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Your honor, on some occasion in your life, it you haven’t already, you will likely face a time when you make a very important choice. You will face a time when you must make a choice in which you must act in a manner that is outside of your normal character. I hope that you are never faced in a ‘Catch 22’ as my clients were while they occupied Berlin in World War II. Today, at a time that the Defendant’s are not participating in fighting a war, I beg the Court to understand they are different. The Defendant’s are changed men now, and most have families, honorable jobs, and do not so much as speak of memories of that time.

I stand before you in the defense of these upstanding men, and ask that you and I place their behavior into context. During World War II, and immediately afterward, these men had responsibilities. They were soldiers then, and will die having been soldiers, fighting a war. Remember, they were not fighting a war that they necessarily believed in and certainly did not wage. I concede that my clients did participate in some mean and nasty things. I concede these facts only in conjunction with the fact that they may have committed some of these things not during a time of peace, nor did they do them by their own volition.

The soldiers were away from their families and in fact, they did not know if they would ever return to their homes. Survival was questionable to everyone at that time. The balance each Defendant was forced to weigh, whether they did it consciously or not, was whether to commit acts that they might have known to be wrong acts if done during peacetime. The campaign of fear was instilled from soldier to soldier, not only to the enemies. Realize that propaganda was a tool utilized at that time, and these men were subjected to a barrage of daily propaganda.

In essence, the activities they participated in were really done in true self-defense. Afterall “the question of individual responsibility is never easy. ” (McAuley, 1981). Realize that many of these men never believed that they would survive to see the end of war, and acted as if they were dogs running in a pack. The Defendants in this case carried out the activities that they knew to be right at the time. They were participating in behavior that was acceptable during the time and circumstance of war. Perhaps they may have traded sexual favors with certain women and gave them gifts in return.

It is not an activity that is unfamiliar to some men in our society today. The stresses that they suffered were of the caliber that none of us would understand unless we walked in their shoes during World War II. I am sure that “…despite their convictions that in general they had done what was right and necessary… ” (McAuley, 1981). If you ask the Defendant’s why they participated in enforcing concentration camps, for example, they will tell you that it is “because they were forced to believe that activity was necessary to maintain order. ” “It was a question of removing danger. ” (Goering, 1946).

In fact, many of the Defendant’s today have told you that they had no knowledge of activities that they are accused of participating in. These men should not be punished, as they were acting as any of us would have acted in an identical situation. Your honor, I argue that these Russian men, who served their country at the time of war, have already paid for all of their mistakes. Some of them have suffered from physical maladies, and others have suffered from post-traumatic stress syndrome. Your honor, my clients cannot change what has happened in the past, but they are truly sorry for what they have done.

Crop circles are one of the controversial events related to the existence theory of U. F. O or Unidentified Flying Objects. This phenomenon is associated with the paranormal manifestations of flattening of crops such as barley, soy, wheat, rye, linseed, canola, and corn. Several theories have been proposed in order to justify the causation of this said phenomenon. Some groups believe that the causation is basically due to environmental etiologies conforming its opinion to disbelief in the presence of U. F. O. On the other hand, paranormal perspectives view this case as the substance of U. F. O manifestation.

However, evidences are still being questioned by the opposing group hence the theory is still being held questionable. The cock-and-bull factor of some these evidences have caused the complications in the analysis of this case. The evidences of this kind and those proven to be true are necessary in order to form basis in the said claims. The case of crop circles has started its globally known case way back in the past. The mysterious shapes, exact symmetrical features, unclassified symbolisms and unique physical arrangements of these crops have dealt wonder to the whole world.

However, up until today, disputes and arguments are rising due to various conflicting ideation from different group perspectives. Evidences are presented, considering some as to be considered genuine while others are proven to be hoax, still the case has not yet been resolved. The research only aims to answer the following questions that are imposed in this issue. 1. What are crop circles and its relationship to paranormal beings called aliens? 2. Determine the theories that affect the evidence-study of the case? How does it affect the facts discovered? 3.

Considering the evidences discovered, are these enough to prove alien existence around us? The issue about this crop circles remains as an equivocacy in the field of paranormal world. These patterned circles are formed symmetrically in the field of crops, usually wheat, barley and oil-seed rape, but sightings have also led to the fields of rye, oats, sunflowers, clover, grass and other ground covers (Perry, 2002, pp. A2). People living in the areas afflicted by the phenomena states that their belief is entirely supernatural in origin and more of paranormal aspects than of human-innovations.

The usual appearance of these crop circles takes only one night and the next day; these are already printed in their lands. The public claims that no human hands, not even the local farmers, are skilled enough to produce such exquisite patterns (Anderhub & Roth, 2002, pp. 99). Changes in these crops are paranormal to the extent that unusual and eerie sounds are being heard prior to its establishment. Right after the astounding occurrence of this event, these circles usually appears. It is a great mystery for locals since it only takes about a minute or less to make this circles appear (Spignesi & Andrews, pp. 13).

The bizarre arrangements of these crops circles usually features cereal circle, the crop stem is bent over 90-degrees and not even broken. The flattened crops are usually printed in spiral pattern; crosshatch design or woven-basket style. It usually forms a clockwise, counter-clockwise or a combination of both manners with sections opposing directions used to innovate color differentiation particularly for subtle hues. Geographical patterns relay complexities of designs, sequence and complexities (Perry, 2002, pp. A2). Theories Involved

According to witnesses, the sighting of these circles that occurs to them takes only four to seven seconds until the formation appears. The story states that “tubes of light” has descended in the field of bean crops. Suddenly, the appearance of these circles occurs. The shocking experience has led the analysis of the biological status of the area. One of the theories of this occurrence indicates that the vertical circles create forces that hit the ground. Force that comprises of thousand volts per meter induces the formation gradually in a nanosecond timeframe (Pringle, 2007, pp. 7).

Another theory is being proposed in the community of paranormal studies. In one of the occurrences, a bird box that left in the area of the circle prior to its formation has attained circular burns that are primarily concentrated in the edges of this metal bird box. The experts have studied this case and formulated the theory of electromagnetism causation, which might support the voltage claims (Haselhoff, 2002, pp. 22-23). These discovered causation have provided another support in the claims witnessed “ball of light” occurring prior to the circle’s appearance.

The narrator begins to discern within the patterns of the wallpaper not only the image of her captivity (jail bars) but an image of her liberation: “At night in any kind of light, in twilight, candlelight, lamplight, and worst of all by moonlight, it becomes bars! The outside pattern I mean, and the woman behind it is as plain as can be. ” (Gilman) The reader will realize that the “woman behind it” is, in fact, the narrator herself, a projection of herself as a complete and liberated person.

The image of the woman in the wallpaper is as dynamic as it is arresting: “I didn’t realize for a long time what the thing was that showed behind, that dim sub-pattern, but now I am quite sure it is a woman. By daylight she is subdued, quiet. I fancy it is the pattern that keeps her so still. It is so puzzling. It keeps me quiet by the hour. ” (Gilman) It is worth mentioning that Gilman continues to wield her ironic mode of narration throughout the story — in order to more passionately demonstrate not only the oppression of the narrator, but her liberation as well.

One notable irony is that is only by method of reason left to the “insane” in a state of “nervous anxiety” that allows for the discovery of the individuated self — the liberated self. It is also through isolation, imposed on her from the outside that the narrator is able to penetrate the meaningless patterns of the yellow wallpaper to glimpse the nature of her captivity and liberation — in symbolic, though psychically effective terms.

The narrator’s understanding of the “meaning” of the yellow wallpaper allows her to understand its socially adhesive function: “I have watched John when he did not know I was looking, and come into the room suddenly on the most innocent excuses, and I’ve caught him several times looking at the paper! And Jennie too. I caught Jennie with her hand on it once. ” (Gilman) The wallpaper involves everyone in society, at all levels.

It is at once a symbol for social oppression and mechanisms of normalcy (thin, decayed, without meaning or design) and also a symbol for self-liberation, as the narrator is quickly able to intuit exactly what course of action to take given the wall paper’s intuitively aesthetic repercussions and meanings. The dynamicism of the wallpaper-as-symbol is broad enough to accommodate oppression and liberation, just as society itself is able to contain both possibilities.

Because the reader has been initiated into the “otherness” of the narrator’s mode of non-linear, symbolically associative reasoning, the next progression of the image is easy to understand, and explicitely indicates that, despite the intricate social machinery of the patriarchal society which entraps the narrator, her latent individuated self will prove more than a match for its ultimately “paper thin” basis of power: “I really have discovered something at last.

Through watching so much at night, when it changes so, I have finally found out. The front pattern does move—and no wonder! The woman behind shakes it! ” (Gilman) Having followed through on her isolation and alienation from “ordinary” life with a strong will toward self-liberation, the narrator is able to correctly deduce the “logical” next-step in her symbolically active relationship with the yellow wallpaper. She begins to tear it up, to release the woman within.

Readers apt to cheer at her actions, will also realize that to “normal” minds (remembering Gilman’s steady ironic inversion throughout the story) the narrator’s actions will seem insane. However, the consistency of the story’s symbolism and the intensity of reader-identification with the story’s protagonist allow Gilman to bring her readers to a climax which is both surprising and — in retrospect — logically inevitable.

When the narrator finally rips down the wallpaper, her husband does in fact consider her actions insane. But his reaction — fainting_ indicates with a final biting irony an additional resonance for the symbolism of the wallpaper. In addition to representing oppression, social disorganization and injustice and the foul-odored practices of gender oppression and discrimination — the wallpaper also stands for fear — the fear the oppressor feels when confronted by his victim’s liberation.

In a final thematic thrust, Gilman seems to assert that is fear of women, of their intuitive power and intellectual creativity — the same capacities that allowed the narrator to embrace her alienation and discover her own liberation – that drives the instruments of social oppression. The narrator exclaims: “I’ve got out at last,” said I, “in spite of you and Jane. And I’ve pulled off most of the paper, so you can’t put me back! ” Her husband’s response is to faint at which the narrator remarks: “Now why should that man have fainted?

But he did, and right across my path by the wall, so that I had to creep over him every time! ” (Gilman) The narrator’s progression from victim to “conquerer” is clear in this image: her husband sprawled unconscious at her feet. Gilman’s deftly executed symbolism, along with her verisimilar characterization and story-development allow for “The Yellow Wallpaper” to elucidate important themes of gender discrimination and social prejudice by way of a narrative which involves readers deeply enough to make these issues personal.

Combining complex symbolism with forthright dramatic irony and stream of consciousness narration, Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s short story “The Yellow Wallpaper” invokes the theme of patriarchal repression and gender persecution with profound realism and reader-identification. These latter qualities are all the more technically accomplished given that the story involves the apparent mental deterioration (or derangement) of the narrator, resulting in a a narrative which is both more fragmented and thematically dense than many readers may anticipate.

The theme of male-oppression of women is introduced from the story’s opening lines, which comprise the narrator’s self-reflective “monologue. ” An odd line of reasoning, or peculiar form of rationality guides the opening lines of “The Yellow Wallpaper” initiating the reader into a sense of alienation and disempowerment. The narrator remarks that is highly unusual for an “ordinary” couple such as herself and her husband to “secure ancestral Halls for the summer.

” The intimation is that something quite disturbing and unusual has brought about a dramatic change to the “ordinary” world. Though the narrator imagines the house may be haunted: “I would say a haunted house, and reach the height of romantic felicity,” the reality of the situation soon becomes clear, that the narrator’s predicament is every bit as terrifying as being caught in a haunted house.

The comment clearly indicates the narrator’s ability (contrary to the opinions of other characters in the story) to distinguish fantasy from reality, indicates that her sense of irony and humor is quite intact, and that she (the narrator) can clearly distinguish not only the specific of her whereabouts and surroundings, but invest them with whimsy and historical color, as well. (Gilman).

The function of the opening scenes of the story is to prepare the reader for a deep identification with the narrator and initiate the reader into a “world turned upside down;” that is, a world where the typical day to day accouterments of self-empowerment and self-gratification have been denied, based solely on the inherent chauvinism that allows men in society to view women as an inferior “other. ” In contrast to the narrator’s colorful and imaginative description of the mansion, her husband John is described as coldly analytical and pragmatic.

“John is practical in the extreme. He has no patience with faith, an intense horror of superstition, and he scoffs openly at any talk of things not to be felt and seen and put down in figures. ” (Gilman) Though it would be “romanticism” to believe the mansion haunted, the astute reader is perfectly correct in assuming the mansion a desolate and unhappy place, given the narrator’s almost mawkish longing for a haunted mansion as opposed to the cold, oppressive place of ‘rest” that is the mansion.

The narrator’s solace is in writing, which is forbidden her by her “doctors” who are, respectively, her husband and brother. “I did write for a while in spite of them; but it does exhaust me a good deal—having to be so sly about it, or else meet with heavy opposition. ” The narrator after divulging her true feelings about the mansion, confides to her readers, “John is a physician, and perhaps—(I would not say it to a living soul, of course, but this is dead paper and a great relief to my mind)—perhaps that is one reason I do not get well faster.

” (Gilman) So, after only a mere handful of lines in the opening of “The Yellow Wallpaper” have been read, the reader is initiated into a world of alienation, where a brother and husband have kept a woman against her wishes in a cold and desolate mansion for “rest” and the narrator, though suspicious of their acumen and intentions, is powerless to change her situation.

This type of powerlessness forms the root of the thematic impetus for Gilman’s story, with the events of the story enumerating with increasing intensity and hopelessness the de-humization of the narrator by the men who surround her, all performed under the most accomplished and correct social circumstances. “If a physician of high standing, and one’s own husband, assures friends and relatives that there is really nothing the matter with one but temporary nervous depression—a slight hysterical tendency—what is one to do? ” (Gilman) The last words in the above quote “what is one to do?

Can be rightly imagined as a cry of desperation; the attentive reader will feel a strong sense of pain and foreboding at the narrator’s cry from the heart. The impact of these words will likely separate readers immediately into two categories; those who will identify so closely with the narrator’s subsequent experiences that they virtually share them, or the reader will be left feeling alienated from the narrator, the story, and will likely be unable to grasp the important thematic assertions made via the symbolism and action of the story.

In some ways, this potential (or even likely) separation of readers into diametrically opposed groups mirrors the gender based social fragmentation with which Gilman is concerned in this story. Such a dynamic extension of the story’s important themes elevates “The Yellow Wallpaper” into superlative articulation and long-lasting profundity. After this point in the story, when the narrator remarks “what is one to do! ” an intense reader-identification is established which will allow the following remarks by the narrator to attain their intended ironic expression.

To display intelligence, some tent to be sarcastically logical in evaluating the conversation. Primarily this would insult the other speaker making the conversation less productive. Moreover, these comments are less emotionally concerned. People tend to talk and talk continuously without actually giving concern to what the others are saying. Reassuring At some point, when someone becomes the confidant of a certain person, he feels the need of being able to be of help with the person and the situation that he is dealing with.

He then tends to help the other by reassuring him when actually he fears of the pressure placed upon his responsibility because of the conversation. These twelve roadblocks to effective conversation certainly make it harder for people to resolve the problems that they are dealing with. Learning all these particular truths about conversation basics, points out to the importance of the one particular element of effective element of communication that is listening. The Major Points

According to the author of the book, the blockage of the conversations that exist between mothers and daughters could be well dealt-with if the right process of listening and considering each other’s concerns based from the generation gap that they both have from each other would be effectively applied. The virtue of putting one’s self in others shoe has always been effective in the process of connecting the distance of opinions that exists between the older and younger generation of women.

This is the reason why it is indeed necessary for both parties to allow some extension on the part whereas they are to settle on a particular topic that they are to talk about. From the discussions and practical examples that Deborah Tannen presented in her book, it could be noted that the said reading points out on the fact that generation gap plays a great role in the differences that exist between mothers and daughters.

However, it could also be recognized that the author brought the said differences into a solution that would actually bring both parties of the conversation into a meeting point that would recreate the bond that needs to be enhanced as well as recreated between them. Overall Reaction Growing teenage girls certainly need the assistance of their mothers for them to be able to attain the development that they need to be able to face the different challenges that awaits them in the future.

Although keeping a fine communication line between mothers and daughters, mothers are particularly held responsible of keeping the said lines of conversation constantly open. It is highly recognized, especially by Deborah Tannen and other psychologists that there are several hindrances to obtaining an effective flow of communication among the older and the younger generation of women.

However, they are also amiable that both parties could overcome the usual twelve roadblocks of communication between mothers and daughters as presented herein. With the ample attention that they both put on the process of eliminating the hindrances, mothers and daughters could still be expected to create possible ways of meeting each other’s opinion and views in life based from the adjustments that they are both willing to make to be able to create possible amendments with the differences that they have from each other.

By doing so, they are making themselves capable of understanding each other’s side of the coin and thus create a more intimate and healthy relationship.

Reference: Deborah Tannen. (2006). You’re Wearing That? : Understanding Mothers and Daughters in Conversation. Ballantine Books; Reprint edition.

The book of Tannen certainly discusses the main points of growth among young women that must be understood by mothers. Although the author further advises mothers to look into their own past experiences as young adults, many mothers still forget the fact that when they were younger, they used to think the same as their daughters do right now only at a different level. Tannen acknowledges the fact that there are several factors that contribute to the differing ideas of both mothers and daughters with regards certain points of consideration.

It could be noted that through the examination of the society that the people are actually living in right now, there really are certain elements that makes it possible for mothers and daughters have differing views in life, in growth and maturity and other issues that concerns their position and perception of human life. Considering the fact that young women before lived in a different type of society makes it possible for them to not to easily understand why the young generation of women today perceive romance, material gains and success in life as they do.

The basic moral status of the society before has also changed the trends by which people particularly choose the way that they decide upon certain issues in their lives. This is particularly the reason why mothers and daughters often engage in disagreements even over petty things. The author however, noted these differences as major hindrances of communication. She partly discussed the major pitfalls that mothers and daughters incur whenever they engage in a conversation. The said pitfalls include 12 major elemental considerations of discussion.

The roadblocks mentioned earlier could be identified to fall into three major divisions. These include judging, sending solutions, and avoiding other’s concerns. These three divisions are then subdivided into few more 12 subsections. At some point, these destructive procedures of communication at times happen when two persons are in a discussion that is involving problems or personal troubles. Because of the tension that is usually built up due to the problem being talked about, the sense of right reasoning is usually lost because of the lack of understanding that exists due to the tension.

To be able to understand everything, the twelve roadblocks should be discussed herein in a clearer pattern: • Judging o Criticizing This is the way by which a person intends to manipulate the thinking of the other person through questioning the attitudes of the other. Not only that, the situation usually aggravates the questioning of the attitude of the other towards the other person. Robert Bolton comments on the matter saying: “Many of us feel we need to be critical, or other people will never improve we make a negative evaluation of the other person, for his or her actions, or attitudes.

” (1999) The attitude of man to even aggravate the situation being faced by the other because of some emotional attachment to the issue makes this particular roadblock an effective way of stopping or heating up a particular conversation. o Name-calling At some point, when people get pissed off because of a heated conversation, they tend to course the other or at times they name-call the others with insulting titles that makes it hard for the other party of communication to understand clearly what is happening.

The result then leads to a more aggravated heated conversation. Bolton further adds, “Name calling and labeling usually have negative overtones to both the sender and receiver. Labeling prevents us from getting to know ourselves and other individuals. ” (1999) o Diagnosing At some point, when people argue over something, they become too much sensitive with how the other reacts upon a certain situation or how a person intends to talk back to them.

The sensitiveness results to diagnosis of the reaction of the other and the way of speech that he or she uses within the conversation. Instead of simply listening to what the person says, reading between the lines becomes another way of decoding the bodily message of the person who is speaking. Another comment from Bolton reads: “We analyze why a person is behaving as he or she is. Playing amateur psychiatrist. Diagnosing is a form of labeling. Instead of listening to the substance of what a person is saying, some people play emotional detective.

Praising Evaluatively Praising others with the good things that they do is not wrong. However, praising them with hidden motives of insulting them is a major roadblock in communication. Particularly, people tend to do this through disposing the message in double meaning. Whereas the evaluative praising is done to actually connote a wrong attitude of the person being talked to. This procedure of speaking is made through over-praising that is usually based on fraudulent backgrounds.

Richard Carlson’s book entitled “You Can Be Happy No Matter What”, he discusses the principles of moods. It states there that everybody experiences mood changes. Our moods constantly go up and down in the every minute and the every day of our lives. It is impossible to preserve a single emotional status for too long. Our mood inevitably changes, no matter how hard we will it not to do so. There are two kinds of moods: the high mood and the low mood. If we are in the highest of our moods, we look at life as something so wonderful.

Everything around us is bright and all problems are just too easy to solve. But in our lowest moods, our perspective of life becomes the exact opposite of that. Life suddenly feels hard and unbearably serious. We feel that everybody around us is always on our case and that their main goal, perhaps their only goal, in life is to make things worse for us. Have you ever felt light and easy one second then jittery and irritable the second? That’s mood changing on you. One minute you are in a high mood then just as abruptly, you plummet down in a very low mood.

The span of time a person changes from a high mood to a low mood may vary. The only thing definite is that everybody will go through this mood change. Our moods are susceptible to transformations and that is a fact we sadly cannot do anything about. Moods are part of our human nature. It is not something we can avoid. But the good news is that we can certainly do something about it. As I read the chapter, I have learned and realized a lot about myself and how I see things. The book clearly states that all our negative thoughts and all our negative emotions are the effect those low moods.

Our life’s problems and unhappiness are all rooted to the low mood that we inescapably feel from time to time. As I begin know that the root of all the negative things around me is low mood, I came face to face with the enemy. I realized that I inculcate hate and repugnance against my families, friends, and even acquaintances, because I prioritized the instances of low moods in my lives. I once felt that the whole world is turning its back around me because I let myself be engrossed in my low moods. I experienced being all alone because I agreed to that nagging voice inside me that tells me that I, indeed am.

But now I came to know that that is only my mind changing perspectives, because I am going through the shifts of moods. What I really should have done is to let this episode of low mood pass. As what is stated earlier, our mood constantly changes. It is just a matter of time when we come out of our low moods and be in the high mood again. If we can change our outlook in life, that instead of blaming others for what we feel and think, why not regard everything as a simple low mood episode? We should all understand that all we are thinking during a low mood is not reliable.

Our low moods influence us to think negatively and unconstructively. Instead of lashing out to somebody, to our self, or to the world in general, we should all take a moment to breathe and tell convince our self that this is just an instance of low mood we are having; that we not thinking straight at all. That life is not as worse as it seems to be. Let the low mood instance to pass. When you are in the high mood again, you will realize that life is definitely not that bad. The main thing that I learned from the book is that we should all realize when our mood strikes low.

And we should be ready to face it. We should be prepared to battle with all the negative feelings and thoughts that could come about. We should be wary that the way we see things during a low mood is clouded and it is not sensible to make any decisions during that moment. And that the intense desire to do something bad during a low mood is more than inviting. But most importantly, we should realize that all these feelings and thoughts will soon go; that we will all be back on the right soon enough.

There is strong scientific evidence of climate change and mounting evidence of a connection with human economic activity associated with the burning of fossil fuels. The change in climate is likely to have a large and predominantly negative impact on many aspects of life on Earth (IPCC, 2001). Some of the sunlight that arrives to earth is reflected back into the space, but the rest reaches the surface, warming the land, atmosphere and oceans. The earth re-emits this energy in the form of infrared radiation. However, greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, etc.

trap this radiation and prevent its escape, thus causing increases in temperature. It is a fact that carbon dioxide (C02) is responsible for over 70% of the greenhouse effect. The result of the greenhouse effect is a warming of the earth surface. Without these greenhouse gases its surface would be up to 30°C cooler. Thus, we need these gases to an extent sufficient to survive (Dalton, 2006) Humans contribute to greenhouse gas concentrations and, thus, an even greater radiation trap through manufacturing, power generation, transportation, and livestock farming.

The burning of coal, oil and natural gas is the key human factor in increasing greenhouse gas emissions because these fossil fuels are being used at a much faster rate than they were created. What is worrisome is the fact that climate change resulting from the buildup of greenhouse gases appears to be happening at unprecedented speed.

According to Stern (2006), that over the past 30 years, global temperatures have risen rapidly and continuously at around 0.2°C per decade, bringing the global mean temperature to what is probably at or near the warmest level reached in the current interglacial period, which began around 12,000 years ago. The decade of the 1990s was the warmest since the mid-1800s, when record-keeping started. Further, the hottest years ever recorded are: 1998, 2002, 2003, 2001, and 1997. Estimates suggest that by the year 2100, the average global temperature will rise by 1. 4 to 5. 8 degrees Celsius (IPCC, 2001). The effects of climate change are becoming increasingly evident in my country, the Philippines.

Cyclones and hurricanes appear to be more frequent and more powerful. As world temperatures rise, floods and droughts are becoming more severe. Scientists suggest that this is evidence that climate change has already begun. In fact, last year we have suffered three super typhoons, which is not an ordinary course of nature. In addition, other countries also experienced the unusual climate. The spring ice thaw in the Northern Hemisphere occurs 9 days earlier than it did 150 years ago, and the fall freeze now typically starts 10 days later.

According to a United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), “arctic air temperatures have increased by about 5 degrees C during the 20th century, and in the Russian Arctic, buildings are collapsing because the permafrost under their foundations has melted” (UNFCCC) The sea level may rise from 9 to 88 cm due to melting water resulting from reductions in the size of the polar caps (Pancoast, p. 15) The annual duration of lake and river ice coverage has shortened by about two weeks during the 20th century.

In Europe beetles and other insects are living at higher altitudes where previously it was too cold to survive and examples are multiple. Large proportion of the endangered species may become extinct. Public concern for environmental issues such as air and water quality is not new. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, smoke control ordinances were enacted in England and the U. S. In the 1850s, Dr. John Snow’s work to trace the origin of London’s Cholera epidemic to a public water pump significantly contributed to an understanding of water quality impacts on human health.

Not surprisingly, public opinion polls often show that people rank water and air quality at or near the top of environmental concerns. And this is true to the case of the Philippines, our major sources of water, Laguna de Bay and La Mesa Dam Watershed, are threatened by the perpetually worsening climate change. However, other perceived environmental problems, specifically climate change or global warming, are relatively new. What I find astonishing, is how quickly the issues of climate change, global warming, and the greenhouse effect have taken hold at the forefront of environmental debates.

A recent public opinion survey of more than 30,000 people in 30 countries revealed that 90% of people think global warming is a somewhat or very serious threat (Program on International Policy Attitudes 2006). In only three countries, the U. S. , Kenya and South Africa, did fewer than 80% of respondents think the issue was a somewhat or very serious threat. Despite continued scientific debate concerning the level of risk posed to humans and the natural and man-made environment by climate change (natural or anthropogenic), it seems many people around the world are sufficiently convinced that the threat is real enough for them.

International adoption is a program wherein a couple will receive a child from abroad of varied ages, abilities, circumstances and cultural backgrounds. Creating a secure and lifelong attachment between the parent and the adopted child is very necessary to generate a harmonious relationship in the family. Different factors may affect attachment such as age, gender, cultural backgrounds, early childhood experiences, and other psychological issues. Understanding more about attachment can help adopting parents to build a happy-living family.

I. Theory of Attachment John Bowlby, a British psychoanalyst and also known as the father of attachment theory, believed that attachment starts at infancy and persists throughout one’s existence on earth. He also stated that there are some natural behavioral control systems that are essential for survival and reproduction. The center of his attachment theory is about attachment and exploration systems. The infant’s caregiver will serve as the infant’s base of exploration establishing a strong connection with him.

It is natural for an infant to be fond of exploring new things, and its primary care-giver serves as its secure protection base in times of trouble (Lee, 2003). The attachment theory was developed because of Bowlby’s attempts of understanding the extreme distress that infants undergo when they are alienated from their parents. He had observed that the infants misbehave in a way that they are extremely crying, griping, acting anxiously, etc, to stop their parents from leaving or to be reunited to them.

The fundamental question of the attachment system is: Is the attachment figure close, available, and attentive? If the child perceives “yes”, he/she feels loved, secured, and confident to explore the environment and play with others. But if the child perceives “no”, he or she experiences anxiety and go to extreme lengths. Prolonged separation or loss causes depression and despair to the child (Chris Fraley, 2004). Moreover, Bowlby recognized the individual discrepancies in the way children assess the accessibility of the attachment figure and how they adjust their attachment behavior in reaction to a threat.

Mary Ainsworth, Bowlby’s colleague, systematically studied the infant-parent separations using the Strange Situation laboratory paradigm. Ainsworth and her students studied 12-month-old babies and their mothers and, methodically, separated and reunited. When the parents leave the room, the infants become upset but when the parents return, they enthusiastically seek the parent and are effortlessly comforted by them. This kind of infant-child relationship is called “secure”.

Some infants who are initially uncomfortable also showed extreme distress when they are separated from their parents, and when reunited they are not easily soothed and shows conflicting behaviors suggesting they want to be comforted but they also want to “punish” the parent for leaving. These children fall under the “resistant type”. Lastly, the children that falls under the “avoidant type” tend to stay away from their parents or ignore them. They are not bothered by the separation and actively avoid seeking contact upon reunion.

Moreover, the study showed that the children who are under the secure type have loving, and affectionate parents while those who appear insecure (resistant and avoidant type) have insensitive, inconsistent parents (Chris Fraley, 2004). II. Critics of Bowlby’s works There are many critics that questioned Bowlby’s works such as overemphasis on the role of the mother, limitations on attachment figures, and inconsideration in substitute care. Bowlby only focus about the mother as the major attachment figure of babies where in fact, there are other people whom babies can form attachment figures with.

He also did not put emphasis on other care that can be developed from the child’s siblings, father, and even peers but to only one attachment figure. Moreover, he did not consider the effects of good or poor quality of care in how children will undergo adjustment from separation. These criticisms gave way to other research about attachment such as the works of Kagan, Seifer, and many others. III. Modern Theoretical Perspectives on Attachment Despite the criticisms of early theories of attachments, Bowlby and Ainsworth’s works became the foundation of modern perspectives regarding the issue.

In general, in conclusion of the results of many studies and researches, attachment refers to the relationship between a caregiver or parent and an infant. The adult response of providing needs and affection form the basis of the reciprocal interactive relationship and defines the quality of the attachment between the baby and the attachment figure. Ages about six to eighteen months are the most important time for a primary attachment to develop (DoCS, 2006).

Today, there are three categories of attachment based on the child’s behavior in times of emotional distress: secure, insecure and disorganized (DoCS, 2006). Secure attachment develops when a caregiver provides consistent, responsive care which also helps the child to develop a sense of belonging and trust, enabling them to feel safe to discover and find out more about their environment. It also helps them to cultivate social skills, compassion and emotional intelligence, and learn how to relate to other people and understand what to expect from them.

Secure attachment to parents or caregivers is also connected to a variety of indices of well-being, including high self-worth and low apprehension (DoCS, 2006). Insecure attachment may lead to incapability to confide to others; lack of interest in learning; difficulty in recognizing their own feelings; a meager tolerance of other people’s behavior and a lack of empathy for others (DoCS, 2006). Disorganized attachment is commonly observed in children who experienced fright and helplessness from their own parents or caregivers (e. g. parents who are abusive, neglectful, drug addict, victims of domestic violence, etc).

It causes the child to be emotionally overwhelmed and distressed for a long period of time, since they do not possess a clear strategy for dealing with distress (DoCS, 2006). Attachment experiences affect the child’s personality and later relationship. Children who have secure attachment have positive outlook in life, while those with insecure and disorganized attachments view the world and the people as dangerous and unpredictable, and themselves as bad or unworthy of love and care (DoCS, 2006).

Due to experiences that they have encountered, such as maltreatments and neglects from family or orphanage, scarring their personality and emotional stability, adoptive children is said to be difficult children. (van IJzendoorn & Juffer, 2006). The children’s attachment experiences and problems are very important issues to consider for people who want to take part in adoption program, especially in international programs since the child that will be given to them comes from a different culture and experienced diverse early childhood experiences and circumstances as well (DoCS, 2006).

Children who had secure attachment from their biological parent may have a difficult time to adjust from the lost of their parents, however, they can easily trust and form new attachment with their adopted parents since it is easy for them to trust other people. In contrast, a child with insecure or disorganized attachment may not mind the lost of their biological parents and may also find it difficult to adjust to their new environment with their new parents. They are used to rejecting parents that is why it is hard for them to trust other people.

Several nights after this he was lying asleep near the verandah, when someone suddenly woke him. He rose with a startled sigh and found that Hung-niang was there, with bed-clothes under her arm and a pillow in her hand […] Ying-ying this time, was languid and flushed, yielding and wanton in her air, as though her strength could scarcely support her limbs. Her former severity had utterly disappeared (294).

In Hsun Lu’s version we see the following development of the story, “After this Ying-ying let him (Chang) come to her, and for nearly a month he slipped out of her room at dawn and in at dark, the two of them sleeping in that west chamber…” (196). One night while they were resting after intense moments of pleasure, the climax of the story seems to have come out of nowhere. It came in the form of two questions, one coming from Chang and the other coming from Ying-ying; but both queries sprang forth from a single source, a conscience pierced by wrongdoing. Chang asked Ying-ying what her mother thought of him.

After assuring him that everything is fine with her mother, Ying-ying asked the question, “So why should we not get married at once? ” (see Birch & Keene, p. 294) After this, the love story started to unravel. Chang had to leave for the Capital and somewhere in between decided to leave her. His friends was amazed at the decision and doggedly asked him why and so he replied with these words: When nature has created something of remarkable beauty, it must destroy itself or others. If Ying-ying were to marry some rich nobleman and become his darling, she might turn into a dragon or a serpent and cause unthinkable chaos.

In olden times Chou-hsin of Shang and King Yu of Chou ruled countries of then thousand chariots and wielded great power, yet a single woman caused their ruin scattering their hosts and bringing destruction upon them, so that to this day they are held up to derision as a warning to all men. (Hsun Lu, p. 196-197) Recalling what Fatima Wu said regarding this story as an autobiography of a government official one cannot help but conclude that ambition was a greater power than love in this case. It is also interesting to note that right after Yuan Chen was demoted he was promoted at a dizzying speed as seen in the background study.

The Impact There are two aspects of the story that made it a beauty to behold. The first one is the idea that it was autobiographical and the second one is the fact that it was written in early part of 9th century China. With regards to being an autobiography one can just be impressed by the way the author made known his weakness in the time when lapses in moral judgment can cause one’s career. This is also shown in the later part of the story when Ying-ying described herself as no longer a beauty because of the bitterness of failed love and this will indirectly put the blame on Chang which is also Yuan Chen the writer.

And he placed himself in such a self-deprecating position and revealed how he wanted so hard to redeem himself but perhaps be contented with carrying the guilt for the rest of his life. Now, if this is not an autobiography then what will come forth is the genius of the man, Yuan Chen for being able to weave such a great tale. For those who still could not appreciate the impact this one has on the world of literature, then consider for a little bit that this is almost 800 years before Shakespeare, in a time when Europe have no sense of government or university and the Americas are places to wild to ever savor the substance of works like these.

Works Cited

Chen, Yuan. “The Story of Ts’ui Ying-ying. ” Trans. Alex Waley. Anthology of Chinese Literature from Early Times to the Fourteenth Century. Eds. C. Birch & D. Keene. New York: Grove Press, Inc, 1965, 293-299. Lu, Hsun. A Brief History of Chinese Fiction. Hawaii: University Press of the Pacific, 1982. Roy, David T. The Plum in the Golden Vase. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2001. Wang, Robin. Images of Women in Chinese Though and Culture: Writings from pre-Quin period Through the Song dynasty. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 2003

The story begins by describing the hero, Chang who was, “…gentle, refined and exceedingly handsome, but abiding so strictly b moral conventions that he reaches the age of twenty-three without having had any love affairs” (Lu Hsun, 195). In the translated work by Arthur Waley one finds Chang’s reason for maintaining his purity – and it is also a way of rebuking his friends because of their heavy carousing – and Chang said, “It is not such as Master Teng-t’u who are true lovers of beauty, for they are merely profligates.

I consider myself a lover of beauty, who happens never to have met with it” (p. 290). According to Robin Wang, Chang began to travel to a place called Pu and stayed in a monastery called the Temple of Universal Salvation (p. 392). It is not clear what he was doing in a monastery. Opinions to the matter varies from being exiled by the government for a wrongdoing which supports Fatima Wu’s theory that this is indeed an autobiography for as mentioned earlier that in the early stages of the author’s career as a government man he was demoted.

Another opinion would be that the itinerary is in keeping with his strict moral standard and therefore could be seen as a spiritual retreat. But instead of finding a heightened spiritual contentment in becoming a man of values, Chang would be entangled in a moral dilemma as will be shown later. Chang found his beauty While Chang was in the monastery he discovered that a widow with two children are staying there and that the members of this family are distant relatives.

So when trouble broke out in the territory after a certain general Hun Zen died – presumably in-charge of keeping the peace- Chang used his connections and influence to ensure the safety of Mrs. Cui and her children. Indebted by this great act of service, Mrs. Cui prepared a banquet for Chang and commanded her children to honor their cousin, the hero. The youngest child, her son, had no problems with the formality of giving honor to their savior but the eldest child Ying-ying refused to come out. And so the plot thickens and one is presented with the beginning of a pulsating tale of passion and sacrifice.

Fatima Wu interpreted this as a presentation of the first rebellious woman in Chinese fiction and here a proof that this work is ahead of its time. In a place and age where women are supposed to be quietly in submission to men, Ying-ying showed a different path. But Chang displayed the usual behavior of a man captivated by a desirable beauty and a person possessed by lust. Never mind the fact that they were distant relatives and the fact that they were introduced as cousins, Chang composed verses dripping with love so that he can express his longing for the maiden.

He could not contain himself and used the services of Hung-niang (Ying-ying’s maid) to deliver two poems to his cousin. That same evening he received a reply with the title The Bright Moon of the Fifteenth Night, where Ying-ying wrote the following verse: To await the moon I sit in the west chamber; To greet the wind I have left the door ajar, When a flower’s shadow stirs against the wall, I fancy my lover has come (Hsun Lu, 195). Moral Dilemma As expected Chang was very much overjoyed by the response but he was not at all prepared by what Ying-ying did afterwards.

The translation by Hsun Lu reads: But when Ying-ying comes to him her dress is sober, her face stern, and after rebuking him she leaves, casting Chang into despair. A few nights later she comes again, but leaves without uttering a word. Chang rose when it was still dark, wondering if after all it had been a dream. But when dawn broke, her powder was on his arms, her perfume in his clothes, while a tear she had shed still glittered on the matting. For more than ten days he did not see her again (Hsun Lu, 195-196).

The storyteller, Yuan Chen is giving a glimpse into the heart of the participants struggling with a moral dilemma. The first one to be affected was Ying-ying and Chang who is presently blinded by lust would mourn his actions later when the need to relieve lust is over. So to continue after a long wait, Chang need not fret anymore for the lady has been broken, her heart was conquered by his poetry and by his patience. Waley’s translation described the event as follows:

Being one of the leading manufacturers and sellers of computer services, hardware and software, IBM had made sure their main website would look nice and sleek to its browsers. Typing the www. ibm. com in the address bar would then lead you to their default website version that uses the US English language format. Web design was very nice as it complies with the natural look of other business web designs. What is nice with their site is the big space they had allotted for their flash media component. Through their effective use of graphics and animation enhancement, I had been attracted to viewing the articles their flash media advertises.

Through animation, the media had been able to promote three articles using the same space without making the homepage look cluttered. The first article promoted by their flash animation gave me a feeling that if I am a CIO of a company, their offered service would be very helpful for me so as I can meet perfectly my business obligations. The second was an article loaded with information about the history of microprocessors together with how did the IBM Company contributed and had lead to these technological advances.

The third article looks more to me as an advertisement about their offered computer hardware but since I am not well aware enough with what they had presented in that article, I think the third one was less appealing. Going back to their homepage, below the flash media is a tabbed panel where I had been given a chance on how would I navigate to the company’s website. The company’s website, I think, had provided its browsers the freedom to choose on how it would navigate through the whole site based on the bulleted subtopics they had given in their bottom tab panel.

www. apple. com The website of apple looks like the format of the website of IBM because it also has a big centerpiece picture. Though the centerpiece of apple’s website is only a picture unlike the IBM’s flash format, the picture in itself is attractive and I think animation in the front page is no need. The picture is a giant advertisement which serves as a link to a movie tour for the Mac OS X Leopard, the newest operating system offered by apple.

Clicking the picture would lead to a web page prompt for the user if he wants to view or download the movie in a low or high quality video. Apple had done this in order that the user can decide if he would want a high quality but big file-sized video or the low quality but small file-sized video. Both on top of the centerpiece picture of the homepage and the prompt webpage is five links in between the apple logo and a search bar. I think these links were present all throughout the site. This would enable the user to easily go back to the front pages of the individual links.

Going back to the main page, below the centerpiece picture is a bar of alternately streaming headlines and four smaller pictures that also advertises apple products like the centerpiece picture. Clicking the streaming headlines would lead you to a webpage that contains the first paragraphs of their top stories while clicking the four smaller pictures would lead to a webpage that looks like the webpage linked for the centerpiece picture. The front page of apple looks cleaner than the website of IBM because it uses little amount of text but more pictures that would be appealing to the browsers eyes.

Using a 3-D motion analysis of newborn’s arm movement, Von Hofsten 85 found that a newborn’s hand gets closer to a target when the baby fixates visually on the object compared to their movement when not fixating the object. That observation by Van Hofsten85 was supported by a work done by Brazeton, et al 94 . They found that 3 wk old babies showed a circular movement characterized by a series of extension-flexion patterns when attending to their mothers’ face. This pattern got disturbed to a jerky movement when infants lost the face-to-face interaction with their mothers.

This pattern was described as ‘swiping behaviour’ 73 . The former as well as the latter studies provide evidence for an early sensorimotor link between eye and hand. Visualization of the hand early in life is an important part of the coordination developed between eye and hand. Van der Meer et al 92 showed that spontaneous arm movements of newborn infants were decreased when occluding the arm from the infants’ sight. In that study infants were able to correct for small external forces applied to their arms only when the arms were visualized.

It has been reported that asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR) could be a mechanism to put the hand in the face side on the infants’ visual field, which may increase its probability of being seen and examined 95. Coryell & Henderson 95 also reported that the ATNR occurs most (56%) in the second month of life, which is when the central focal visual field starts to develop, so ATNR as they hypothesised that the reflex serves pointed to place the hand within the focal visual field. Von Hofsten 85 found that the number of forward arm movements on the face side of one week old infants was higher than the other side.

Furthermore, Van Kranen-Mastenbroek et al 96 were interested in seeing the results of spontaneous head turn on body posture (ATNR) of 3-8 days old newborns and its effect on lateralization of limb movements. They found that active head turn of the newborns included in the study was not followed by a dominant reaction pattern in any of the four limbs. However, their results showed that the frequency of limb movements of the face side were more than that of the skull side. They noticed that the infants spent more time in hand-¬mouth or hand- face contact of the hand ipsilateral to the face.

Visualization of the hand beyond neonatal and early infancy periods becomes important not to direct reaching but to correct the trajectory of the movement. For example, McDonnelled 99 fitted wedge prisms on 4-10 months old infants and noted that young infants in the study could not adjust the position of their hands to correct for the visual disortionof the prisms. As with young infants, older infants initially extended their arms toward the wrong place. However, when their hands entered their visual field, they corrected the trajectory of the hand and reached toward the correct location of the target.

Lasky 100 tested the effect of obscuring the hand from sight during a reach for infants who had just started to reach and those who had been reaching for a longer time (age range from 21/2 to 61/2 months). He found that the reaching movements of older infants were disrupted when the sight of the hand was obscured. Ashmead, et al 101 also reported that visualization of the hand by 9 months old infants is required only when making an adjustment to the reaching movement toward a moving illuminated toy presented in a dark room.

A final note related to the object used to eliciting upper limb movement is that infants tend to perform more reaches, when presented with a visual stimulus rather than an auditory stimulus; also the quality of reaching movement was better 66 . Three or two dimensional objects were found to elicit more voluntary upper limb movement than a blank visual field102 . Moreover, Bruner & Koslowski 103 found that the different sizes of presented objects had different effects on the infants arm and hand activity.

They found that small objects elicited hand movement appropriate to graspable objects, while with larger objects infants approached it with an open hand. McGuire & Turkewitz 104 reported that, unlike older infants, younger infants tend to withdraw from stimuli that are near, large and bright and approach those that are far, small and dim. Finally, Clifton et al 105 noticed more reaches toward objects presented within reach compared to objects beyond reach. Conclusion: These studies clearly indicate that infants can, from birth, process and react to stimuli. Studies that analyze infants’ reactions to taste, smell, sights and sounds prove this.

Several important assumptions can be made as a result of this study. First, infants are aware of various stimuli while in the uterus. The second assumption here is that babies can remember and recall. Anytime a baby responds to his mother’s voice, taste or smell, the idea is that the baby remembers it from his intrauterine experience. Thus, memory formation in neonates can hold many possibilities for work with both brain injured and non-brain injured infants. The ability for an infant to be prompted via his senses to move his head and arms holds great promise for rehabilitation.

While several options for rehabilitating brain-damaged infants, very few focus on physical therapy for newborns because of their lack of skilled control. Now, newborns can be enticed to make these movements through the introduction of external stimuli such as taste, smell and sound. Studies on newborn vision are more widespread. The first problems with focusing are well-documented. However, the rate at which a newborn learns to focus and track an object can also be manipulated by making sure that his hand is in his peripheral vision. This way, the infant can be encouraged to reach as a part of therapy for a brain injury.

Some research is underway to address this issue. Research with human neonates is focusing on applying quantitative brain imaging technology to newly born infants to determine associations between brain structure and motor-cognitive neurobehavioral development of normal children through five years of age and associations between brain injury or abnormality and disabilities within the motor and cognitive domains through five years of age. This research may lead doctors to make more use of intentional movement during the brain imaging instead of waiting for spontaneous movement in newborns.

More research is necessary to determine the role that this research will have on the rehabilitation of brain-damaged newborns. The sample set of these newborns is small, and researchers may have to wait years to see the results of their tests. Of course, much will depend upon the extent of the damage. However, with hope, the purposeful use of outside stimuli which the newborn both remembers and prefers from his time in the womb will entice him to make movements that could ultimately lead to his improvement or recovery.

Preferential responsiveness to particular odours is not limited to the odours they experienced prenatally or odours from the breast region. Cernoch and Porter 30 have shown that two-week- old breast-fed infants preferentially orient their head toward a pad impregnated with their mothers’ axillary odour relative to the axillary odour of an unfamiliar lactating mother. However, this discrimination in performance has been demonstrated only in breast-fed neonates; bottle-fed newborns showed no preferential head orientation to either pad.

The results of the study seen in breast-fed infants were attributed to the continued exposure to axillary odour during feeding times. Maternity cues, such as breast odour, can also be used to elicit goal-direct gross body movement early in life. Healthy newborn babies when placed in a prone position between their mother’s breasts either immediately 38, 39 or a few days after delivery 40 were able to initiate crawling movements which brought them into contact with the unwashed nipples rather than the washed one.

Varendi ; Porter 41 were able to show that this crawling response was due to maternal visual, tactile and auditory stimuli, but rather resulted from olfactory stimulation. In their study 1-3 day-old newborn infants were placed prone on a warm bed , 17 cm away from a pad that was either holding their mother’s breast odour or a control pad. The infants initiated crawling movement toward the pad that was holding their mother’s breast odour rather than toward the control pad.

It has been hypothesized that the attractiveness to the odour of the breast is due to similarity of odorous compounds between amniotic fluid and the secretions produced by the glands in the areola region 28 . Consequently, at birth, the olfactory stimulation from the breast region resembles the familier olfactory stimuli experienced prenatally. Although infants develop sophisticated motor and manipulative skills in their first year of life, there are not many studies in the literature about motor responsiveness to odour in infants older than 2 weeks of age.

Mennella ; Beauchamp 42 reported that 6-13 month- old infants selected and manipulated toys that were impregnated in either vanilla or ethanol scents in preference to unscented toy. Furthermore the degree of infants preference for toys impregnated with odours were found to be related to parental use of these volatile substances during pregnancy and during breast-feeding. Taken together, the above studies may suggest that newborn babies have the ability to retain, discriminate and respond differentially to the chemical features of odours that are presented in utero and in early postnatal life.

Physiological studies have suggested that norepinephrine plays an important role in early olfactory learning 43 . Norepinephrine neurons in the locus coeruleus send projections to the olfactory bulbs and facilitate olfactory learning 43 ,which may then guide the brain to initiate positive motor responses. Physiological studies confirmed that the human cochlea has normal adult function after the 20th week of gestation 44 .

It has also been found, through the use of high-resolution ultrasound imaging for observing eye-blink responses to vibroacoustic stimulus applied to the maternal abdominal wall, that infants are able to detect and respond to sounds by the beginning of the third trimester 45 . Newborn infants have a well developed sense of hearing 46-51 . Soon after delivery, they show the ability to remember and discriminate the voice of their own mother from the voice of an unfamiliar women 52 .

DeCasper ; Fifer 52 placed earphones over the newborns’ ears and a non-nutritive nipple in the mouth. The non-nutritive nipple was connected through a pressure transducer to a recording device that produced either the voice of the infant’s mother or unfamiliar female voice. They reported that newborns increased their sucking rate to activate the playback of the voice of their own mother in preference to the unfamiliar woman’s voice.

A review of the literature on newborns’ behavioural response toward acoustic stimulation reveals that under different experimental conditions46-51, 53 newborns are able to detect and orient their head toward laterally presented sound. Although the overall response to a sound stimulus was positive, it has been found to be effected by different factors. First, the distribution of off-centre to at-centre sound trails: head turns toward off-centre sound source has been found to be improved as the probability of laterally presented sound increased.

47 Second, sound duration: infants turn their heads reliably to sounds lasting 1 second or longer. 54,55 . Third, sound repetition rate: lateral head turns can be elicited using rapidly repeating or continuous brief sounds but not slowly repeating, or brief sounds 55 . Fourth, sound frequency: mid and high frequency and broadband sounds elicit more reliable head turning than low frequency sounds56 . Finally, sound location: due to motor control difficulties, newborns were able to locate and orient their heads to sound sources presented near midline more than ones presented at 90° off-centre. 53

Studies have long suggested that neonates’ movements and responses to external stimuli were the product of reflexive reactions and not purposeful movements. However, research into the effect of purposefully chosen stimuli for sound, taste, smell and sight have indicated that newborns can recognize and prefer sensations that they have encountered either while in the womb or immediately after birth. Research indicates that newborns will increase sucking when it encounters an odour it is familiar with.

A baby who hears the sound of his mother’s voice will orient his head in the direction of that sound. Infants obviously prefer the taste of certain things (specifically those that are sweetened) to other tastes. Finally, visual stimulus can create purposeful reaching movements in newborns and young infants even though this sense is the least developed. This study seeks to review that literature and present an analysis of the impact it could have for the treatment of brain-damaged newborns.

The impact of this research is most exciting for applications that would have an infant make a purposeful movement, especially as a means for early intervention and rehabilitation. Introduction: It has been believed previously that neonate’s responses to sensations were reflexive and not volitional (). Several studies have challenged those beliefs, and investigated babies’ responses to stimulation of individual senses and their relationship to movement. It has been discovered that the sensory functions of infants begin before birth and become more mature after birth ().

This paper looks at separate studies that have been devoted to understanding the relationship between an infant’s senses (i. e. taste, smell, audition and vision) and his/her movement. By far the most studies investigate neonatal vision but there are also studies investigating hearing, smell and taste. The surprising information gleaned from the studies I have examined indicates that an infant’s behaviour is flexible and that apparently goal-directed actions result from stimulation of their senses. These actions may occur even from as early as few hours after birth.

Understanding these senses, and perceiving how they can be used to elicit or promote voluntary movement is likely to open new and exciting opportunities for early rehabilitation therapy for babies with perinatal brain damage. Taste: Taste is one of the chemosenses that belongs to the sensory system. It occurs when chemical molecules released by substances stimulate gustatory cells or the taste receptors which are clustered in the taste buds located in the tongue and the oropharynx.

These receptors transmit the sensory signals to particular centres in the brain where specific tastes i. e. sweet, salt and bitter are identified. It has been reported that the taste buds appear around the 7th or 8th week of gestation, and look a lot like the adult’s taste buds by 13-15 weeks of gestation 1 and that a well- developed sense of taste before birth sets the stage for early learning. Several studies have reported that as early as a few hours after birth, newborns are able to respond to the taste of different substances2, 3 which have been assessed using qualitative and quantitative measurements like the calming effect of the substances administered, facial expressions, mouthing, and hand-mouth contact.

2-8 From a therapeutic point of view the possibility of eliciting movements such as hand to mouth movements from taste is potentially very important, only the studies that looked at the possible stimuli that can elicit and/or promote this behaviour in newborns and the proposed mechanism behind this behaviour will be reviewed. Rochat et al 9 noticed that hand-mouth activity is stimulated through the use of a very small dose of intra-oral sucrose solution. This behaviour remained with repeated sucrose administration, and withdrew by its termination.

Further, they noticed that there was a significant shift in the infant’s general movement toward hand-mouth contact after sucrose delivery compared to baseline period i. e. no fluid administration period. Butterworth and Hopkins 13 filmed the spontaneous arm and hand movements of healthy newborns. Microanalysis of the films revealed that the majority of arm movements which resulted in contact with any part of the head lead to contact with the mouth either directly or indirectly.

They also noted that the movements that landed on the mouth were preceded by open mouth posture, this behaviour was seen more when the infants were hungry than after they had been fed. 14 Furthermore, through measuring the force of palm pressure, Buka and Lipsitt 15 found that newborns grasping behaviour is increased when sucking and the effect is even greater when babies are sucking a sucrose solution.