Because the Modernist style. 17http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=13=4903=en-en=35=78=64= Concrete often associated
Because the width span of the house is quite wide, a horizontal bearer, acting as a beam ties the frame together preventing the ceiling from collapsing and distributing the weight over its irregular openings.17The skinny nature of the horizontal bearer is almost invisible adding character to the space. The Catalan vault possibly creates the best feature of the house. The vaulted ends are situated on the west sides of the plot therefore allowing natural light within the space, resulting to interior heating. In addition, introducing a roof garden allows the building to give back to the space it has taken for the ground. As the world of architecture changes, the basics remain the same. The five points of architecture shows a concern for designing, creating an attention around the human movement and interaction. This has been made a vital element influencing the Modernist style. 17http://www.fondationlecorbusier.fr/corbuweb/morpheus.aspx?sysId=13&IrisObjectId=4903&sysLanguage=en-en&itemPos=35&itemCount=78&sysParentId=64&sysParentName= Concrete often associated with being rough and heavy can still hold the aesthetic of being clean and sculptural. This is one of the few building materials Corbusier extensively worked with. Buildings like the Baghdad Gymnasium (1956) and the Palace of Assembly (1950). Both brutalist buildings, have a repetitive nature of square windows, heavy concrete walls, yet incorporate other shapes and forms which break away from the usual rectangular nature expected. During the postwar era, Brutalism was often referred to as large, ugly and unpopular. Critics often describe the style as unappealing and cold. One point for criticizing the style is the choice of materials, stating that the materials do not age well under certain climates and are subjected to vandalism. According to Anthony Daniels, a British author, physician, and political commentator, Brutalism represents an artefact of the European philosophical totalitarianism, a “spiritual, intellectual, and moral deformity.” He described the style as cold-hearted, inhuman, hideous and monstrous. In addition, he states that reinforced concrete “does not age gracefully but instead crumbles, stains, and decays”, which makes alternative building styles superior.18 In maritime climates, such as the Northwestern Europe and New England, concrete is liable to water stains and in some cases to moss, lichens and rust stains from reinforcements. However, problems as such can easily be prevented by using a concrete sealer. Otherwise, concrete facades can be sandblasted or covered in stucco. Despite the criticism, the style is appreciated by others, and preservation efforts are taking place. 18 http://all-that-is-interesting.com/a-brutal-end-for-brutalism Although the Brutalist movement ended in the mid 1980’s, it has paved way for other forms such as Structural Expressionism and Deconstructivism. It is a very eco-friendly and sustainable form of architecture. In addition, it makes for durable, excellent thermal mass, and great strength for buildings. Over the years, it has become quite popular and many are seeing the beauty in its rough aesthetics. Brutalism has made a comeback in the architecture world fitting almost seamlessly. For instance, the Washington Metro station, like many other underground stations in the US, with brutalist vaulting bears great similarities to the Pantheon in Rome. Brutalism is one of the most honest form of architecture. By exposing its structure and displaying the true form of its materials, it can tell one how a building was built and why it was built. It has a personality that modern buildings cannot necessarily give. Regardless of how different Modernism and Brutalism are, they still share a fundamental principle. A principle often promoted by Louis Sullivan, that “form forever follows function,” without relying on revivalist architectural styles of the past.19 Therefore paying little to no attention to decorative facades. For instance, it would be impossible to imagine the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin by Peter Eisenman in anything but subtle, simple and in concrete. In addition, Brutalism is quite versatile. New ideas are being developed with the style. 19 https://architecturestyles.org/post-war-modern/ Consider Olafur Eliasson’s Studio Other Spaces, specifically the Ilulissat Icefjord Park, using the technique to have glacial ice casted in concrete to create space. A series of textured irregular spaces is revealed when the ice melts resulting to a very interesting and different design concept.Therefore, there is more to come with the movement especially with the style revamping itself. In conclusion, Brutalism in many ways fits the characteristics of the absolute architecture and has taught the architecture world. It may not be the most appreciated style but it holds up to its character. Concrete being one of the fundamental materials used to illustrate the style, serves for a natural and an eco-friendly style for architecture. It is truthful and not garish, representing its spirit greatly. Although, Le Corbusier’s works changed over the years, his oeuvre steered Modern architecture to a new position.