Breeding efficiency
or Reproduction efficiency is a economic trait measures the reproducing ability
of an adult animal.It is a non heritable trait.

parameters of reproduction efficiency are 1. age at sexual maturity , 2.Number
of services per conception,3. Conception rate, 4.Non-return rate 5.Age at first
calving, 6.Service period , 7.Calving interval.

As per TOMER
method the reproduction efficiency

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cows:  ( 95-99%)

efficiency = n(365)+1020  ×

        (%)                             AC+CI

Buffaloes: (74-80%)

efficiency = n(365)+1040 × 100

         (%)                             AC+CI

n-number of calving,365 –  Desired
calving interval in days,1020 – Desired age at first calving  in days for cows,1040- Desired age at first
calving  in days for buffaloes, AC- Actual
age at first calving in days ,CI-Sum of actual calving intervals.

As per Wilcox et
al,(1957) :Breeding efficiency =365 x (n – 1)  x 100


Where, N = total
no. of parturitions,D = days from first to last parturition

   Crossbred -75 to 85 %, Buffalo – 69 to 84%

1.Age at first calving :It is the time
between birth of an animal and its first calving. Age at first calving is
important economic trait.Related to generation interval .It act as a guideline
for easier culling.

: 1220 days, Cross bred cattle:1011 days, Buffalo:1390 days


Influencing factors for delayed age at first calving areDelayed age at sexual maturity, More no.
of services / conception, Improper Estrous detection aids, Early embryonic
death , fertilization failure, Nutrition status

2.Age at sexual maturity: It is age or
time at which the reproductive organ become functional & reproduction may
occur.(estrum & ovulation).The animal attain early sexual maturity  will have long productive  as well as reproductive life.Heifers show heat
when they attain 50% -60% of adult body weight.

Crossbred cattle-18
months,Indigenous-20 to 28 months,Buffalo-36 to 42 months

per conception: It is a actual
number of services required by a female to settle. Quantitative measure of
fertility. Normally animal may need one or more services.General rule: Less
than 2 services per conception.

factors for Services per conception are Fertility of male ( Natural service), Quality
of semen (Artificial breeding), Female reproductive disorders.

It is Proportion of animals covered out of those bred.Confirmed through
pregnancy verification methods.Conception rate

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