Broadcast journalists deliver the news to the public in a variety of
formats, including radio, television, and the
Internet. They are sources for the events that shape our lives and our world. A
broadcast journalism career can put you in the thick of changing and evolving
world events, including politics, the environment, wars, social unrest, or the
ups and downs in the nation’s, and the world’s, economy. Journalism today is,
in a word, dynamic. Newspaper readership has gone down significantly as online
applications of journalism have become the norm. Televised journalism, while
still relevant, is now spliced into videos and linked to web sites such as
Youtube, social media outlets such as Facebook and Twitter and personal blogs.
Many news companies now actively attempt to integrate multimedia components
such as video, links or photos into almost every story. In addition to these
new methods of media consumption, the ability to generate and self-publish news
is now in the hands of anyone with an internet connection and a few basic
tools, creating a new power dynamic between traditional news sources and
citizen journalists.

With the expansion of social media and the public’s heavy reliance on
the Internet, the opportunity for publishing defamatory statements, or internet defamation, has
grown immensely. With outlets such as Facebook and Twitter, people can
instantly publish statements that reach thousands of people. For this reason,
the laws concerning defamation apply to statements made online, where private
individuals or the public as a whole can view them. Other common outlets for
internet defamation include private and public blogs. Defamation in social
medial and on the internet are generally easy to track, making it important
that people carefully consider what they post concerning other people.

But nowadays in broadcasting it is extremely important to provide really
true news and so they use dayparting to make easier the opportunity of watching
the viewers what they want in possibly convenient time.   Daypart
is the time division in a typical broadcast day by different media like Radio and
Television. It is the scheduling of programs at specific parts of the day,
targeted to specific audiences that are predominant during those times. Different
part of the days can be Morning shows, afternoon siesta, evening songs or prime
time slot. Dayparts can be standard or customized.

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For example, if the viewers would prefer to watch a live shot, they know
that it is mostly shown in the daytime or evening news, so they will try not to
miss that. Live shot is extremely important for audience. Live television is
often used as a device, even in scripted programming to take advantage of these
often to great success in terms of attracting viewers.This is especially
important for broadcast stations,which face the growing threat of audience members
switching channels if they don’t find the top story interesting. Many events
have happened on live television broadcasts that are well-remembered, sometimes
because they were part of a major breaking news story already, and always
because they happened unexpectedly and before audiences of thousands or
millions of viewers. Breaking news is 
currently happening or impending news; also, called a breaking story. Some network news
divisions still use the term special report for either a
breaking news, a developing news story or both, but tend to use the
term breaking news on their morning and
evening news programs. Typically, for breaking news,  a reporter will do a live report “on location”
from the scene of the story. The reporter can give a live report, introduce a
taped story, or simply conduct a live interview, depending on the needs of the
producer. In some situations, especially when reporters aren’t available or in
case of breaking news, a photographer might set up a live shot that simply lets
the audience see what’s happening at the scene.  In this regards, cross-talk is widely used in
the broadcast nowadays. Cross-talk is live conversation between broadcasters,
as between an anchorperson and an on-site reporter. In electronics, crosstalk is
any phenomenon by which a signal transmitted on one circuit or
channel of a transmission system. The
transmitting pair is the broadcasting antenna
and the receiving pair is picking up that transmission just like your car radio
antenna. The data on the transmitting pair is broadcast and
picked up by the receiving pair.

During a live shot or cross talk, while setting up a shot at the scene,
an operator needed to have a portapak. A Portapak is a battery-powered,
self-contained video tape analog recording system that can be
carried by one person. No lab work was required to develop videotape or
synchronize picture and sound. Because earlier
television cameras were large and relatively immovable, the Portapak made it
possible to record video easily outside of the studio. Except for portapak,
video cameras which originally designed for television broadcast were
large and heavy, mounted on special pedestals and wired to remote recorders in
separate rooms. As technology improved, out-of-studio video recording
was possible with compact video cameras and portable video recorders; a
detachable recording unit could be carried to a shooting location. Although the
camera itself was compact, the need for a separate recorder made on-location
shooting a two-person job.So,later In 1983, Sony released the first camcorder,
the Betacam system, for professional
use. Camcorder is an
electronic device originally combining a video camera and a videocassette
recorder. A key component was a
single camera-recorder unit, eliminating a cable between the camera and
recorder and increasing the camera operator’s freedom. Camcorders are used
by nearly all electronic media, from electronic-news organizations to
current-affairs TV productions. In remote locations, camcorders are useful for
initial video acquisition; the video is subsequently transmitted electronically
to a studio or production center for broadcast. Scheduled events (such as press
conferences), where a video infrastructure is readily available or can be
deployed in advance, are still covered by studio-type video cameras
“tethered” to production trucks.

In the studios to make the broadcastin more natural
and vivid, to show the importance of the presenter,operators are always aware
of the shots and camera angels used when shooting a broadcast or news story.
That’s why  a camera dolly is used there.
A camera dolly is a
wheeled cart or similar device used in filmmaking and television
production to create smooth horizontal camera movements. The camera is
mounted to the dolly and the camera operator and focus pulleror
camera assistant usually ride on the dolly to push the dolly back and forth. Camera dollies have several
steering mechanisms available to the dolly grip. The typical mode is rear-wheel
steering, where the front wheels remain fixed, while the wheels closest to the
operating handle are used to turn. A second mode, round steering, causes the
front wheels to turn in the opposite direction from the rear wheels. This mode
allows the dolly to move in smooth circles and is frequently used when the
dolly is on curved track. A third mode, called crab steering, is when the front wheels steer in the same direction as the rear
wheels. This allows the dolly to move in a direction diagonal to the front end
of the dolly. Also, there is a dolly zoom which iis the combination of a dolly
in or out shot with a simultaneous zoom, creating a disorientating effect.

with different types of shooting in broadcasting are used different methods,
such as pan and scan, bulk eraser and so on. Pan and scan is a
technique used to convert widescreen film or video footage into a
conventional 4×3 aspect ratio (used by old-style television sets). Pan and scan involves a
process of selecting the most important part of the frame and discarding the
other parts. In this way the image width is reduced to fit the 4×3 screen

example below shows how a shot can be cropped using pan and scan


Broadcasters discovered the benefits of
carefully erasing cartridge tapes, so most broadcast facilities had one or more
bulk tape erasers that would erase carts and open-reel tapes. Erasing your
tapes or reels is easy and it only takes a few seconds. You simply place your
media in the “Erase Zone”, rotate your media 3 full revolutions, flip
the media over, rotate another 3 full revolutions and you done. This process
takes less than 5 seconds and it’s as clean as new. With the snap-in hub
feature you may quickly erase up to 16 inch reels with ease.the cleaner erase
job you do, the less potential problems you will encounter later.

Of all the behind-the-scenes technology used in
studio and field productions, the teleprompter is perhaps the least obvious yet
most important piece of gear to the success of a newscast or video production.
A telepropter is a device to enablespeakers and performers to read a script
while looking at the audience or at the camera. That’s because maintaining
direct eye contact with the audience is the most powerful and accurate way to
deliver a news story. Not having a prompter can block the effective delivery of
a message. In video prompters, the prompters copy is typed on ordinary 8 ½”x11″
sheets of paper that are typed to become continuous rolls, or is typed on rolls
of paper called computervideo prompters. In professional prompter systems, the
prompter copy thenis scanned by a vidicon camera and transmitted to one or more
prompter/monitor readouts that are mounted on or of a TV camera. The prompter
script can be superimposed over the taking lens of the Tv camers so that it is
visible to the speaker but not transmitted to the home viewer.

days together with developing technique and quick progress, broadcasting is
doing all their best to meet the requirements of viewers. The history of
broadcasting and the process of developing of its techniques is wide that it’s
impossible to deliver in one theme. I also would like to say that whether you
prefer to work in front of or behind camera, a broadcast journalism career is
sure to be an exciting  and rewarding
experience. You get to inform the public of breaking news, keep them up
–to-date or important matters in the world, or report on stories to improve the
lives of your viewers. In broadcast journalism, there can be
extensive variety in the jobs performed. Investigating, interviewing, doing
follow-ups, preparing and even producing stories are part of the journalism portfolio.
There is so much variety in journalism because coverage includes so many
different kinds of events. The long list includes government news, businesses
stories, non-profit organizations, crime, fires and other tragedies,
institutions, cultural events, arts and entertainment. A broadcast journalist’s
job can involve covering events across the country and can also involve
international travel. For example, a broadcast journalist whose job it is to
cover arts and entertainment will probably get to travel across the state,
reporting on significant events in the arts and entertainment industry. When
following up on a story, journalists need to be prepared to travel quickly, to
be the first one at the scene of the incident. Travel is a part of investigative
journalism, and broadcasting live from the scene of a crime adds weight to the
story. Broadcast journalists present their
stories to a wide audience and are watched by thousands or even millions of
people. Being able to report on important news events can give the journalist a
sense of achievement. Coming up with stories that interest the general public
and create public awareness on important issues is what broadcast journalists
do best. The job brings a high level of satisfaction and achievement to people
in this role.

conclusion , by  using a cue, which is a
physical signal by engineer or other technical person indicting to anchor to
perform a task (start reading, wrap up, go to
break), I would say outcue “FOR UPDATE NEWS, I’M TOLEGENOV ISLAMBEK” , which is
the last thing a reporter says in either a live or recorded news story
indicating the piece is ending. 

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