Assignment Title:



Submitted By:   Ali Asad Yousaf (04-arid-35) Ph.D (Food Technology) 1st

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Submitted To:   Dr. Tayyaba Zainab

Course Title:
     Fundamentals of Biotechnology (BCH-724)

Area of
Research:            Baking Science, Role of Enzymes (Amylases) along
with Baker’s                                          Yeast


            Industrial production of
different enzymes and yeast which are considered as essential ingredient for
many food industries are being isolated and produced through biotechnology. Recent
developments in the area of biotechnology have made possible for food
technologists to utilize modified enzymes that would available for processed-food
industry such as baking, brewing, fruit juices and starch syrups.1, 2
In baking industry, the role of enzymes especially Amylases cannot be denied
due to their anit-stailing and smooth dough handling attributes. These are also
essential for attaining proper crumb texture, color, taste, moisture and
volume.3, 4, 5, 9

            Amylases hydrolyses the internal ?-1,4-glycosidic linkages of starch molecule to
convert it in its lower molecular weight derivatives like  glucose, maltose and maltotrioses.5, 7, 8
Amylases are also considerably vital as they have almost 25% share in the world
enzyme market that produce commercially through biotechnological means.8 Although
amylases can be acquired from multiple sources, such as plants, animals and
microorganisms but due to the advancements in food biotechnology, the microbial
amylases have almost swapped the others. In baking industry, now a days, starch
hydrolysis is done through these enzymes instead of chemical means.9

            A lot of enzymes are now produced on commercial bases by Genetically
Modified Organisms with the goal to attain higher production yields and
obviously of reduced costs.10 Thermo-stable maltogenic amylases
obtained from genetically engineered bacterial specie Bacillus stearothermophilus
are used commercially in bakery industry. 9 It is worth
mentioning here that these modified microbial amylases are more stable and have
broad spectrum of industrial applications than that of produced by chemical
means through plant and animal sources. 11

            In addition to
amylases, yeast is also another vital ingredient which is genetically modified
to improve and to maintain bread quality. The modification is desired Baker’s
Yeast to enhance its ability for dough leavening, its stability to tolerate
higher temperatures and varying pH ranges.10 In 1990, Gist-Brocades
(Delft, The Netherlands)12 developed the first genetically
modified baker’s yeast that was produced through self-cloned organism in which a
gene and promoter were transferred from a closely related yeast isolated into
another yeast strain. 13, 14

Literature Cited:

Couto, S. R and M. A. Sanromán. 2006. Application of
solid-state fermentation to food industry: A   review. J. Food Engr. 76: 291-302.


Marc J. E. C. van der Maarel, B. van der Veen, J. C. M.
Uitdehaag, H. Leemhuis, L. Dijkhuizen. 2002. Review article: Properties and applications of
starch-converting enzymes of the ?-amylase          family. J. Biotechnol. 94: 137-155.


De Stefanis, V.A and E.W Turner. 1981. Modified enzyme system
to inhibit bread firming method    for
          preparing same and use of
same in bread and other bakery products. Patent application                US4299848.


Sahlstro, S and E. Brathen. 1997. Effects of enzyme
preparations for baking, mixing time    and
resting time   on bread quality and
bread staling. Food Chem. 58: 75–80.


Gupta, R., P. Gigras, H. Mohapatra, V. K. Goswami, B. Chauhan.
2003. Microbial ?-amylases: A            biotechnological
perspective. Process. Biochem. 38: 1599 – 1616.


Kandra, L. 2003. ?-Amylases of medical and industrial
importance. J. Mol. Struc. (Theochem).  666–667,       487–498.


Rajagopalan, G. and C. Krishnan. 2008. Alpha-amylase
production from catabolite depressed Bacillus             subtilis KCC103 utilizing sugarcane bagasse
hydrolysate. Bioresour. Technol. 99: 3044-3050.


Reddy, N.S., A. Nimmagadda, K. R. S. Rao. 2003. An overview
of the microbial ?-amylase family. Afr. J.             Biotechnol. 2: 645-648.


De Souza, P. M and M. Pérola de Oliveira. 2010. Application of
Microbial ?-amylase in Industry: A   Review.
Braz. J. Microbiol. 41: 850-861


Linko, Y. Y., P. Javanainen, S. Linko. 1997. Biotechnology of
bread baking. Trends Food Sci.
 Technol. 81:        39-44.


Tanyildizi, M. S., D. Ozer, M. Elibol. 2005. Optimization of ?-amylase
production by Bacillus sp. using                response
surface methodology. Process. Biochem. 40: 2291–    2296.


Osinga, K. A., R. F Beudeker, J. B. Van der Plat, J. A. De
Hollander. 1989. Recombinant Yeast for More             Efficient Sugar Fermentation. Euro. P. 306-107.


Lloyd-Evans, L.P.M. 1994. Biotechnology-derived Foods and the
Battleground of Labelling. Trends Food        Sci.
Technol. 5: 363-367.


Teuber, M. 1993. Genetic Engineering Techniques in Food
Microbiology. Food Rev. Int.     9: 389-409.



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