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Since my school days, I saw different kinds of students. There was a wide spectrum of people having diverse living standards, income etc. I enquired about the reason for this disparity. One surprising fact came to the fore , that was “More or less everyone’s guardian worked for the same amount of time but still there was an astronomical difference in their earnings”. I interrogated my seniors, relatives about it. General opinion of everyone was that it was all economics. Each one mentioned something about demand and supply and other economic terms but that could not clarify my doubts.

With each such discussion I could understand a little better but the replies couldn’t satisfy me. So I always wished to go in depth of economics to answer my questions. Also I always liked to have my own firm and carve for myself a place in the corporate world. I used to get inspired by the interviews of big Industrialists, businessman, CEO etc. My father is a hard core businessman. Naturally I was brought up in an aura of business and related activities . I had seen lot of deals being finalized, orders accepted, bonuses, salaries etc. in my presences. I heuristically came to know of economics, accounts etc.

As with every child’s career, there is some wish of their parents also. My father also wanted me to do a major in economics. Naturally so, as he was close to this field and knew very well what a future in it would be like. Also I could receive my father’s help to study economics. Every time that I observed the dealings, workings of my father, many a times I thought of better ways of dealing with the situations and always wanted to implement that. But I was persuaded that there were a lot more intricacies in everything and economics has archive of all this.

In my school there were students from a large number of countries. Also my friend circle comprised of people from diverse countries. They all were interested in economics, business. We had long discussions amongst ourselves upon various business ideas. We have decided to use our relations fruitfully to setup a successful international business. I discussed with them about my thoughts which I wished to implement, as mentioned earlier. We decided to implement all that in our firm and naturally everyone was going deep in the field to search over it.

So unknowingly we had started exploring the intricacies of economics. This again deepened my interest for the subject. After that I shifted to another school following British system (earlier one followed American system). There again I was fortunate to form a similar group. Gradually I learned more of market, meaning of terms like demand, supply, marginal productivity etc. became clearer. Gradually my observation of market and its activities increased. I began to participate more in activities that had something ECONOMICS in it. Meanwhile, Amartya Sen from India received Nobel Prize in economics.

For the first time I came to know that there was a Nobel Prize also for economics, which explained the subject’s importance for the world. I went through his writings and was highly moved by it. I realized that the ideas which I was inventing through my school days were also not too bad compared to his and if polished and well researched could fetch me a Nobel prize. Though this may look a bit over-ambitious but I love challenges and began to see a ray of hope for my Nobel in this field. I wish to contribute something exceptional to the world in the field of economics.

My liking for the field turned into a penchant. During my high school breaks, I used to work as a news writer. There I had the opportunity to visit and write on thick of things. My way of looking, evaluating things got a new dimension. I also had the opportunity to come in contact with great people having diverse view on the subject. I am also fluent in two languages English and Thai, so I read a lot of first hand article on Thailand’s (it’s a flourishing economy) economics and of some other countries also All these events and my longing for a Nobel in economics persuaded me to do my majors in economics.

The character of the Fool in Shakespeare demonstrates another aspect of his role, this time as the person who is best able to tell the truth at a time when other “sane” persons feel themselves confined only to lies or half-truths. While others evade the real issue, the Fool stares it squarely in the face and speaks freely about it. He is candid about the foolishness of Lear’s act in disowning Cordelia in favor of her lying and deceitful sisters Goneril and Regan. He says to Lear, “That sir which serves and seeks for gain, and follows but for form, will pack when it begins to rain, and leave thee in the storm” (II. iv).

He speaks of the future that Lear will face with his two chosen daughters—one of rejection and abuse. He reveals that the love and honor that Goneril and Regan have declared to Lear are only done in pretense and that they reject him now that his wealth is assured to them. This interpretation of the situation shows how wise the Fool really is, though he appears to be nonsensical and is little respected by the characters of higher social status within the play. It also shows his ability to mention the unhappy situation in which Lear finds himself at a time when it might have been uncomfortable for others to speak of it.

The Fool goes on to observe that “Truth’s a dog must to kennel; he must be whipped out” (I. iv). This further highlights his role as the hidden sage that whips the truth out of its kennel and into the light so that it can be viewed by the other characters of the play. Another aspect of Gabriel’s character that highlights his similar role as truth-teller and prophet in the play Fences is the relationship he claims to have with St. Peter. However, this relationship relies even more heavily on the idea of the fool as having divine inspiration.

Gabriel claims to have the ability to speak to heavenly beings that have people’s fate in their hands. He says that St. Peter went “off to sleep and tell me to wake him up when it’s time to open the gates for the judgment” (26). This concurs with the idea of madness as a supernatural connection to heaven that allows the mad person perception beyond the physical. This gives the idea that Gabriel speaks in the behalf of Troy and not merely to condemn him. He is on Troy’s side, as he tries to warn him and gives him hints about how to prevent his destruction.

He says, “I been chasing hellhounds and waiting on the time to tell St. Peter to open the gates” (47). This indicates that Gabriel has influence with the one who holds Troy’s fate, and it is an influence that he attempts to use in Troy’s behalf. Gabriel even seems to be holding back the time of Troy’s judgment, chasing away the hellhounds and delaying the time for St. Peter’s opening of the gates. The end of the play finds Gabriel released from his mental institution, in a way mirroring the release of the angel Gabriel from heaven on Judgment Day.

He carries a trumpet as a means of emphasizing his position. He is a fool, recently released (or escaped) from an asylum, yet his warnings from earlier times have come true. This demonstrates that although he is seen as insane, his status a fool has merely given him insight into the true situations of the play’s characters and the consequences that have come about because of them. He fulfils his job of telling St. Peter to open the gates of heaven. This gesture is now fully seen to be for the purpose of ushering in Troy, who has recently died.

Gabriel’s words coming at this moment show how true his former words had been. Furthermore, the fact that Gabriel is unsuccessful at blowing his trumpet and causing the gates to open shows that the hellhounds might really have snapped up Troy: he is not allowed through the gates of heaven, which do not open until Gabriel dances. Describing this dance Wilson writes, “He begins to dance. A slow, strange dance eerie and life-giving” (101). The dance is prophetic and effective, and this also underlines Gabriel’s role as the fool who acts as a connection between the world and supernatural knowledge and influence.

The two “fools” found in the plays Fences and King Lear perform a similar role of speaking the truth and placing it in the disguise of words spoken by a madman. Both the characters are able to plainly say things that other characters may not be able to say because of their status as persons who are considered less than sane. While they both do appear to have divine revelations, Gabriel’s character seems to be more in tune with the supernatural. Still, both characters appear to have superior intelligence in that they succeed in predicting the outcomes of the actions of principal characters’ Lear and Troy.

The method behind their madness proves itself to be in the ability to warn these characters against their foolish actions in an attempt to help them get their lives back on track.

Works Cited

Hunter, Richard, and Ida MacAlpine, eds. Three Hundred Years of Psychiatry 1535- 1860: a History Presented in Selected English Texts. London: Oxford UP, 1963. Shakespeare, William. King Lear. New York: Washington Square, 1993. Skultans, Vieda. English Madness: Ideas on Insanity, 1580-1890. London: Routledge, 1979. Wilson, August. Fences. New York: Penguin, 1986.

While many of Taft’s experiences in office could be considered failures and often are remembered as that to history, he did make some interesting contributions to the White House and to politics itself. During this period the postal savings bank was created, one of Taft’s major accomplishments. Also, the parcel post system was created and the Sixteenth Amendment was passed, which put in place the legislature needed to make the collection of income tax a part of American life (Modern America).

The Department of Labor was created during his presidency, and two new states, Arizona and New Mexico, were admitted to the union. Another constitutional amendment that “provided for the direct election of senators” was passed along with the Sixteenth Amendment (Pringle). The end of Taft’s presidential career came at the election of 1912. Theodore Roosevelt, completely outraged with his old friend’s time in office, founded the Progressive Republican Party, dubbed “the Bull Moose Party” after a comment made by Roosevelt about how he was “strong as a bull moose” (The Gilded Age).

By doing so, Roosevelt opened the way for him to run against Taft as a third party on the presidential ticket, creating heartbreak for Taft who felt bad about the end of the friendship with Roosevelt (Pringle). Two others ran for the Presidency as well: Eugene Debs for the Socialist Party and Woodrow Wilson for the Democratic Party. This created a situation where the Republicans split the vote two ways, between Roosevelt and Taft depending on whether they were Progressive or Conservative, giving Wilson an easy win in the election (The Gilded Age, Pringle).

The presidency of William Howard Taft was largely remembered as a failure after his defeat in 1912, something that he perhaps already understood and realized. Before his urging by Theodore Roosevelt in 1908, Taft had no interest whatsoever in becoming president, a sentiment best described by himself in a letter to his wife in 1906, “Politics, when I am in it, makes me sick” (Pringle). Taft’s career did not end with the ending of his presidency.

After his loss to Woodrow Wilson in 1912, Taft became a professor at Kent University and later held other positions within politics, such as joint chairman of the National War Labor Board during the First World War, always keeping his eye on returning to his seat as a judge. In 1921 his dream became a reality when he was given the office of Chief Justice on the Supreme Court by President Warren G. Harding. “The court was badly divided when the new chief justice took his place on it.

Taft’s greatest service lay in bringing more harmony and greater efficiency to the court rather than in outstanding contributions to judicial knowledge (Pringle). ” Taft was known to be very conservative in his rulings as Chief Justice, supporting the laws the way they were written, which is exactly what a justice was expected to do. Taft was known as a man who did not let personal opinion influence his rulings and was especially remembered for his support of Prohibition (Pringle).

He was also involved in rulings that opposed heavily taxing companies that used child labor, and his principle interest was in keeping the court moving at a fast pace and not letting dissenting opinions hold the court up (Pringle). His philosophy on his time as a Justice was summed up by him when he said, “I would not think of opposing the views of my brethren if there is a majority against my own” (Pringle). In 1930 Taft’s health took a turn for the worse and he developed heart disease, finally hanging up his robe in February.

A month later, President William Howard Taft died in Washington D. C. The legacy left behind by his time in office was not always pretty but Taft’s time in office was a perfect example of how difficult the times were during the Progressive era. Politics had changed dramatically and the social problems that needed to be fixed by political policy were on the mind of everyone. Parties were incredibly important, so important that a split in a party could cause the entire party to crumble. Taft just happened to take office during a time when he was not able to create a great deal of change.

Simply, he was not a very effective politician and was unable to gain the political clout needed to gain the type of support real change needed (Pringle, William Howard Taft). William Howard Taft’s time in office was shaped drastically by the Progressive Era, not so much because of the accomplishments he made but because of the perceptions others had about the office of the President. Taft followed a very energetic and strong figure, Theodore Roosevelt, and sadly did not live up to the expectations that the Progressive Republicans had for the new President; in fact, he often disappointed them.

During a time when things were changing, he was a man that was dedicated to “not opposing the view of his brethren” (Pringle). Taft was not the type of president that would be progressive in office and therefore his entire time in office was influenced by the era itself. Taft was a conservative president during a progressive time, yet some of his accomplishments in office are still influential in our current society. A great man, a great judge, but an unhappy politician, William Howard Taft made an impact on the Progressive era in many ways.

Works Cited

Pringle, Henry F. “William Howard Taft. ” Encyclopedia Americana. 2006. Grolier Online. 3 Jan. 2007 ;http://ap. grolier. com/article? assetid=0377900-00;. “The Emergence of Modern America. ” National Museum of Modern America. Smithsonian Institution. 4 Jan. 2007 ;http://americanhistory. si. edu/presidency/timeline/pres_era/3_658. html;. “The Gilded Age and the Progressive Era. ” The Gilded Age. 2006. 3 Jan. 2007

To say that a person deserves to die is tantamount to taking justice into one’s own hands and becoming judge, jury and executioner all in one. It is to signify that one has attained the status of a God, able to smite the unworthy and the unjust upon whim. Many people have tried to play this role; Hitler, Stalin and numerous other vigilantes, each convinced that they had the right to take the life of another because of some so-called higher purpose.

It is also plain to see how most, if not all, of these people turned out. Not one of these people lived happily ever after and all of their stories ended in tragedy, much like Hamlet. In anger, frustration, jealousy or hatred, an individual is robbed of most of his senses and perhaps the most important of all, common sense. Polonius was not the most likeable character in the play Hamlet and neither was he a saint but neither was Hamlet.

In Act I, Scene iii, line 96, Polonius says to Ophelia, “You do not understand yourself so clearly as it behooves my daughter and your honor”. While this line clearly shows the hypocrisy of Polonius and reveals his lack of heart and honor, it cannot be said, even in the face of Polonius’ disloyalty, that he deserved to die. Disloyalty was a crime punishable by death but under the current circumstances such a sentence cannot be justified. Loyalty is earned and the actions of Hamlet are hardly those that earn one the loyalty and respect of man.

In the immortal words of Jesus Christ, “Let him without sin cast the first stone. ” While we all may be past throwing stones at each other, it may be important to learn to trust the justice system. It may not always be effective but at least it prevents us from making the bigger sin of condemning an innocent man to death. This is not to say that Polonius was not without sin but then again who are we to judge when we are sinners ourselves.

The last scene of the play (as well as the movie) is action-packed. Laertes and Hamlet engages in duel. At the same time, Gertrude, Claudius and Laertes all died because of poison, be it from the cup or from the tip of the sword. Hamlet also dies from the poison blade. Fortinbras was named the heir and Horatio promises to tell the tale of the Danish prince. Branagh presents his film by juggling the aspects most readers and audience expect from Shakespeare’s plays. Take for example, the religious background. The text is a hybrid of Catholic and Protestant beliefs.

For example, the ghost claims that he is in purgatory because he still has unfinished business. At the same time, Ophelia cannot be buried with the sanctity of the word because she committed suicide. Branagh is aware that the approach of the film must be Protestant because it is set in Denmark. However, he is also unclear whether the play mirrors the actual Denmark or a fictional Denmark. In his film, we see Claudius praying and asking for forgiveness in the confession area. Here, Hamlet could have easily killed him but he didn’t. In Branagh’s adaptation of Hamlet, he mixes both Protestant and Catholic ideologies.

(Hunt) Philosophy students study Hamlet because he is philosophical. In fact, a number of his soliloquies are philosophical in nature. He often discusses existentialism (“To be or not to be”), skepticism (“There is more to heaven and earth that is dreamt of in your philosophy”) and relativism (“Doubt to thou the stars are fire, but never doubt I love. ”) Hamlet also believes that good and evil depends on the mentality of the person doing these actions. This is an idea that is rooted from the Sophists. The individual senses of Hamlet are reflected in his relativistic statements to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern.

One is “There is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so” and “A man may fish with the worm that hath eat of a king and cat of the fish that hath fed of that worm. ” (MacCary 173). As Hamlet, Branagh makes sure that the prince’s monologues were reflections of his state of mind. The way the camera pans in order to show the conflict of his thoughts. There is also a question on whether the apparition actually took place or Hamlet was merely convincing himself that his uncle actually murdered his father so there was an excuse for him to avenge the former king’s death.

The readers of the play and the audience of the film will find themselves shifting from thinking that Hamlet is mad to Hamlet is pretending to be mad after each act. In the scene where Hamlet talks to Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, his wit and sarcasm can be confused with madness. His confrontation with Claudius after seeing his reaction on “The Mousetrap” also confirms his diminishing mental state. His murder of Polonius only concludes that he is in need of mental help. Since we are already talking of psychoanalysis, some critics of Shakespeare believe that “Hamlet” was a form of closure to Shakespeare’s personal life.

The play was written after the death of his son Hamnet. “Hamlet” and “Macbeth” both deals with the relationship between the parents and the son. Both plays also tackle the question of madness in the characters which pretty much reflect what could be the state of Shakespeare’s way of thinking during that time. (Schiesari 402). Finally, Shakespeare’s plays rarely have women. Most of his plays have males as lead characters. At least in “Hamlet”, there may be two female characters, Gertrude and Ophelia, but they are the most memorable women in history because of their strength.

Critics on feminist literature concentrate on the gender system during the time Shakespeare wrote the play in order to explain why Gertrude and Ophelia are the way they are. In the play, both Gertrude and Ophelia are second fiddle to their men Claudius and Hamlet respectively. In the film, we see Hamlet physically hurt both his mother and his lover. There is also the change on how Hamlet sees his mother from whore and back to mother. This is why he loses faith in all women, including Ophelia, who he treats as a whore by shaking her like a mop.

There are debates on whether Gertrude was aware of Claudius murdering the first king. In the film, it is obvious on how torn Gertrude is between her new husband and her son. Readers of Shakespeare often misunderstand Gertrude by accepting her at face value, which is how Hamlet sees her. There is no evidence that Gertrude in fact commit adultery. It is only throughout the play that Hamlet has this in his head but it is never confirmed. There are active feminists who defend Ophelia. They believe that she is quite unfortunate because every man she loved abandon her.

Polonius is murdered, Laertes leaves and Hamlet dumps her. To think, these are the men who make her decisions. Ophelia was in fact driven to madness as opposed to Hamlet who is merely pretending to be mad. (Fisher 311). In his film, Branagh cast two British actresses who are notorious in giving female characters the strength they need despite the cliche weakness. Julie Christie steps out of her retirement to play Gertrude and Kate Winslet is Ophelia. Both actresses are remarkable in their roles. Branagh manages to entice those who aren’t as familiar with the play with those who know “Hamlet” by heart.

His way of directing allows any kind of audience member to understand whatever was going onscreen. He used flashback scenes, especially the one with Hamlet and Ophelia in bed, in order to represent their love. He also uses Fortinbras and his soldiers, in order to let the audience know that an invasion is about to take place. This film adaptation of “Hamlet” allows the audience to be entertained because they can relate with the trials that each character goes through. Branagh is the modern day Shakespeare with this film.

He is able to fuse story and poetry to the audience that speak a different language to the one used in the film.

Works Cited

Fisher, Jerilyn, Women In Literature: Reading Through The Lens of Gender, Greenwood Press, 2004 MacCary, W. Thomas, Hamlet: A Guide To The Play, Greenwood Press, 1998 Schiesari, Juliana, The Gendering of Melancholia: Feminism, Psychoanalysis, and the Symbolics of Loss in Renaissance Literature, Cornell University Press, 1992 Hunt, Caroline, “Hamlet, Tiberius and the Elephants’ Graveyard”, Shakespeare Bulletin, Vol 23, 2005

Kenneth Branagh’s “William Shakespeare’s Hamlet” is the only film adaptation to completely film every scene and dialogue of the play, thus the four hour run. The edited version is over two hours. Branagh takes on the role of the Danish prince, stands behind the camera (as he is the director) and is responsible for the screenplay. ”Hamlet” is one of Shakespeare’s best tragedy. It was written between 1599 and 1601. This is the story of Hamlet who is the Prince of Denmark. He wants to avenge the death of his father who was murdered by his own uncle, Claudius.

Claudius also marries Hamlet’s mother Gertrude. There is still ongoing debate whether Hamlet is really mad or he merely pretends to be mad in order to fool everyone around him. A true blue Shakespearean like Branagh knows that there are three different versions of the play. There is the First Quarto, the Second Quarto and the First Folio. For his movie, Branagh used the Second Quarto and added some lines from the First Folio in order to show the audience the complete version of Shakespeare’s “Hamlet.

” In the big screen, “Hamlet” has been adapted over and over again. Laurence Olivier and Franco Zefferelli had their own versions. The role has been played by actors like Olivier, Mel Gibson and Ethan Hawke (who is the youngest ever to do so. ) However, critics who respect Shakespeare’s works believe that it is only Branagh who got it right. In fact, he was able to present the story of the Danish prince in an engaging manner.

At a time when people are easily bored and has more important stuff to do than spend four hours in the movie house and listen to British actors speak old English and spend minutes talking to themselves, Branagh directs the 1996 version of “Hamlet” as an action-packed and emotionally riveting cinematic masterpiece that has a wonderful ensemble of the best British (and a couple of American) actors. This is because Branagh is the only director-actor-writer who understands how important every scene is in the play. If William Shakespeare were alive, he would have been proud.

The play begins at Elsinore. This is the abode of the Danish royal family. Marcellus and Barnardo, two guards, persuade Horatio, Hamlet’s best friend, that they have seen an apparition which they believe to be the ghost of the former king. Horatio only believes them after seeing the ghost himself. Horatio brings Hamlet with him and together, they wait for the ghost to appear. The ghost confides to his son that he was poisoned by Claudius. He wishes that his death be avenged. Hamlet’s actions toward others clearly show his growing madness.

Experts on the play believe that at the first part of the play, Hamlet was merely pretending to be mad so he could play the people around him, just as he was being played. He accuses his school friends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern that he was being ‘played upon like a pipe. ’Claudius, Gertude and the king’s adviser Polonius are all worried about Hamlet. Hamlet was also mean towards his lover Ophelia, who is also Polonius’ daughter. Ophelia confides in Polonius, therefore making him believe that Hamlet’s madness was due to heartbreak. Hamlet then arranges a play for the king and queen, his uncle and his mother.

He calls it “The Mousetrap” because he intends to confirm the guilt of his uncle. It is a re-enactment of what the ghost told him. The actors Hamlet hired stage the former king’s murder. Claudius’ reaction upon watching the play convinces Hamlet that murder in fact took place. Hamlet’s accusation of Claudius for the murder of the former king disturbs Gertrude. He calls for her son only to be attacked by him. Polonius, who was hiding behind a curtain, screams out for help. Hamlet, thinking he was Claudius, stabbed him to death. The ghost appears for the second time but only Hamlet sees him. He asks Hamlet to treat Gertrude with respect.

Because Gertrude cannot see the ghost, she was convinced that Hamlet is mad. This time, it was Ophelia who was driven to madness – for the death of her father. Laertes, Polonius’ son and Ophelia’s brother, plans to avenge Polonius’ death. Claudius’ plot to have Hamlet executed failed. Instead, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern were killed. Ophelia commits suicide. Hamlet and Horatio arrives in the cemetery. It was only then Hamlet found out the death of his beloved. He weeps genuinely and madly. Laertes and Hamlet engages in a brawl but was broken when Hamlet accepts Laertes’ challenge to a duel.

Sustenance has been an important aspect of government policy. Maintaining the balance between consumption and preservation must be practiced efficiently to protect the interest the future. Moreover, the idea of preservation can also be seen in the arts and history. Preserving these objects, structures and places from the past ensures the legacy of the event, people and place in history for the next generations to see. This paper will look at one of the catalyst that motivated the institutionalization of the preservation movement in the United States.

His passion of saving and protecting old antiquities that have historical worth motivated other people and groups to the same as well. A person, who underwent all these in order for the future generations to have a real feel of what history looked like in the past; William Sumner Appleton. Before trying to look into Appleton’s contribution with the emergence of the US Preservation Movement, the paper will describe his life, works and endeavors. The next thing that the paper will illustrate is Appleton’s impact on motivating the establishment of the US Preservation Movement.

After such, the paper will elaborate the reasons people protect and save objects that have historical bearing and link it to the way Appleton has influenced other people to do such thing. William Sumner Appleton was born on 1874. A member of an old and wealthy Boston family, Appleton helped save the Revere house — and found his life’s calling. He finished his studies at Harvard with an Arts degree.

His education and extensive travel had equipped him to thoroughly understand the lessons of that restoration. His passion for history and its remnants (e. g. artifacts, objects and structures) made him aware that there needs to be an organization that should ensure its continual protection and preservation. In 1910 he founded the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, the first preservation organization with a regional focus in the country. After the establishment of the SPNEA, Appleton used all his efforts and connections trying to save historical antiquities. Appleton valued hand craftsmanship wherever he found it, whether in an ingenious seventeenth-century door latch or a contemporary Boston-made Arts and Crafts vase.

Appleton was especially interested in houses of the earliest colonial era, later dubbed the First Period, because these humble dwellings were vulnerable to drastic remodeling or even demolition. Upon his death in 1947, Appleton and the SPNEA has saved and preserved numerous historical antiquities and structures. Over the years, the society has held title to nearly 90 properties, and thus has disposed of more than 40 structures. Among the sites SPNEA has successfully saved during Appleton’s time include Swett-Isley house, Coffin house, Spencer-Pierce-Little house and other important historical sites and antiquities.

After looking at the biography of William Sumner Appleton, the paper will elaborate the impact that he made in the formation of the US Preservation Movement. Appleton made a huge contribution to the development of the US Preservation Movement. He was the one who set the standard and benchmark for preservation of historical antiquities. He provided a holistic approach in the selection, preservation and maintenance of antiquities that are deemed important in United States history.

What made Mr. Appleton’s society a model for future groups was that it brought a regional dimension to preservation in America. Contrary before Appleton’s time, “the preservation groups that existed then were concerned with a single property – usually patriotic, sometimes literary – to be used as a museum or headquarters. ” This means that Appleton, raised the awareness for preservation from an individual or interest based objective to a regional or countrywide approach. Thus, participation from other concerned groups can be used to further the cause of preservation.

Another aspect that Appleton contributed to the Preservation Movement is he “took a systematic and pragmatic approach ” By creating a means for documentation of historical antiquities and structures, proper records would be ensured for future references. These records include photographs, drawings and measurements. Given the information of Appleton’s contribution to the formation of US Preservation Movement, the paper will now look at his influence in each individual reason for saving historical antiquities for the future generations.

The paper sees that Appleton gave the people the awareness that these things need to be preserved. It is each and everyone’s manifestation of identity, culture and traditions. These antiquities, structures and objects are the witnesses of changes of man’s existence in this world. Having them preserved means that people cherish their heritage & past and at the same time give chance for future generations to appreciate the beauty that history has to offer during that period of time.

Appleton’s dedication and passion enables the people to be motivated in trying to save a part of history that’s not meant to be forgotten. He gives us the power to make change possible and individual efforts don’t go wasted. But on the other hand can create a compilation of individual efforts that can greatly be beneficial for future generations.


Deedy, John, Preserving Old New England in New York Times, May 19, 1985. accessed September 8,2007 available from http://query. nytimes. com/gst/fullpage. html? res=9B01E3DB123BF93AA25756C0A9639 48260&sec=travel&spon=&pagewanted=print

This passage seems to describe the landscape of the Burroughsian novels – a deteriorated city, which only palely echoes the signs of human activity, so crammed with unreality and hallucination that its own facades are beginning to crumble. This desolated vista of the city appears both in the Nova and in the Red Night trilogy. Burroughs depicts a city in which the artifice and the controlling network of information have eaten away at nature itself: They do not have what they call “emotion’s oxygen” in the atmosphere.

The medium in which animal life breathes is not in that soulless place – Yellow plains under white hot blue skies – Metal cities are controlled by the Elders who are heads in bottles – Fastest brains preserved forever […] An intricate bureaucracy wired to the control brains directs all movement . Significantly, these descriptions of the desolate city come from the third person narrator and never from the characters, who do not seem to be aware of, or mind, the squalor surrounding them.

These are the images of a city oversaturated with viruses, hallucinogenic substances and behavioral patterns which enforce incomprehensible laws on individuals. In Cities of the Red Night this image of the city is again (objectively) given by the omniscient narrator: “I will make myself clearer. We know that a consuming passion can produce physical symptoms…fever…loss of appetite…even allergic reactions…and few conditions are more obsessional and potentially self-destructive than love. Are not the symptoms of Virus B-23 simply the symptoms of what we are pleased to call ‘love’?

[…] I suggest that this virus, known as ‘the other half’, turned malignant as a result of the radiation to which the Cities of the Red Night were exposed. ” Ba’dan: This city is given over to competitive games and commerce. Ba’dan closely resembles present-day America with a precarious moneyed elite, a large disaffected middle class and an equally large segment of criminals and outlaws. Unstable, explosive, and swept by whirlwind riots. Everything is true and everything is permitted. In the first example, the virus is insidiously equated with probably the most cherished of human values – love.

The B-23 virus shares the same symptoms with love, therefore it will be very difficult to detect. The quotation outlines the idea that the virus has become “the other half” which constitutes itself in evident antithesis to individuality. The dialectic other becomes ominous and hostile in Burroughs’ cities, the structure itself having become infected. In the second quotation, we can notice how the ultimate example for the city in Burroghs’ novels is the American city, the epitome of capital and of a society organized around, and beneath, a rarefied elite.

Burroughs is thus deconstructing the idealized images of the capitalist city and exposing the unhealthy network of relations governing it. Conclusion This paper has sought to interpret the world depicted by William S. Burroughs – the outcast writer of the Beats – as an unmasking of the spectacular society. In this sense, William S. Burroughs places himself against the grain, he is deconstructing mainstream cultural and political practices of the capital state.

The theoretical texts which were applied in this analysis of Burrough’s work have proven very useful in addressing the following issues: the overlapping of illusion and reality, the invisibility of the spectacle and the paradoxical deterioration of the city, despite the cultural emphasis on surfaces, mirrors and other spectacular devices.

Works Consulted:

Baudrillard, Jean. Simulacra and Simulation. Transl. by Sheila Glaser, University of Michigan Press, 1984. Burroughs, William S. The ticket that exploded. Grove Press, 1987. Debord, Guy. The Society of the Spectacle. New York: Zone Books, 1994,

As in Debord’s scenario, the individual is completely helpless when faced with such a massive and intricate deployment of the spectacle and his agency is paralyzed and made dysfunctional through the multiple tasks set for him by the “reality script”. The complex generative network of the spectacle is very well underlined by Jean Baudrillard, who stated that: “The real is produced from miniaturized cells, matrices and memory banks, models of control – and it can be produced in an indefinite number of times from these. It no longer needs to be rational, because it no longer measures itself either against an ideal or negative instance”

These control matrices are epitomized in The Nova Express by the two gangs – the Nova Mob and the Nova Police. The latter are struggling to bring to the fore the artificial nature of the “reality script”, thus to foreground the spectacularity of the reality forged by the Nova Mob. The world presented in this book has many affinities with the structuralist definition of language and reality as an arbitrary system of signs – ultimately, the reality script itself appears as just one sign in this system whose expansion and existence has come to elude its very creators.

The metaphor of the stage set appears early in the novel, hinting to the connection between spectacle and reality: Well, we hit this town and right away I don’t like it. “Something here John – something wrong – I can feel it. ” But he says I have the copper jitters since the nova heat moved in – Besides we are cool, just rolling flops is all three thousand years in show business – So he sets his amphitheatre in a quarry and begins lining up the women clubs and poets and window dressers and organizes this “Culture Fest” he calls it and I am up in the cabin of a crane pumping air to him.

The parallel with the amphitheatre suggests participation and the people’s active implication in the show. Burroughs creates a world in which, due to massive infusion of hallucinogens, viruses and mind-controlling programs, it has become very difficult, if not impossible to distinguish reality from the spectacle. The writer foregrounds the artificial and produced feature of the landscape as well as the subtle and insidious ways in which master discourses can in fact superimpose on and eventually usurp the expression of individual identity.

In this society, man has become an automaton, with pre-established tasks and preferences, so engrossed in the carrying out of the functions prescribed by the “reality script” that he can no longer recognize his alternative status: puppet and spectator. Not incidentally, the city becomes the central stage for the deployment of the spectacle in Burroughs’ fiction. According to Frederic Jameson, postmodernist aesthetics distinguishes itself from modernism through its insistence on space rather than on time.

In this context, the space becomes highly significant, the sign or trace of multiple discourses and histories. But this space and especially the city is quite problematic if perceived in its function as arena for the development of social and political relations. From a political/ideological angle, the city was so constructed as to embody the ways in which mainstream culture and the leading classes wanted to be perceived by the masses. The postmodern city is the expression of a society which has exacerbated surfaces and appearances to such an extent that the city has become eroded as if by the varnish:

The exhilaration of these new surfaces is all the more paradoxical in that their essential content–the city itself–has deteriorated or disintegrated to a degree surely still inconceivable in the early years of the twentieth century, let alone in the previous era. How urban squalor can be a delight to the eyes when expressed in commodification, and how an unparalleled quantum leap in the alienation of daily life in the city can now be experienced in the form of a strange new hallucinatory exhilaration–these are some of the questions that confront us in this moment of our inquiry.

Nor should the human figure be exempted from investigation, although it seems clear that for the newer aesthetic the representation of space itself has come to be felt as incompatible with the representation of the body: a kind of aesthetic division of labor far more pronounced than in any of the earlier generic conceptions of landscape, and a most ominous symptom indeed. The privileged space of the newer art is radically antianthropomorphic, as in the empty bathrooms of Doug Bond’s work .

William Paterson University, New Jersey, established in 1855 is one of the oldest Universities of the USA. Hence the teaching and the academic experience of the University is distinctly better than that of other younger Universities. Age of the university is a proof of quality education. During these years, it has stood the test of time, and education is a matter of building a character over here. The values and virtues

that build a strong personality are a part of the academic system here. This University offers sizeable concession to the residents of New Jersey, and I very much born and brought up in New Jersey. This surely works in my financial advantage. Moreover, I save considerably on the hostel and food expenses, since I do not need this facilities. A good amount can be saved, over the entire duration of the course.

I intend to do business management course, and the C. M. Cotsakos college of business management at the William Paterson University is a rare place to do this course, simple because it has recently received accreditation from AACSB ( Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business) International. Barely 500 schools across the globe have been awarded this accreditation. This college has an E-trade financial learning center,

which is the hub of electronic business information exchange and analysis for the college and its partners. This is a rare facility for Business Management students, and gives a real life exposure, while studying. These are the reasons why I am interested in attending William Paterson College.

Works – cited page 1. The university & Academics, William Paterson University, Retrieved on 11 May 07

The theme of the spectacle and reality simulation can be very well grasped in Burroughs’ work in light of Guy Debord’s The Society of the Spectacle and Jean Baudrillard’s Simulacra and Simulation. According to Debord, the spectacle has become one with reality in the postmodern space of production: Understood in its totality, the spectacle is both the result and the project of the dominant mode of production. It is not a mere decoration added to the real world.

It is the very heart of this real society’s unreality. In all of its particular manifestations — news, propaganda, advertising, entertainment — the spectacle represents the dominant model of life. It is the omnipresent affirmation of the choices that have already been made in the sphere of production and in the consumption implied by that production. In both form and content the spectacle serves as a total justification of the conditions and goals of the existing system.

The spectacle also represents the constant presence of this justification since it monopolizes the majority of the time spent outside the production process . (The Society of the Spectacle, n. p. ) The spectacle is thus generated by the dominant social class or force via various media which engage individuals in its representational and symbolic modes of exchange but also separate them from actuality. Moreover, the spectacle is aimed at altering perception and ultimately manipulating the mind:

When the real world is transformed into mere images, mere images become real beings — dynamic figments that provide the direct motivations for a hypnotic behavior. Since the spectacle’s job is to use various specialized mediations in order to show us a world that can no longer be directly grasped, it naturally elevates the sense of sight to the special preeminence once occupied by touch: the most abstract and easily deceived sense is the most readily adaptable to the generalized abstraction of present-day society.

But the spectacle is not merely a matter of images, nor even of images plus sounds. It is whatever escapes people’s activity, whatever eludes their practical reconsideration and correction. It is the opposite of dialogue. Wherever representation becomes independent, the spectacle regenerates itself. In this light, the spectacle appears as an external imposition enforced upon the individual who has become unable to perceive the frame of the staging or the actual string that are drawing the puppets.

The invisibility of the spectacular nature of society is a very significant feature and it is particularly important for William S. Burroughs’s work as the author seems to attempt to render visible this unseen game of mirrors. In the Nova Express or Cities of the Red Night, Burroughs constructs characters whose subjectivity seems to have been displaced by myriad external discourses. The societal masterdiscourses appear in this work in the guise of the “Reality Studio” which has created a “Reality Script” – a system of duplicitous signs designed to overlap with people’s consciousness.

Significantly, these scripts get infected with “viruses”, which, in their turn serve to infect humans: “Ladies and gentlemen, I propose to remove the temporal limits, shifting our experimental theatre into past time in order to circumvent the whole tedious problem of overpopulation. You may well ask if we can be certain of uh containing the virus in past time. The answer is: we do not have sufficient data to speak with certainty; We propose; the virus may dispose…”

Another image that Burroughs employs in order to foreground the ways in which the spectacular society alters perception is that of hallucinogens, an ever-present device in his works: We know that you are the chemist responsible for synthesizing the new hallucinogen drugs many which have not been released yet even for experimental purposes – We know also that you have effected certain molecular alterations in the known hallucinogens that are being freely distributed in many quarters – Precisely how are these alterations effected?

William S. Burroughs has become an icon of counterculture and cult fiction. His works were devoted to subverting stereotypes, mainstream cultural patterns and political and ideological impositions. As the quotation below suggests, the author’s charismatic though impenetrable figure has become so fused with his fiction in recent criticism that it is difficult separate the two in any analysis of Burroughs’s work: Cliches and myths abound when it comes to William S. Burroughs.

Exotic uncle to the Beats, he was also a Harvard-educated, gun-toting, wife-slaying, queer junkie American ex-pat sex-tourist who manufactured unreadable cut-up novels (‘that’s not writing, it’s plumbing’: Samuel Beckett, in Harris, p. 158) and whose grumpy face peers lugubriously out from Peter Blake’s pop-art sleeve for Sergeant Pepper. Read his letters and there he is again: a pragmatic, misanthropic voice, chapter-Dashiell Hammett, chapter-Jonathan Swift, complaining about being grifted by his Beat houseguests and playing a sometimes desperate epistolary footsie with Allen Ginsberg (p.157).

Around these chapters (Brighton), at a time when there was still an independent academic bookshop, Burroughs’ texts were routinely the ones stolen, which must be some kind of accolade. Old Bull Lee (Kerouac’s Burroughs cipher from On The Road) is, in short, a real counter-cultural icon . As this quotation suggests, William S. Burroughs was a rogue figure par excellence, his life and art dedicated at exposing the lugubrious shaded side of the spectacular capitalist American society. His friends were the Beats – Allen Ginsberg, Gregory Corso, Jack Kerouac.

His artistic exposure was drastically diminished by his (allegedly accidentally) having murdered his wife as well as by the ostentatiously queer, macabre and sado-masochistic tales present in his works. This delayed public appreciation did not, however, prevent Burroughs from writing in his own, (yet) unclassifiable style. It is especially in his trilogies – The Nova Express and The Red Night – that Burroughs took the task to expose and subvert the society dominated by manipulation, mind-control, the society in which appearance has become reality.

The science-fictional mold in which the author chose to envelop his writings represents a way of testing the signs of the “virus epidemic” to their extreme, to speculate and lay bare all the aspects which might appear “unreal” if tested against a more realistic scenario. This paper will argue that William Burroughs’s fiction is directed at subverting and deconstructing the dominant social order and mainstream conventions and social practices.

In such novels as The Western Lands (1987), The Soft Machine (1961), The Ticket that Exploded (1962) or The Nova Express (1964) the author constructs full-fledged literary outlaws – gangsters, conmen, etc. – in order to epitomize the forceful and illegitimate ways in which ideas, opinions or the entire reality can be imposed on the ostracized other. Therefore, William Burroughs’ novels also offer a reflection of American capitalist society and its unorthodox power relations.

The paper will be structured in two parts approaching this theme in Burroughs’ work from two different viewpoints: on the one hand, the spectacular nature of the society the author constructs and, on the other hand, the function of cities and space in his novels. The specular/spectacular character of Burroughs’ work will be analyzed in light of Guy Debord’s The Society of the Spectacle and Jean Baudrillard’s Simulacra and Simulation. In his article on Burroughs, Frederick M.

Dolan argues that in the writer’s novels, all the rogue figures “control others by mastering the art of producing vivid and convincing representations, exploiting the naive, metaphysical urge to believe that when language appears most meaningful, it has because it has established a referential relationship to the world” . This is precisely what the “society of the spectacle” is attempting to achieve by superimposing the show of capitalist order on everyday reality.

The second theme under investigation in this analysis of Burroughs’ counter-cultural deconstruction will be the author’s subversion of space, namely, the significance of the city as the stage for the deployment of undemocratic power relations. The city is an important figure in Burroughs’s fiction and space appears to define a trajectory through which the author maps the signposts of contemporary man’s suppression.

Such novels as Junky, The Naked Lunch, The Ticket that Exploded, Nova Express or The Western Lands are constructed around this idea of the city. In this respect, Burroughs’s fiction partakes of the postmodernist aesthetics and its emphasis on space, as Frederic Jameson argued. Such cities as New York, Mexico City, Tangier, London, Paris, Lima or even his home-town St. Louis become the stagings of complex power relations, and the theatres of characters obsessed with mind-control, manipulation, blinding and delusions.

Not only is his high bid, reason behind his victory. Also the supports of industrialist and businessman. We demand that every citizen of the United States shall be allowed to cast one free and unrestricted ballot, and that such ballot shall be counted and returned as cast. We proclaim our unqualified condemnation of the uncivilized and preposterous [barbarous] practice well known as Iynching, and the killing of human beings suspected or charged with crime without process of law.

We favor the creation of a National Board of Arbitration to settle and adjust differences which may arise between employers and employed engaged in inter-State commerce. We believe in an immediate return to the free homestead policy of the Republican party, and urge the passage by Congress of a satisfactory free homestead measure which has already passed the House, and is now pending in the senate. We favor the admission of the remaining Territories at the earliest practicable date having due regard to the interests of the people of the Territories and of the United States.

And the Federal officers appointed for the Territories should be selected from the bona-fide residents thereof, and the right of self-government should be accorded them as far as practicable. We believe that the citizens of Alaska should have representation in the Congress of the United States, to the end that needful legislation may be intelligently enacted. We sympathize fully with all legitimate efforts to lessen and prevent the evils of intemperance and promote morality.

The Republican party is mindful of the rights and interests of women, and believes that they should be accorded equal opportunities, equal pay for equal work, and protection to the home. We favor the admission of women to wider spheres of usefulness and welcome their co-operation in rescuing the country from Democratic and Populist mismanagement and misrule. Such are the principles and policies of the Republican Party. By these principles, we will apply it to those policies and put them into execution.

We rely on the faithful and considerate judgment of the American people, confident alike of the history of our great party and in the justice of our cause, and we present our platform and our candidates in the full assurance that their selection will bring victory to the Republican Party, and prosperity to the people of the United States. Almost all platforms of Republican are in favor of Industrialist, which influence on the election. William McKinley lead a campaign “Front porch”. All supporters getting their free or discounted tickets and traveled to the McKinley home.

In the home candidate answered questions and delivered short speeches. He pointed out that reduction in the economy caused by free silver would result in higher consumer prices for workers and weaken the national credit necessary for business expansion and job creation. As the campaign progressed, he focused increasingly on protective tariffs as the economic basis for the nation’s past prosperity and future recovery. While praising trade protectionism, the GOP labeled Democrats erroneously as free traders. Inverting Bryan’s assumption, McKinley argued that productive business and industry supported a profitable agricultural sector.

Republicans not only shame free silver as economically foolish, but informed voters that the Democratic Party certified the Populist and Socialist programs, like government ownership of communication and transportation businesses. The GOP criticized “anarchy plank” of the Democratic platform, which indirectly ill-favored federal intervention in the Pullman strike of 1894. Considering John Peter Altgeld the power behind Bryan, they vilified the Illinois governor for objecting to the use of federal troops to quell the strike and for pardoning three men convicted in the Haymarket bombing.

“Altgeldism” became shorthand for social chaos and political radicalism. McKinley stressed the theme of national unity and rebuked Bryan for encouraging sectionalism and class conflict rich versus poor, farmers versus businessmen, and labor versus capital. In fact, he did used legal methods, but instead borrowed tactics from the advertising industry to “sell” McKinley with marketing slogans such as “The Advance Agent of Prosperity.

” Hanna dispatched nearly 1500 speakers across the country, spent most of the Republican war chest in the Midwest, and flooded the country with an estimated 250 million pieces of campaign literature (published in various languages) so that at times each American home was receiving pro-McKinley material on a weekly basis. Mark Hanna, Ohio businessman had worked on the presidential campaigns of Ohioans Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876, James A. Garfield in 1880, and John Sherman in 1884 and 1888. In1895 he devote his all the time to McKinley’s presidential bid.

Hanna was assisted in 1896 by Charles Dawes (later vice president under Calvin Coolidge), who administered the flow of money. For the presidential contest, Republicans raised $3. 5 million. So McKinley spent roughly $7 million (out of which $ 4million spent on propaganda) on their campaign and hence that is his bid for the white house (presidency). William McKinley’s supporter: Marcus Hanna: McKinley’s friend Marcus Hanna of Ohio had engineered his nomination, and after the convention directed the party’s national campaign.

An industrialist in the coal and iron industries, Hanna seems to have had a local reputation for fair dealings with his workers. An excellent strategist, he was helped in his fundraising efforts by the Democrats’ free silver and income tax planks, which terrified the nation’s elite. Hanna collected enormous sums from leading industrialists and financiers, leading to widespread accusations that Republicans were in league with trusts. Garrett A. Hobart, (McKinley’s Running Mate) a New Jersey businessman and legislator hand-picked by McKinley’s team, easily took the vice-presidential slot.

Henry Teller of Colorado, a 66-year old railroad lawyer who had served in the U. S. Senate for twenty years, led the Western delegates who sought a “free silver” plank. They lost overwhelmingly. Teller and 22 other Western Republicans walked out of the Republican convention in protest. Eugene Debs: A president of the American Railway Union, and became a socialist and would later be the five-time presidential nominee of the Socialist Party (1900, 1904, 1908, 1912, and 1920). He supported for their free or discounted railway tickets. McKinley was supported mainly by voter.

We denounce the present tariff as sectional, injurious to the public credit and destructive to business enterprise. We demand such an equitable tariff on foreign imports which come into competition with the American products as will not only furnish adequate revenue for the necessary expenses of the Government, but will protect American labor from degradation and the wage level of other lands. We are not pledged to any particular schedules. The question of rates is a practical question, to be governed by the conditions of time and of production.

The ruling and uncompromising principle is the protection and development of American labor and industries. The country demands a right settlement, and then it wants rest. We believe the repeal of the reciprocity arrangements negotiated by the last Republican Administration was a National calamity, and demand their renewal and extension on such terms as will equalize our trade with other nations, remove the restrictions which now obstruct the sale of American products in the ports of other countries, and secure enlarged markets for the products of our farms, forests, and factories.

Protection and Reciprocity are twin measures of American policy and go hand in hand. Democratic rule has recklessly struck down both, and both must be re-established. Protection for what we produce; free admission for the necessaries of life which we do not produce; reciprocal agreement of mutual interests, which gain open markets for us in return for our open markets for others. Protection builds up domestic industry and trade and secures our own market for ourselves; reciprocity builds up foreign trade and finds an outlet for our surplus.

We condemn the present administration for not keeping pace [faith] with the sugar producers of this country. The Republican party favors such protection as will lead to the production on American soil of all the sugar which the American people use, and for which they pay other countries more than one hundred million dollars annually. To all our products; to those of the mine and the fields, as well as to those of the shop and the factory, to hemp and wool, the product of the great industry sheep husbandry; as well as to the foundry, as to the mills, we promise the most ample protection.

We favor the early American policy of discriminating duties for the up building of our merchant marine. To the protection of our shipping in the foreign-carrying trade, so that American ships, the product of American labor, employed in American ship-yards, sailing under the stars and stripes, and manned, officered and owned by Americans, may regain the carrying of our foreign commerce. The Republican party is unreservedly for sound money.

It caused the enactment of a law providing for the redemption [resumption] of specie payments in 1879. Since then every dollar has been as good as gold. We are unalterably opposed to every measure calculated to debase our currency or impair the credit of our country. We are therefore opposed to the free coinage of silver, except by international agreement with the leading commercial nations of the earth, which agreement we pledge ourselves to promote, and until such agreement can be obtained, the existing gold standard must be maintained.

All of our silver and paper currency must be maintained at parity with gold, and we favor all measures designated to maintain inviolable the obligations of the United States, of all our money, whether coin or paper, at the present standard, the standard of most enlightened nations of the earth. The veterans of the Union Armies deserve and should receive fair treatment and generous recognition. Whenever practicable they should be given the preference in, the matter of employment.

And they are entitled to the enactment of such laws as are best calculated to secure the fulfillment of the pledges made to them in the dark days of the country’s peril. We denounce the practice in the pension bureau so recklessly and unjustly carried on by the present Administration of reducing pensions and arbitrarily dropping names from the rolls, as deserving the severest condemnation of the American people. Our foreign policy should be at all times firm, vigorous and dignified, and all our interests in the western hemisphere should be carefully watched and guarded.

The Hawaiian Islands should be controlled by the United States, and no foreign power should be permitted to interfere with them. The Nicaragua Canal should be built, owned and operated by the United States. Moreover, by the purchase of the Danish Islands we should secure a much needed Naval station in the West Indies. The massacres in Armenia have aroused the deep sympathy and just indignation of the American people, and we believe that the United States should exercise all the influence it can properly exert to bring these atrocities to an end.

In Turkey, American residents have been exposed to gravest [grievous] dangers and American property destroyed. There, and everywhere, American citizens and American property must be absolutely protected at all hazards and at any cost. We reassert the Monroe Doctrine in its full extent, and we reaffirm the rights of the United States to give the Doctrine effect by responding to the appeal of any American State for friendly intervention in ease of European encroachment.

We have not interfered and shall not interfere, with the existing possession of any European power in this hemisphere, and to the ultimate union of all the English speaking parts of the continent by the free consent of its inhabitants; from the hour of achieving their own independence the people of the United States have regarded with sympathy the struggles of other American peoples to free themselves from European domination. We watch with deep and abiding interest the heroic battles of the Cuban patriots against cruelty and oppression, and best hopes go out for the full success of their determined contest for liberty.

The government of Spain, having lost control of Cuba, and being unable to protect the property or lives of resident American citizens, or to comply with its Treaty obligations, we believe that the government of the United States should actively use its influence and good offices to restore peace and give independence to the Island. The peace and security of the Republic and the maintenance of its rightful influence among the nations of the earth demand a naval power commensurate with its position and responsibilities. We, therefore, favor the continued enlargement of the navy, and a complete system of harbor and seacoast defenses.

For the protection of the equality of our American citizenship and of the wages of our workingmen, against the fatal competition of low priced labor, we demand that the immigration laws be thoroughly enforced, and so extended as to exclude from entrance to the United States those who can neither read nor write. The civil service law was placed on the statute book by the Republican party which has always sustained it, and we renew our repeated declarations that it shall be thoroughly and heartily, and honestly enforced, and extended wherever practicable.

In Karl Marx’s philosophy, he explained that man uses certain nature or object in order to explain the value of another object. This philosophy tends to switch the value of two objects wherein the value of the object A will be the switched with the value of the object B and vise versa.

The connection of these switching values as Marx explained is that when two objects are converted to the value of each other, they are considered as reverse or almost balance wherein no matter how low the object A values, when switched with the value of the object B, then the object A will be as high as the former value of the object B and the object B will currently have the value of the object A. Marx simply wanted to show that in order to make a surplus type of value, the higher value will be exchanged with the lower value.

In the poem, Lucy is often switched to the value of another object such as when she was symbolized by the moon. Lucy is considered as precious and as beautiful as the moon wherein the moon’s value was taken by the narrator in order to make it the value of Lucy. Another is when the narrator said that Lucy is like the fresh rose in June: a fresh rose in June is a beautiful, soft, and sweet characterized object and therefore the narrator considered Lucy as sweet, soft, and beautiful (“Marx’s Theory of Surplus-Value”). Hyperbole

Hyperbole is explained as the kind of figure of speech which expresses something through making it extremely exaggerated. Lots of hyperbole words can be recognized in Wordsworth’s poem such as when the narrator stated that “his horse moved on; hoof after another”, and when they finally arrived at Lucy’s cottage, the narrator said that “the moon which he defined as bright suddenly dropped”. This part of the poem is considered a hyperbole when the narrator said the statement that when they reached the cottage then the bright moon suddenly dropped which is exaggerated or is literally untrue (Ltd).

Symbolism This figure of speech is almost the same as Karl Marx’s philosophy towards objects’ value. Objects in symbolism can act or serve as another object such as in the poem. There are such examples of the uses of symbolism in the poem such as the statement of fresh rose on June which symbolizes Lucy and another is when the moon was also used by the narrator in order to symbolize Lucy (Ltd). Conclusion

Wordsworth unconsciously used lots of different structures in his poem because he created his poem through strongly expressing passion for the love towards a certain woman he once loved. These said structures were discussed as a part of symbolism, hyperbole, and thus a certain philosophy from Karl Marx about the exchange value of a certain object. This poem also is considered as rhetorical structured statements which made the poem so simple but strongly striking.

It is the kind of poem that allows the reader to emotionally understand the author’s feeling and to explore the authors past as he tells about his story as well. Therefore, Lucy, a strange fits of passion is a sophisticatedly structured lyrical poem which is created for the purpose of understanding the passion that the author has and thus it is created to address his past experience about a love he once felt with the undying strange feeling of passion.

Works Cited

Ltd, Red Apple Education. “Hyperbole, Allusion, Symbolism, Synechdoche, Metonomy.” (2007). November 30 <http://www. skwirk. com. au/p-c_s-54_u-245_t-639_c-2370/hyperbole-allusion-symbolism-synechdoche-metonomy/nsw/hyperbole-allusion-symbolism-synechdoche-metonomy/skills-by-mode-reading-and-writing/required-skills-and-knowledge-language-features-and-techniques>. “Marx’s Theory of Surplus-Value. ” (2007). November 30 <http://www. geocities. com/youth4sa/economics2. html>. Wordsworth, William. “Lucy. ” (2007). November 30 <http://www. online-literature. com/wordsworth/520/>.