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Mythologies are fantasies that have the power to endure in people’s minds and culture through time. For this, mythological stories and characters have been part of substantial themes of films in the history of filmmaking. They have a significant place in the world of filmmaking because mythological stories and characters have the ample amount of mystery and magic that has the ability to capture the audience’s attention and imagination. Storylines may differ or be similar to the myths itself but the essence of the mythological character exudes. One such mythological character is the half-man half-god Greek hero, Hercules.

This mythological character with extraordinary physical strength has been featured and appeared in numerous films in the big screen and television. With the different depictions of Hercules, this paper then is an assessment on how he was portrayed and presented in films. The materials considered for this study were Disney’s animated film “Hercules” released on 1997 and Roger Young’s miniseries entitled “Hercules. Half Man. Half God. All Power. ” released on 2004 by the Hallmark Channel. The Story of Hercules comes from ancient Greek Legend. Hercules is the son of Zeus.

He was robbed of his divine birthright by the evil Hades who stole him from his cradle and fed him a potion that made him mortal. With only his great strength and his trusty flying horse, Pegasus, Hercules must prove himself a true hero to regain his rightful place among the gods on Mount Olympus. Around every corner lurks the evil Hades. Hercules adventures include — wrestling ravenous serpents, blinding the dreaded cyclops, and beheading the multi-headed Hydra. The cynical citizens of disaster-prone Hercules on Disney’s Animated Film According to the Big Cartoon Database (n. d. )

“Hercules” was a “Disney update on classic mythology”, an animated film about his journey towards finding a place where he belonged. Here, Hercules, the son of Greek gods Zeus and Hera was born god-like strength in Olympus, the home of the gods. When Hades, the God of the Underworld, learns that his plan of domination in the future will be affected because of Hercules’ existence, he summons his two followers, Pain and Panic, de-immortalize the child Hercules and kill him in the mortal world. Pain and Panic, failed in their mission and only succeeds in making Hercules mortal.

No mortal beings are allowed to dwell in Olympus, which leaves Hercules in the care of Alcmene and Amphitryon, the childless mortal couple who found him on the bushes. Hercules later grows into a misfit adolescent because of his extraordinary strength that always gets him in the center of chaos. His adoptive parents later tells him of his past and a medal found with him that is a link to Zeus, his father. Hercules then journeys to the temple of the gods. Zeus appears and confirms Hercules thoughts. Zeus tells him that the only way that Hercules can enter Olympus again is that if he becomes an earthly hero to gain his godliness.

The adolescent Hercules then goes on a pursuit of a hero status with the help and instructions from the satyr, Philoctetes. He achieves the hero status later in adulthood but is perplexed because he still is not a god. When Hades learns that Hercules still lives, he orders his soul-bound follower Megara to deceive Hercules. Hades tries to block his path to being a God with calamities and creatures like the multi-headed, Hydra. Hercules becomes a God when he sacrifices himself for Megara. The animated film ends with Hercules choosing to stay in the mortal world to be with Megara.

In my opinion, the “cart” in the story could have been a metaphor of the power of women over men. Lancelot was on his quest to rescue Guinevere when he met a dwarf cart driver. He asked if the dwarf knew any information about the whereabouts of Guinevere. The dwarf replied that he would find the answer the next day if the knight would agree to ride on the cart. At first, Lancelot disagrees, because during that time, carts were used to transport criminals. But having the welfare of Guinevere in mind, he put himself into the cart.

Lancelot’s hesitation is a good example for the problem of gender relations. Men somehow find it hard to sacrifice machismo. The cart can be a symbol for women, as it used of carriage. Women carry life within their womb. In this sense they have power over men. This I think is what made Lancelot hesitate. Because the society is configured by history to be male dominated. In “The Knight with the Lion”, Yvain has ventured out to find his dear friend Gawain. He later on met and befriended lion which helped him in his quest. It could have just been a common case of over-reading.

But the lion’s sexuality wasn’t specified by Troyes. It could have been a lioness, a portrayal of a powerful female (Of course this is very debatable because of the use of the term and its meaning). Yvain couldn’t have won his battles without the lion’s help. Yvain was also always hesitant to have the lion help him. His enemies told him that it would be cowardly of Yvain to fight alongside a powerful beast. In Yvain’s search for adventure, he found himself helping maidens by freeing them from captivity. In this sense, women are seemingly depicted weak and unable to defend themselves.

The women in this story have made the hero unable to reject any of their requests for help. Yvain had even got himself into a situation wherein he saves the sisters of Gawain and right after the battle he rushes to save another maiden. Pearsall provided an answer on why Yvain and the other knights find it dishonorable to reject a maiden in need. “Women are vital in Arthurian romances because of their essential role in the action, as part of the urging towards power, possession and revenge which are the source of action, not as ideals or as objects of adoration.

Men fight for them because if they don’t the women will be killed, raped or otherwise forced into subjection, not because they will be upset. ” (Pearsall 21) Pearsall could have just been saying that one of the priorities of the knights, next to serving the king, is the safety of women. If the knights were the first ones to violate women, they wouldn’t have been romantic in that very sense. Another display of powerful women can be found in the latter part of “The Knight in the Cart.

” Women who have no husbands had decided to organize a tournament of knights to search for prospective husbands (Troyes 215). This tournament is where the much anticipated fight between Lancelot and Meleagant is set to happen. This is a very important scene wherein the women made the plot dynamic. This scene is very crucial because it will pave way to the story’s spectacular conclusion. The stories of the knights show us to respect women in their existence in the society. A knight’s servitude to the maiden is a display of showing importance to women.

Even the abduction and the rescue show how valuable women are. The definition of chivalry seems to be lacking if women are not involved. Chivalry also means a knight’s loyalty to his lady whom he had pledged to serve. This is the most important role of women in the Arthurian romances, they keep the plot interesting. They saved us from the boredom of just watching men in armor clash with their swords and egos. Women add complication to the adventures of the knights. This keeps the story dynamic and interesting.

The aspect of empowerment of women in Arthurian romances is way ahead of its time. It is usual that the goal of the hero is to save a woman. But it is very interesting in Arthurian romances that it shows that the hero can’t achieve his goal with his own strength. The hero needs the inspiration only a woman can provide a man. The women play crucial roles that pave way for this goal to be accomplished. They are not merely rendered powerless. But the fragility of this powerlessness can wound a man’s heart greater than any sword, even greater than the Excalibur.


De Troyes, C. The Knight of the Cart. The Complete Romances of Chretien De Troyes. Translated by David Staines. US: Indiana UP, 1993. De Troyes, C. The Knight with the Lion. The Complete Romances of Chretien De Troyes. Translated by David Staines. US: Indiana UP, 1993. Fenster, T. Arthurian Women: A Casebook. US: Routledge, 1996. Gravdal, K. Ravishing Maidens: Writing Rape in Medieval French Literature and Law. US: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991 Pearsall, DA. Arthurian Romance: A Short Introduction. US: Blackwell Publishing, 2003.

To identify a trend in the dramatic intensity scores described over the last section, they are put in a more mathematically measurable form, that is, a frequency distribution table below: The table above shows the score value through the scale (1- 10) with the number of scenes in the movie that have been rated with the respective score values. Since the number of scenes in the movie is 16 the lower frequency column adds up to 16. Below is the graph that shows that above plotted values: To derive a more defined interpretation for the graph, it is further plotted as a bar graph with score intervals of size two.

The scene distribution is plotted as calculated percentages of the scenes that fall under each score interval. This graph shows: 1. 0% of scenes have a DI score in the range of 0-2 2. 12. 5% of the scenes have a score between 2-4 3. 18. 75% of the scenes are rated between 4-6 4. 43. 75% of the scenes have a score between 6-8 5. 25% of the scenes are rated between 8-10 Thus a majority of the movie scenes have a very high rating of 6-8, while a significant portion of the scenes have an almost perfect score or 8-10.

This graph strongly indicates that the movie can be classified as highly interesting. Some observations that can be made from the graph: The graph is skewed towards the left. That is, the graph is asymmetrically spread around the average value with the majority distribution concentrated towards the left. The tails of the graphs at either end taper sharply, though much more sharply at the right end, as compared to the left end. This indicates, less number of scenes with a low DI score.

The observations from the graph suggest that graphs of interesting movies will be heavier, or skewed towards the left more than the right, that is more scenes will have higher scores plotted towards the positive direction of the x-axis. Conclusion The evidence of this study suggests that movies can be identified as interesting on the basis of the Dramatic Intensity Distribution graphs. The graph of an interesting movie will tend to be skewed towards the left, since it will have fewer number of low intensity dramatic scenes.

Of course this will not apply to movies of a genre where drama is understated. In such cases the parameter will have to be aptly determined. The dramatic intensity level is however a convenient parameter of measure that can be applied to most popular movies. Another important implication of this graph is the possible shape of graphs of movies that are not interesting. Movies, which are not interesting will have more scenes with lower DI scores. Thus the graph will be skewed towards the right, with a fewer number of scenes with high dramatic intensity scores.

The graph is not an absolute determinant, as there may be cases where there are a number of scenes that have a short runtime but have extremely high DI scores. And most of the movie constitutes long scenes with low or average DI scores. In such cases the movie may not be very interesting on the whole. The run-time of scenes has to be taken into considerations to determine the actual quotient of interesting scenes in the movie. An interesting extension of this study would be to collect the graphs of a large sample set of popular, interesting and successful movies and compare their shapes.

There may be an interesting insight to a possible threshold level of skew or pattern to the graph of above average movies. It would also be interesting to compare multiple parameters for different movies to explore their interrelationships. To sum up, this study shows that a combination of economic and data analysis theories can be combined to discover common patterns and traits in successful Hollywood and even world cinema. While some of these models can be region specific, they also can be built with universal parameters.

These models can contribute to the understandings and studies of scholars of cinema with respect to contemporary and classic trends and the evolving choices of the average viewer. Alteration of parameters from the basic can be applied to study different niche crowd. The industry can also use such models to explore potential projects.


Crawford, W. (1990, October 29). Trends in Hollywood Cinema: Is cinema using ideas or merely aping trends? The Washington Post, p. A3. Clarkson, P. M. , & Lloyd, E. S. (1990).

Analytical measurement: Processes of learning and invention in the evolution and development of mathematical concepts. In S. T. Walker & K. R. Foquel (Eds. ), Mathematical analysis in economic trends: Comparative developmental perspectives (pp. 540-578). Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress. Doumpous, M. , C. Zopounidis. (2002, August 31). Multicriteria Decision Aid Classification Methods (Applied Optimization). Springer. Eckholm, E. (1985, June 25). Studying Cinema: Entertainment science. The New York Times, pp. C1, C3. Gibbons, A. (1991). Tools for analyzing probability data: Skews and Kurtosis, 251, 1561-1562.

“ I made mistakes in drama. I thought drama was when actors cried. But drama is when the audience cries. ” (Frank Capra) Hollywood movies have several elements like drama, action and comedy skillfully weaved into them. However not all movies are able to make a mark with the average viewer or the critics. Some movies tend to handle these elements in a better way than others, making them successful box-office earners, while others despite some really interesting scenes are not able to make it.

It is quite intriguing that despite a great storyline and well-written screenplay, some of these movies are not able to hold the interest of the movie audience through the entire run. Thus, is it possible that the pattern of these elements can be deciphered to reveal an underlying trend in successful Hollywood cinema? This paper attempts to uncover a paradigm of dramatic scenes sketched in the all time classic, My Fair Lady, based on a play by Bernard Shaw titled Pygmalion (1913). My Fair Lady was a landmark, academy award-winning (1964) movie produced by Jack L.

Warner of the Warner Bros. Picture. It was adapted to the movie version from a musical play with a book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner. The movie was directed by George Cukor and starred Audrey Hepburn as a poor girl Eliza Doolittle, with a Cockney accent who sold flowers. Professor Higgins, an irascible and egotistical professor of phonetics, struck a bet with fellow linguist Colonel Pickering to transform the uncouth Eliza Doolittle into a charming lady who could pass of for the “Queen of Sheeba”.

What followed was a dramatic and hilarious set of episodes that included the tutoring sessions and the bond that developed between Doolittle And Higgins. The movie was an immensely popular musical and swept the academy awards with eight Oscars including best movie and the equivalent of best male lead for Rex Harrison. That Audrey Hepburn did not win an award, was quite a matter of controversy. My Fair Lady has inspired and been spoofed by many theater plays and television programs.

It impacted fashion trends across Europe and America with the exquisite costumes designed by Cecil Beaton. This despite the fact that Lerner did not find it anywhere near the version directed by Moss Hart for Broadway. He also disliked the fact that the movie was shot in the Warner Bros. studios, instead of its original settings of London. The following section of this paper will make an attempt to study and explore the movie as a subject of analysis for a presentation style or pattern that makes it stand out as such a remarkable piece.

The section tries to isolate one outstanding characteristic component and how it is spread over the movie. It elucidates on the proposition of defining a scene-based trend for dramatic play in the movie, to uncover an underlying schema for dramatic intensity distributions, a measurable and mathematically applied concept developed in this paper that can potentially identify successful movies. The paper than proceeds to introduce mathematical parameters developed for the analysis and the methods used to collect the data.

The data is the converted into a form that can be used to apply the analytical concepts and presented as a measurable, defined and self-explanatory. The fourth section of the paper analyses the collected and formatted data to discover plausible logically valid trends that can be observed strongly enough to lead to a conclusion. The section then summarizes the observations in mathematical terms and outlines the trends and their interpretations. The last section of the paper draws a conclusion based on the observations made. It also extends on what are the implications of these observations.

War is a period of hostile relations between countries, factions, states or territories. And for me, it is against morality. It leads to battles between armed forces, especially in land, sea, or air. War has been inevitable and cannot be avoided. I would like to tell that wars are products of mixed human emotions, most probably anger, envy, and others that may lead to turmoil. World War 1 is the first war that involved the majority of developed countries during 1914 – 1918. It was divided into two, the allied forces and the central powers.

The allied force mainly consists of France, Britain, Russia, and later the US. The central power includes Germany, Austria- Hungary, and later the Ottoman Empire. The war started out as the Germans aimed to gain military power by dominating much of Europe and establish global power by establishing overseas colonies. World War 1 was the first war in history to be considered total. As the war began, the involved countries mobilized their available and reserved troops, and spent economic resources in order to win the battle.

During the war, civilians were also used to tip off military balance. The might of an army comes in numbers, so forced enlistment were done just to come up with high numbers of fighting soldiers. The term home front were first used during he First World War because it symbolized the new concept of a war in which civilians were directly involved in the battle as soldiers. World War 1 began as a clash between two forces, the allied and central power. The conflict involved 32 countries, 28 of which joined the allied forces.

Some of these nations however did not participate in the actual war, but through financial and medical support. The true and immediate cause of World War 1 was the assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to Austro-Hungarian throne, during this visit to Sarajevo on June 28, 1914. The condemned assassin was a Serbian nationalist. The root of conflict can be traced a century ago, by the economic and political policies that prevailed in Europe after 1871, the year Germany emerged as a superior power in Europe.

There was equilibrium between the conflicts of the two powers by the end of 1914. The war was fought on two fronts. First was the west front, located in northeastern France, and the second was the eastern front, located on western part of Russia. A5t the fronts, soldiers from both sides fought each other valiantly through interconnected trenches. One side laid siege to the other side by breaking through their lines. Declaration of War during this period sparked like a chemical chain reaction.

The turmoil between Serbia and Austria-Hungary escalated because of Archduke Francis Ferdinand’s Assassination. Austria-Hungary declared an ultimatum to Serbia that a joint Serbian-Austrian body be made to investigate the assassination. Serbia ignored the ultimatum. Germany, an ally of Austria-Hungary, proposed that Serbia must pay for the crimes they committed against the royal family. They both declared war on Serbia on July 1914. France, an ally of Serbia by treaty, pronounced that they will protect Serbia, declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary on August 1914.

Russia joined the war, also august 1914, because a treaty exists between them and France. Several other countries joined the war too. The Ottoman Empire joined Germany and Austria-Hungary on November 1914, and later they were called the Central power. When Germany invaded Belgium even though it was neutral, Britain was forced to join the war on August 1914, along with Belgium. Belgium pleaded to Britain for help, in effect of their 75 year old treaty. Another reason for Britain to join the war is that it has an existing treaty with France, proclaiming their alliance.

Russia was unable to finish the war because of its economic and political decline. It cannot produce more arms and military support to the alliance. Also, its army was weakened because of the ever known Russian Revolution of 1917. Another reason for Russia to subdue was that it was blockaded by the Ottoman Empire on the southwest. It cannot send reinforcement and supplies to mainland Europe through the Mediterranean Sea; likewise, the allied forces were unable to bring troops to Russia. The United States joined the war much later, on April 1917.

The reason for the change of the United States’ stance from neutral to become an Allied force was because Germany insists on using unrestricted submarine warfare. The United States’ act of joining the war tipped of the equilibrium between the tensions of the two colliding coalitions. The United States where able to support the Allied forces by sending about 10 million troops and vast amounts of aid and support. The United States turned all of its industries, from car and airplane manufacturing into full scale war machinery, where all war materials were transported into the battle front on Europe.

Attraction is an extremely inevitable state which is common among human beings. The fact that human beings are considerably ‘sensual’ creatures, the tendency to feel a higher feeling of emotion towards a species of such kind is conceivably normal and acceptable (Marcus, 1998). Moreover, the repulsive measure of an individual’s capability of to feel an echelon of intimacy is noted to be the manifestation of arousal, pleasure and self-satisfaction. An individual’s emotion is an uncontrollable emission of the deeper and implicit desires which tends to linger due to a formidable stimulus pious enough to take in power (Castonguay, 20002).

The feeling of attraction comes to any person like a jolt of lightning by which is then hard to specify and overcome. It is similar to that of a magnet, inducing a strong force of heed to be able to fulfill a certain point of desire and finally feel a flaming level of climax and fall in an ocean of satisfaction (Kitchener, 2000). Such free-falling behavior is noted to be a neuroscience which is incorporated with biochemical explanations, stressing the fact that human sexual relationships are driven by chemically deliberative natural explanations which gives no concrete detail on the partially argument of the mentioned reality.

On human behavior analogy, it is like that of Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning, wherein once the person is able to realize the emotion, it will always seek that kind of feeling and thus raising the answer of the matter (Neri, 2002). The essence of group psychotherapy is characterized as that of which is intended for an individual to develop and improve its outlook and perception on a certain problem faced in one’s life and being given measures in order to cope up and overcome the trauma and all the other aftermath negative emotions which might have been manifested by the downfall.

This effective tool of behavioral mechanism offers the patient a chance to boost up its self-esteem and finally recover itself from the handicapping or distress felt (Neri, 2002). Given the fact that this kind of therapy involves the group share their feelings and emotions with one another already gives an idea that the tendency of getting attracted to a member in the group is but an unavoidable circumstance.

Moreover, the therapist or the conductor is most likely considered as that holds the most fragile and sensitive responsibility for the reason that almost all of the feelings shared to such may or may not affect his or her personal comprehension (Kahn, 1997). With such reason, it denotes the support on the survey that many therapists fall or get attracted, at that, to their clients and thus further establishes a great complication within the group and the profession.

Being obliged to help the client in his or her emotional troubles, psychotherapists use the counter transference condition by instilling their own learning and realizations taken from past experiences, which are perceivably positive and soul uplifting, so as to own the sanity of the client and thus shift the emotion to sagacity of hope and admiration (Kahn, 1997). That again, is a crucial basis why some clients also fall or get attracted to their therapists; the creation of the room of admiration often leads to intimate desires and attraction.

In most instances of counter transference, the therapist actually makes it evident to the client that they are able to carry half the burden of what the client is carrying, and that then sustains the argument of attraction (Castonguay, 2002). The inexorableness of attraction is a customary feeling among humans. However, in the case of therapist to client, the standpoint is professionally unacceptable. Therefore, in order not to break the rules of professionalism, one must be a bearer of strong manipulation over one’s humanistic deeds.

Upon knowing such catastrophically inclined complication, the best way to shun from it is to stick one’s focus on work rather than on personal yearnings (Kahn, 1997) .


Castonguay, L. G. (2002). Controlling Is Not Enough: The Importance of Measuring the Process and Specific Effectiveness of Psychotherapy Treatment and Control Conditions. In CONTROL GROUPS IN PSYCHOSOCIAL INTERVENTION RESEARCH (pp. 31-35). Mahwah N. J. : London Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc. Kahn, M. (1997). Between Therapist and Client: The New Relationship. New York: New York W. H. Freeman. Kitchener, K. S. (2000).

Foundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in Psychology. Mahwah N. J: N. J. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. ,. Marcus, P. (1998). Psychoanalytic Versions of the Human Condition: Philosophies of Life and Their Impact On Practice. New York: New York University Press. Neri, C. , Pines, M. , & Friedman, R. (2002). Dreams in Group Psychotherapy: Theory and Technique. London: London Jessica Kingsley Publishers. Schermer, V. L. , & Pines, M. (1999). Group Psychotherapy of the Psychoses: Concepts, Interventions and Contexts. London: Philadelphia Jessica Kingsley.

Being the right time for career development, also this is the right time to set up personal relations and family relations. One has to plan and cope up well with one’s marriage plans, or we say in other words it is the right time to choose one’s life partner. Here, Tayib and Rachel, both are not able to balance their career and personal relation. Tayib should have listened to his parents when he was asked to go for further studies. So that he would have been in the position by now, that he always wanted to be in.

When one is in right position, one can handle time management pretty well. He could make time at least now and then on important occasions like Luke’s birthday, and would not have disappointed Rachel. Rachel is in dilemma if she has chosen right person to be with or not. She is confusing herself thinking if Tayib is caring her or not. So, she feels if may have to look for the right person. But, it is a simple logic that if Tayib does not care her at all, he would not at least make it to take Rachel and Luke to amusement park even at that tight schedule.

A marriage is built from the everyday-ness of living together — from what seem like the trivial as well as the obviously significant experiences, encounters, sufferings, and satisfactions. (Howard, Charlotte). It is said so, that such a relation has pleasure as well as tensions. So, one has the ability of compromise at least now and then. Life is a big compromise, why not it in the relations? Rachel should give space to Tayib at least, till he gets settled well in his career. All relationships have challenge. It is important to identify and choose the challenge to address.

When not in alignment, we need to remain conscious and skillful. The pain of breaking up can be eliminated when we truly balance head and heart. (Pamela). If at all she has something in her mind for now, she has to keep her words at Tayib, and know what answer Tayib has for her. Then she should decide if she will be able to wait for the right time to get along with Tayib or to look for some one better. If you believe that there is room for improvement in your personal effectiveness and resilience in some areas of your life, a psychological consultation may help you work toward such improvements.

You may notice that you have certain patterns of thinking and behavior that interfere with your success with and the enjoyment of certain endeavors. (Mashman). Rachel may also be worried about external things like what her parents would think about her decision about Tayib, as he did not turn up for dinner on Luke’s birthday. This is a serious point to her as she had a trouble with her previous relation that was with Luke’s father, which drew a gap between her parents and her. She is too worried if she would have to face another relation failure.

She wants her child to get proper parenthood, so she has been looking for someone who would be good enough to take care of Luke. If you have serious or escalating conflicts, obtain professional counseling help, rather than turning to relatives and friends for advice. Broken hearts often require more professional skill than broken arms. (Howard, Charlotte). So, it is better they both think practically and conclude what they are looking for. They have to sit together and talk, if they are looking for the same in the relation. They have to discuss why they both are not satisfied with the relation.

This may give them a clue, if to stick to the relation or to give it up. Thus if they need further assistance, they should approach professional counselors.

References Erikson, E. (2008). Erik Erikson’s 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development. Stage 6 young adulthood. Retrieved March 8, 2008. Fischer, J. L. (2005). Transitions in relationship style from adolescence to young adulthood. Journal of youth and adolescence. 10, 11-23. Howard J. and Charlotte H. Clinebell. The Intimate Marriage. Enriching the seasons of marriage. 6. Pamela Simmons Counseling. (2008, March 8). Five tips for couple success. Retrieved March 8, 2008, from

Also a factor which makes a youth violent would be his peer group or the people he hangs out with. If a teenager has a delinquent group, he would be influenced by the faulty action that his peers are doing. If a teenager’s peer group is a violent gang then that teenager would also be involve in the violent gang activities that will occur. Lack of judgement with whom a young person will go to, social deprivation and poor academic standings makes a youth at risk and causes him to be with a delinquent group.

In the eyes of unguided youth, he would see his delinquent peer group as his only source of friends and would see their faulty actions as correct. Another factor that makes a young person violent would be a poor community environment. Low economic standing or poverty could cause a young person to result in crime and violence. Influence of other poor residents, which also result in crime and violence to survive, could also be a cause. Low or poor community participation will deprive a young person to the community. Social disorganized neighbourhood would create a negative aura to a young person.

All these factors that cause violence are mostly the reason why a young person is violent. The effect of the violence in young person is startling. Today, Direct and indirect expenses of youth violence, such as medical, lost productivity, quality of life, surpasses $158 billion a year. Violence causes death and fatalities. Youth violence also affects the community by growing the expense of health care, dropping efficiency, decreasing possession values, and unruly social ethics. It is said that violence today would lead to violence in the future.

Violence would likely to continue in the cycle when a teenager is going to have his own family and live in a community. The violent teenager would also practice the violence, which he has witnessed during his teenager years, to his future family and community. It was also sited that violence leads to death and fatalities. 60 to 90 percent of the criminals today in prisons were studied to have experience youth violence. If a teenager is violent, he would likely to have problems in his future career and dealing with other people because of the experience he had encountered when he was young.

To sum it all up, violence in our youth today causes several economic, health and social problems. Most of the violent teenagers would end up in disorderly future. They would most likely to do the same violence they have experienced before and may even end up in prison or even death. (Anderson MA; (DHHS). ) Although the problem of teenage violence is upsetting, there is still hope to solve the certain problem. One of the ways to eliminate teenage violence is by proper media. If the children watch non violent programs then they will not be violent.

If the programs that the children watches are controlled by the media then there would not be a problem that media would induce violence to children. If the parents of the teenagers practice in their home non violent lifestyles then the teenager wouldn’t adapt to violent actions. Environment is a big factor that affects a teenager’s life. If the environment of the teenager is pleasant, then the teenager would also have a pleasant attitude. A teenager should also be observed to which peer group he belongs.

The parents and the guardians should monitor if his peers are good or bad on him. Making a young person active in conventional school and community activities is also a good way to make teenagers violence free. And lastly, the community should play a big role in making the youth have a violent free environment. If the young person sees a peaceful environment, with a pleasant home, good academic standings, good influence peers and a caring community then the student will be induced with well rounded effects.

It is not too late to make a change in our society today. It is a fact that we live in a world with violence. Acts of aggression and such cannot be avoided. Humans are born with aggression. But with a well rounded environment, aggression can be lessened. Violence leads to violence. Less violence leads to less violence. It is just a cause and effect factor. If we can minimize the cause then the effect would also be minimal. It is up to ourselves on what action we will perform. Our actions automatically affect another.


Weigel has a witty and eloquent writing style, which I found very agreeable. The author’s good humor materializes on accounts such as G. K. Chesterton’s pub experiences. His arguments are clear and he successfully communicates to the reader the essence of Catholicism as an ideology that is firmly rooted on spiritual development, and how it figures in a largely secular age. It is also a good overview on why the Catholic perspective gives us the “real” view of life, and how the Catholic faith is defined by one’s belief in Christ.

He expounds, “faith in Jesus Christ costs not just something, but everything. It demands all of us, not just part of us. ” Although this book was written to encourage young people to embrace the Catholic world view, it could help Catholics of all ages. He made a lot of excellent points that are worth pondering on. For Catholics, the book is an affirmation of the advantage of “Christian humanism” as opposed to “atheist humanism,” that sacraments are still the right way to salvation as opposed to the intuitive apprehension of spiritual truths held by gnosticism.

What I also liked about Weigel is his passion and fearlessness in being a writer, taking on subjects that are commonly considered taboo in the Catholic Church such as gender, contraception, and other theological controversies. He stresses what he regards as truths with respect to these things, and does so convincingly. Although Weigel articulated his ideas pretty well, it can be felt that he tries too hard to do project a “youthful” voice. He at times succeed in introducing a simple, carefree approach to a section, but as he progresses, reverts back to doing an intellectual tirade.

I feel that the average Catholic youngster would have difficulty grasping some of the author’s messages. Also, many ideas can come off as too lofty for most young Catholics. Not everyone is versed with the ideologies of characters such as Sartre or Nietzsche. Although older, more educated readers can be comfortable with this, it may alienate the very audience that he is trying to reach. Though the Catholic doctrine is supported by ideas, faith is affirmed by things that allow us to experience God on an earthly level.

This affirmation can also be achieved through the sacraments of the Catholic Church. He makes the reader embark on this journey to real people, places, and things that defined Catholicism. The author shows us that the Catholic Church is founded on reality and has a rich historical and cultural heritage. One of the ideas that struck me is the issue of self-denial and suffering as a necessary part of the Catholic life. Weigel expounds that “”suffering makes us the kind of people who can live with Love itself, without suffering from it or getting bored by it.

” But still, he advocates joyful living and and an appreciation of the beauty of life. Another concept worth noting is his argument against the contemporary nihilist perspective holding that all values are baseless. He maintains that “Catholicism insists that everything is of consequence, because everything has been redeemed by Christ. ” He adds that keeping this state of mind changes the way one sees the world. If I could have a chance to meet the author, I would be very much interested in knowing if he himself had cultivated any doubts about the Catholic faith at any point in his life.

I would like to learn more about his life in the seminary, personal experiences, and the challenges he faced with regard to keeping his faith. I would also ask him what he regards as the greatest moral challenge facing the human race today, and what he thinks is the remedy to this. The author, in a memorable quote, states that “while Catholicism is a body of beliefs and a way of life, Catholicism is also an optic, a way of seeing things, a distinctive perception of reality.

” Weigel’s approach to instruction is about achieving a “habit of being” that would enable us to “see, hear, touch, feel, and taste that, in the Catholic view of things, we meet God through visible, tangible, audible things [… ] including the Church itself and the sacraments the Church makes available to us. ” The ability to perceive these tangible things adds depth and dimension to our faith. The author raised a number of relevant issues and covered a lot of ground in explaining the Catholic doctrines and other relevant issues of our day.

He makes a convincing argument about accepting Catholic beliefs by virtue of the spiritual enlightenment they provide, and not just because of tradition. All in all, Weigel did a good job of presenting his vision of Catholicism. This book will definitely help anyone wanting to be a more fulfilled Catholic, and will address any theological or ideological doubts that one may have. It will open the reader’s eyes not just to the truth but also to the Church’s glorious past.

Currently, there is a widespread agreement that children and teenagers must be conferred with about their health and health needs and that their opinions must be taken into consideration in the planning and formulation of health services. With the confirmation and endorsement of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child by the UK government in 1991 and specifically Art 12 — which supported and strengthened the movement towards a fuller involvement of children and young people in decision-making — there has been tremendous amount of legislation that eventually concluded with the passing of the Children Act 2004.

For example, the five outcomes exemplified in Every Child Matters, include ‘make a positive contribution’ which assimilates the concepts of involvement and participation. The value and implication of listening to young people, and taking their views seriously, is likewise mirrored with the recent appointment of the first Minister for Children in England. Moreover, each nation in the UK now has a statutory Children’s commissioner and one of the more important functions this person has to perform is to listen to, represent, and respond to the views of children and young people.

Governmental departments have been made responsible in taking this participation agenda to move on and move fast and the Children’s and Young People’s Unit described how “the Government wants children and young people to have more opportunities to get involved in the design, provision and evaluation of policies and services that affect them or which they use” (CYPU, 2001).

The challenge is being faced and there are now countless manifestations of how models of participation are being, and can be, effectively executed (Kirby et al, 2003; Mason and Fattore, 2005) to be ‘meaningful, efficient and sustainable (Sinclair, 2004). Participation has also turned to become a vital component of many new national frameworks for youth action (Russell, 2005).

Various schemes and proposals in the health and health care domains are growing, and it is highly probable that the agenda has considerably changed Hart and Chesson contended in 1998 that although children are chief users of health services, they are hardly ever consulted as healthcare consumers. Their needs were, certainly at that time, given insufficient priority by policy makers and health service professionals despite a recommendation by the British government’s health committee that changes in attitudes were needed to encourage greater heed of children’s voices and views.

Lately, initiatives in this direction, the Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health (2005) came up with a strategy to foster participation of children and young people in pediatric activity which, very aptly, draws on the findings from consultations with children and young people as well as members of the Royal College of Pediatrics and Child Health committees and RCPCH staff. It was also propped up by a young person’s advisory group. And as part of the development of a single inspection framework following the Every Child Matters Green Paper, there is a commitment to the involvement of children in the inspection process.

In like manner, the Department of Health came out and published Listening, Hearing and Responding, an action plan to involve children and young people and has since updated this by describing key achievements and setting new and immediate priorities. Further government activity in the area of adolescent health is obvious in the ‘You’re Welcome’ Quality Criteria for Young People that have been set up to enable health services to become young-people- friendly. Likewise, there have been significant steps to seek young people’s views on these matters.

One that is specifically pertinent is the Children’s Voices Project from the Commission for Health Improvement (Boylan, 2004), which gathered and organised feedback from children and young people about their experiences and expectations of healthcare. The project was a product of a request by CHI commissioners for information on children and young people’s views that could influence the development of future inspection methodologies. In 2003, CHI compiled reports of young people’s views on health services, and drafted these to become a database with online search facilities.

There was felt to be potential for this database to become a continuing resource, and it was agreed that CHAI, (currently the Healthcare Commission) would take responsibility for the project when CHI was abolished. Another welcome development is the first Young Patients Survey, carried out in 2004 for the Healthcare Commission. This was a major survey, carried out in 150 NHS acute and specialist trusts, and gathered opinions from over 62,000 children and young people who had used these services.

PART B. I previously outlined that every teacher is a theory builder, and all teachers desire to make changes to, or fine-tune their teaching methods. There are some areas of strength, limitations, and areas of concern, involved in this theory. Areas of strength As Schon observed, “teachers do know more than they can say, articulate, or put into words. ” Schon, D. (1987). This is because what they know is embedded in their performance. It is a tacit or implied kind of practical knowledge, which is know-how we develop from engaging in practical activity.

It is the knowledge that we use to get things done. “This kind of knowledge has also been referred to as craft knowledge. ” Brown and McIntyre (1988). “It can also be seen as working knowledge. ” Yinger, Hendricks- Lee and Johnson (1991). In the early 80s, Schon (1983) drew attention to a problem that was beginning to emerge in the professions. He noted that “the professions were experiencing a crisis of confidence in their ability to make an effective contribution to the well-being of society.

” Schon (1983) His conclusion was based on analyses by leading professionals in a number of fields of the relevance of their professional knowledge bases to practice. Oneimportant cause of this crisis of confidence, in his view, was that the knowledge base on which professionals relied, and which they had acquired during their university courses, did not provide adequate answers to the everyday problems they were encountering in practice.

Put bluntly, ‘the kinds of knowledge generated by researchers and academics did not, in his (Schon’s) view, provide answers to the everyday problems confronted by practitioners because the problems of practice were different from the problems addressed by research’ Marland (1997, p. 52). In fact, Schon contended that the problems arising in practice were often not known by academics and researchers. The problems of practice had unique features, because theystemmed from unique events in unique contexts.

The knowledge produced by researchers andacademics was generated by addressing questions or problems of interest to them, but thesewere often very different from the problems that arose in practice. Teachers and student teachers have long been aware of the differences between researchers and academics on the one hand, and teacher practitioners on the other, in respect of problems and questions that beset and intrigue both groups and of the knowledge needed to address those problems and questions. They sometimes speak deprecatingly of the knowledge generated in research for its lack of relevance to their practical problems.

If this is so, where should teachers begin their quest for knowledge relevant to the problems they face in their schools and classrooms? The answer that Schon gives to this question is that teachers must individually and collectively solve the problems that arise in practice. They need to define and re-define their problems; plan and implement trial solutions to those problems; and review and revise their solutions. In short, they need to be what Schon calls reflective practitioners.


Barone, T. , Berliner, D. C. , Blanchard, J., Casanova, U. , & McGowan, T. (1996). A future for teacher education. In J. Siluka (Ed. ), Handbook of research on teacher education, 2nd ed. (pp. 1108-1149). New York: Macmillan. Brown, S and McIntyre, D (1988) ‘The professional craft knowledge of teachers’, Scottish Educational Review, Special Issue, pp. 39–45. Clandinin (1988) Elbaz, F (1983) Teacher thinking: a study of practical knowledge, Nicholls, New York. Korthagen, F. A.

The relationship between practical knowledge and practical theory. One of the earliest studies of the practical knowledge of teachers was conducted by Elbaz, F (1983). Her study of one teacher’s practical knowledge resulted in her forming the view that this teachers’ knowledge comprised five main categories or domains of knowledge – knowledge of self, knowledge of students, knowledge of instruction, knowledge of curriculum and knowledge of the milieu or context.

Some modifications have been made to this categorization, most notably by Shulman (1986), but Elbaz’s overview of practical knowledge will suffice to make the point I wish to make here, which is that none of these domains of practical knowledge of itself provides a sufficient basis for successful action in the classroom. Instead, what the teacher has to do (and what, no doubt, Elbaz’s teacher did do) is to integrate them into a coherent framework so that separate pieces of practical knowledge can be interrelated

to provide a reliable and suitable basis for performing the role of the teacher. That framework is the teacher’s practical theory. In other words, a practical theory or theory for action draws on and integrates knowledge from various domains of practical knowledge. It provides a basis for planning lessons for and teaching a topic, series of lessons or subject to a particular group of students in a particular context. Refer again to the history lessons on World War 1 outlined in the Introduction to the course.

That teacher had a practical theory for teaching a specific history topic which drew on her knowledge of students, instructional processes, curriculum goals, the resources available in that particular context and, no doubt, her own strengths and limitations. The experience of teaching and being taught provides a rich source of knowledge which teachers make use of in the classroom. This knowledge has been referred to as the craft knowledge of teachers and also as practical knowledge because it is knowledge which has been derived from, and shapes, practice.

It is therefore a very useful form of knowledge because teachers know that it offers a reliable basis for the planning and conduct of classroom events. In addition, of course, teachers possess many other kinds of knowledge – knowledge of subject matter, knowledge of curriculum, knowledge of self and knowledge of human development and of other kinds of educational theory to name just a few. Teaching is a complex activity, and the practical knowledge which teachers hold is also very complex and serves a number of critical functions.

It provides teachers with a basis for describing what they do and explaining why they do it; it allows teachers to predict how students will react and what is likely to happen in lessons; it provides a reliable basis for planning effective learning experiences; and it enables teachers to vary their approaches to suit particular classes and particular circumstances. These functions of describing, explaining and predicting are also some of the functions which are served by theories.

For these reasons, the practical knowledge of teachers has also been referred to as practical theory. Teachers are also the principal architects of their own professional development. In other words, teachers are responsible for their own growth as teachers. It is a responsibility that cannot be devolved to others. Neither can change be mandated. A direction to change usually results in reluctant compliance at best and more often in outright rejection and hostility.

Generally speaking, a reputation for good teaching is very largely the result of a teacher’s own efforts though, of course, supportive colleagues, supervisors and institutional policies often play an important part. Nevertheless, if a teacher is not prepared to make a commitment to seeking improvements to teaching, there is little likelihood that such changes can be effected. Thus, changes to the theories that account for practice can only be effected by the holders of the theory.

The end to the golden era of consumption and ostentatious wealth was precipitated by the yuppies’ own extravagance. Eager to taste all the joys of life while still young, the yuppies were committed to spending, often beyond their incomes. As a result, many yuppies had to take on debt. Their high debt levels were sustainable in a high-salary environment of the 1980s; however, the changing economic conditions put the recently affluent couples in a tough position. The stock market crash of 1987 led to a serious downturn in the economy, triggering layoffs on Wall Street and elsewhere.

Many were affected by layoffs in the financial services and other areas. Some had to see their enviable compensation packages trimmed in the wake of a general downturn. The new hardships forced many to default on credit card payments, leading to “yuppie bill syndrome”, a term coiled by the financial industry. As a result, “yuppie pawnshops” appeared, strangely chic places that accepted the status playthings accumulated by the yuppies in their previous wealthy lives. Another term was coined to denote the change from upscale clothing to a more affordable jeans and T-shirt lifestyle – “downscale chic”.

Another string of new terms appeared, evidencing the media’s love of abbreviations and their response to the changing environment for young professionals. The word yuppie came to be deciphered as “young unhappy professionals” instead of previous “upwardly mobile”. To contrast with this idea, the word combination “downwardly mobile professionals,” or abbreviated ‘domos’ appeared. Recent career-makers responded to the challenge of an economic depression in various ways. Some preferred to leave the rat race by fleeing to more peaceful environments, such as, for instance, Montana that attracted many recent yuppies.

Others redefined their values and priorities, shifting to a forgotten life for ideals. They started working on social projects or environmental endeavors. The novels The Artist’s Way by Julia Cameron and Getting a Life by Jacqueline Blix reflect this change of values. Conclusion Yuppies were an influential phenomenon of the 1980s, brought to life by a change in income levels and demographic composition of the upper classes. They were young professional people with sizeable incomes, determined to pursuit of life’s pleasures right here and now.

Yuppies were often criticised for a consumerist attitude. On the social plane, this attitude gave a boost to the entertainment and upscale goods industry, creating a new subculture evidenced in new fashion trends, a new pattern of life. Yuppies were the first users of technological advances like cell phones and eager consumers of chic things. Their affluent lifestyle provoked the anger of many, but to these days it remains also a role model for career-minded young people. Overall, yuppies were one of the most important groups in the history of 20th-century youth culture.

Works Cited

Ehrenreich, Barbara. Fear of Falling: The Inner Life of the Middle Class (1989). Excrept. www. niu. edu/~td0raf1/history261/nov2606. htm (July 24, 2005) Gianoulis, Tina. Yuppies: St. James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture. www. findarticles. com/p/articles/ mi_g1epc/is_tov/ai_2419101361 (July 24, 2005) Kawasaki, Ken’Ichi. Youth Culture in Japan. Social Justice, Vol. 21, 1994. Thomas, Pauline Weston. 1980s Lifestyle and Fashion History. FashionEra. com. http://www. fashion-era. com/1980s_lifestyle_and_fashion. htm (July 24, 2005)

The term “Yuppies” is deciphered as Young Upwardly-Mobile Urban Professionals. The word came to signify a cultural subgroup of professional young people coming from middle and upper middle classes. Their emergence in the 1980s as a separate group resulted in part as counteraction to the social ideals of the 1970s, including counterculture notions. Some of those that were originally into the protesting and hippie movement took a different approach and moved into well-paid white collar jobs.

Being people in their late twenties or early thirties, they tended to postpone marriage and family and as a result their sizeable incomes were free to spend on luxury items and things underscoring their status. The young couples that both had nice incomes and delayed starting a family were named with another catchy abbreviation – dinks (double income, no kids). They could afford to have more fun than their parents who at the same age were burdened with a family to support.

The name for the group came into existence “for the modest purpose of explaining Gary Hart’s unexpected success in the 1984 presidential primaries” (Ehrenreich 1989). Coining the term to denote a group of young urban middle- and upper middle-class people that voted for the Democratic candidate, the journalists created the yuppies as a distinct social group. Another version is that the word was first used by columnist Bob Greene in a 1981 publication in the Chicago Tribune entitled “Chicago: City on the brink” (Wikipedia: Yuppies).

Since then, a new concept appeared and gave some potential ‘yuppies’ to form a new social identity through belonging to this class. However, very quickly the name came to mean young people with ‘lousy values’ (Ehrenreich 1989). Thus, the notion was extrapolated not so much to the demographic characteristics as to the consumption patterns and cultural values, beliefs, and attitudes. Defining the number of official yuppies brings one to the conclusion that their number was rather limited. This is somewhat surprising for a group that aroused such vehement reactions.

In the 1980s, yuppies included “people born between 1945 and 1959, earning over $40,000 a year in a professional or managerial occupation, and living in urban areas” and numbered about 1. 5 million (Ehrenreich 1989). Although this is not a lot for a nation like the US, the fervent reaction to the yuppies was explained in part to the attention captured from the media and profound influence on lifestyles and culture of the 1980s. Yuppie views and values were imitated, for instance, by those young people who had lower incomes but would love to attain the material status of their richer peers.

A Change in Lifestyles

The main object for criticism was a difference in lifestyle exhibited by yuppies as opposed to their hippie counterparts and the generation of their parents that grew up in the period of the Great Depression and were used to spending money sparingly. The America of the 1980s saw a consumption boom triggered by a rise in average incomes. Naturally, young professionals with incomes in the upper brackets were the ones who could have a greater share of the pie. Yuppies “had been raised with a sense of their own importance and entitlement, and they had been given jobs with salaries that reinforced that sense” (Gianoulis).

This led to a change in values. Yuppies began to value fun their parents were for the most part deprived of, and professional activities seemed not such a serious challenge any more. In contrast to the political and sometimes revolutionary ideas of the youth in the previous decades, the yuppies preferred a life of leisure and comfort. In a desire to make use of their comfortable incomes, they spent the money earned they were “often going into debt to purchase on high-priced status symbols and expensive adult playthings” (Gianoulis).

These toys were appreciated for the glow of status they bestowed on their owners, thus, the price level was geared to the means of the yuppies, making them consume much of their income in pursuit of these toys for grown-ups. The range of status toys included expensive Swiss watches, designer clothing, visits to expensive restaurants, and status cars. The appearance of the yuppie class gave an impetus to the development of pricey status brands. The gauge for the attractiveness of the purchase became the cost of the item and the prestige associated with it.

Lexus, BMW, Audi, Mercedes- Benz and other pricey cars became the favourite yuppie cars. They were also into technical innovations, including the then costly mobile phones. Development housing was an attractive option for the high-income professionals. Even in the consumption of drugs, patterns were different from the previous generation: instead of the more ‘democratic’ marijuana of the hippies, yuppies turned to expensive cocaine. “Whoever dies with the most toys, wins,” and “Who says you can’t have it all? ” embodied the philosophy driving consumption to unprecedented levels (Gianoulis).

In Buddhism self and individuality are not the parts of objective reality. They are the parts of human nature, which can be expressed only through social interaction. Self is rejected by Zen as an independent reality. That is why Oriental hostility towards self and identity meets fierce resistance in the West. Western people are not ready to leave their identities so easily. Very careful attitude to self becomes a great disadvantage and even obstacle for the practice of Zen. Using psychotherapy as a part of spiritual practice also has become Western innovation.

Psychotherapy is a very popular system of healing in the Western culture and it took some time before Zen masters recognized possible profit they could get using it. Western Zen students have psychologically oriented minds and this fact can not be neglected. (Suzuki) Moreover, psychotherapy became a part of Zen practice in some Western centers and monasteries. Zen, which became a symbiosis of Buddhism, Confucianism and Daoism, is often accepted as hostile religion in the West. Christian religion controversies many principles of Zen and this controversy creates additional difficulties.

Gradually, Zen is being adapted to Christianity same as it was adapted to Asian religions earlier. Different books, which study relations between Zen and Christianity, appear. Christian elements appear in traditional Zen practices. Zen is more tolerant to other religions. Buddha neither rejected nor affirmed the existence of God. At the same time Zen teaching is based on the idea that there is a source, which precedes all religions. These ideas are closely connected with ideas in Christianity. Coming in terms with Christian doctrine is easier than introducing Christian rituals to Zen.

The very idea of enlightenment, which is a central idea of Zen, is difficult for Western mind. It is necessary to remember that the idea of enlightenment is basic for the most Oriental religions, such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism and many others. This idea is not as widely developed in Western religious tradition. This fact creates additional difficulties for Western practitioners, as they create additional false expectations and hopes connected with the idea of enlightenment and they get frustrated when their expectations do not come true.

Widespread of Zen Buddhism in the West has another interesting effect on Western Society. This effect was achieved when the Zen principles, developed for individual practice, became applied for resolving social and political problems. Western Zen Buddhist does recognize an importance of individual practice as a way to help all living beings. At the same time they stress that social environment has extremely important influence on the human life and that is why they take active part in it in order to improve these fields of human life.

Western Zen practitioners take active part in social and political lives of their countries. They become engage in resoling environmental issues, taking part in the development of educational programs and taking active part in different social movements. This innovative approach and social activity are new for Zen Buddhism. “The promise of the contemplative life that has characterized Asian Zen is that selfless meditation is, rather than an escape, the most essential way of healing the so-called world that is nothing other than Mind.

Still, the need for social and political activism has never been more pressing. Never before have systems and institutions held such global power, thus extending the repercussions of human greed, anger, and delusion to threaten the very biosphere” (Kholhede,345). The most serious difference between traditional Zen and its Western variant is a lay nature of Western Zen. It is hard to trace real number of Zen practitioners in the West because most of them do not belong to Zen monasteries or Zen centers. Many people practice Zen at home. They lead normal way life and bring Zen to their everyday routine.

Western Zen practitioners can have families, be successful at their work places. They do not make any restrictions in eating and drinking. This has become one of the main reasons of popularization of Zen in the West. So, moving away from traditional monasticism, traditional and customs became the distinctive feature from Western Zen Buddhism.

Works Cited

1. Geertz, Clifford, The Interpretation of Cultures New York: Basic Books, 1973. 2. Kornfield, Jack, “No Enlightened Retirement,” Inquiring Mind 16, no. 2 . Spring 2000. 3. Seager, Richard Hughes, Buddhism in America New York: Columbia University Press,1999.