make some apologies and restitution for this incident, however, they continued to claim the right to seize American ships and inspect them for deserters.3
After three years of battle, the War of 1812 came to an…

The war of 1812, supposedly fought over neutral trading rights, was a very peculiar conflict indeed. Britain’s trade restrictions, one of the main causes, were removed two days before the war started; the New Englanders, for whom the war was supposedly fought, opposed it; the most decisive battle, at New Orleans, was fought after the war ended.
During the Napoleonic wars, Britain and France had disrupted US shipping, confiscated American goods, taking US seamen into the British navy, and both sides had blockaded each other’s ports. This caused great annoyance to American traders, and Britain’s abduction of American sailors especially caused great uproar and indignation at home. Many called for war, although it is interesting to note that it was southerners and westerners, the so-called war hawks led by Clay and Calhoun, who supported war who were least affected by Britain’s actions. Some historians attribute this to their desire to take British Canada and Spanish Florida in the process of war. The Republican administration, traditionally supportive of France, finally declared war on Britain in 1812, ironically two days after Britain had lifted their trade embargo.
Two and a half years of fighting commenced, and when the peace treaty was eventually signed in Ghent, there was no mention whatsoever of neutral rights. The treaty gave neither side anything they did not have before the war, nor resolved any long-standing disputes over trade or neutral rights. However, it is accepted by many historians that America actually gained far more than the British from the war. The course of the war had led America to build up her industry as she could not trade at the time. She had strengthened her army, healed old Republican/Federalist splits, and showed Europe that fighting with America was not worthwhile. Finally, she was able to turn her back on Europe and get on with developing and progressing.

In this essay I will be discussing the major events and battles that took place during
the War of 1812.The war was a conflict fought between the United States and Great
Britain.It started in 1812 and lasted until the spring of 1815.My thesis statement is: The
War of 1812 was a war that neither side won.
There were four main causes for the war taking place.These were impressment,
boundary problems, the Warhawks, and the British supplying the Ohio Country Indians with
weapons and supplies.Henry Clay, who was the leader of the Warhawks, convinced
Americans that defeating British North America, "is only a matter of marching."He knew
that Britain wouldn't have any troops to spare because of their involvement in the
Soon after the outbreak of the war, the British forces on St. Joseph's Island moved
toward the American held Mackinac Island and the next morning were in position on the hill
above the fort with cannons and muskets aimed down into it.The American commander,
Lieutenant Porter Hanks, immediately surrendered.Lieutenant Hanks wasn't even warned
by his own government that they declared war.
Americans began to worry about the exposed fort of Detroit.The U.S. quickly
dispatched Brigadier General William Hull with reinforcements to the fort.In July, General
Hull decided to cross the Detroit River into Upper Canada.His militia was poorly equipped,
so when Hull learned of an approaching force made up of British troops, Canadian militia,
and native Americans, he quickly retreated back to Detroit.General Isaac Brock led the
British units.Brock took his army on the offensive and followed Hull back to Detroit.
Brock's intentions were to secure the western frontier for the British.In the battle of Detroit
he was able to take control over Detroit without firing a single shot.Now the entire northern

The era that was seventeenth century colonial America was very different from
today's times. The society that existed at that time had very different views on life and
how it should occur.The daily routines were very unlike ours even tough it may be hard
to believe.Even families, which seem to be a non-changing faction in history, were also
distinct in size and order. (Thomas XIII)
John Demos commented that "the colonial family was'extended' rather than
nuclear.False."John Demos, who in a study of Bristol , Rhode Island, came up with
conclusions about family life in early America that contradicted ideas previously accepted
An extended family includes the core group of males which are a grandfather,
adult sons and sons' sons, their wives, and their unmarried daughters. (Brooks 27)
Demos's idea is basically this one.The house in the colonial times shaped the home.
What he means by this is that you could not have an extended family that included
servants, apprentices, and other non-kinfolk in a house that measured twenty feet by
twenty feet and rose only a story and a half.Even if you added another room, you would
only have enough livable space for a nuclear family which consisted of parents and
children.This was due to the high number of children in a family.The average number
was about seven to ten.Some far exceeded that, others barely managed having two or
three. (Hawke, 58-59).
In the early colonial families, every member had a different "job."The
head of the family was mostly the father.He presided over family prayers
and worked on the family farm.Mothers usually raised the children, acted as
midwives to other women in town, and tended to household chores. (Walker 86).
Up until about the age eight, boys and girls wore the same thing.They
only wore wool or linen…

The encyclopaedia documents certain historical events.The purpose of this documentation is to have a more dispassionate and less jingoistic view of historical events.The hope is that these unbiased views will show people what really happened in the past.This is not what is always achieved.Some times the views can be distorted and the historical accuracy is lost.That is why it is important to evaluate the accuracy of these documents.By doing this, we ensure that there is a clear understanding amongst people of what happened in the past.In our assignment, I believe version one shows greatest accuracy and least bias in its account for the war of 1812.
Initially, version one is written differently than version two.In version one, the article is broken into four different sections.These are: background, campaigns of 1812-13, campaigns of 1814, peace treaty and the battle of New Orleans.In version two, there is no reference to pre-war, war, and post-war documentation.By not having specific chapters to the war, you do not grasp the progression the war took.For these reasons, I believe version one of the war of 1812 was more organized.I was able to get a better understanding of the sequential events that occurred in the war of 1812 by this organization.I was lost in the text with version two.
It is important to establish the feeling of the times before the war occurred.The general census at the time was simple:
1) The Americans believed they were not receiving the respect that they deserved from the British after the Revolutions war.
2) The Americans believed the British were unwilling to sign commercial agreements favourable to the United States
3) The Americans felt the British were backing Amerindians to settle on American territory.
4)Along with that, Americans were caught in between the French and English in a European war.The Napoleonic war caused two blockades.The British tried to chan…