?In Contrast to Plato
Unlike Plato, Aristotle believed that sensory perceptions in the human soul are reflections of
objects, and thoughts in consciousness are based on what we have already seen. He believed that humans
have the innate power of reason, and the innate faculty of organizing things into categories and classes,
but no innate ideas.


No Innate Ideas
Plato believed that the idea chicken came before the sensory worlds chicken, but Aristotle refused
this theory. The form of chicken is eternal, but every chicken flows, meaning it cant live forever. The
form chicken is made up of a chickens characteristics, such as cackling and laying eggs. Therefore the form
can not exist on its own, and can not be separated from any chicken.

According to Aristotle, reality consists of separate things that constitute a unity of form and
substance, which is what the object is made of. A chickens substance, for example, would be its feathers,
flesh, beak, etc. Unlike form, substance still remains when a creature dies, and it as well has the potential
to realize a specific form.
Every change in nature is transformation from potential to the actual. For eggsample, a chickens
egg has the potentiality to become a chicken, or to realise its form. In the case of nonliving organisms, an
example to think about is that a stones form is to fall to the ground.

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The Final Cause
Aristotle believed that there were four causes for the occurrences of life: the material cause, the
efficient cause, the formal cause, and the final cause. When rain falls, the material cause is that the
moisture is there when the air is cooling. The efficient cause is that moisture cools, the formal cause is the
form of water is to fall, and the final cause is that so that plants can grow.


Natures Scale
E.g. Cats: Living
PlantsCreatures
Animals Humans
In Aristotles mind, there were no sharp boundaries in the natural world. His scale ranked living
organisms from plants and simple animals to complicated animals, with man at the top of the scale,
because man can grow and absorb food like plants and animals can, but also has specific human traits (i.e.,
he can think rationally).


Women
Another difference between Plato and Aristotle was that Aristotle believed that women were
unfinished versions of man, and that children inherited solely the males characteristics because males are
active in reproduction and females are passive. Aristotle believed that females were like the soil for the
human seed to grow inthat man provided form, and woman substance. Unfortunately, Aristotles
views held sway during the Middle Ages, which was a major reason for the sexism of the time.


Ethics
The only way to achieve happiness in Aristotles mind was to use all of ones capabilities. There
were three forms of happiness:1) A life of pleasure and enjoyment.

2) A life as a free and responsible citizen.

3) A life as a thinker and a philosopher.

Aristotle rejected an imbalance of these, and said that one must have all three to be truly happy. He also
insisted that this sort of balance was important in human relationships, and advocated what he called the
Golden Mean. This meant finding a middle ground for everything; for example, not to be cowardly or
rash, but courageous.


Politics
Aristotle claimed that man was a political animal, and that there were three good forms of
constitution: monarchy (one head of state), aristocracy (a larger or smaller group of leaders), and polity
(democracy). However, there were conditions with each of these suggestions: a monarchy must not become
tyranny, where the leader governs to his own advantage; an aristocracy must not become an
oligarchy, where a select few are in charge; and a democracy must not become a mob rule.

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Aristotle
One of the greatest thinkers of all time was Aristotle-322 BC, the
Ancient Greek philosopher. He has practically influenced every area of present
day thinking. His main focal points were the natural and social sciences. In
Stagira, a town on the northwest coast of the Aegean Sea, in the year of 384 BC
Aristotle was introduced to the world. He grew up a wealthy boy. His father
was friends with the noble king of Macedonia, and as a young man he spent the
majority of his time at the Macedonian court. At the age of seventeen, he was
sent away to study in Athens. It was there that he transformed to a disciple of
Plato. Over time, Aristotle became the “mind of the school”. Later in his life,
he followed his mentor and became a teacher in a school on the coast of Asia
minor. Aristotle was the professor of young prince Alexander, who went on to
become the ruler Alexander the Great.

Aristotle was the first known person to make major advances in the
fields of logic, physical works( such as physics, meteorologists, ect.) ,
psychological works,and natural history( modern day biology). His most
famous studies are in the field of philosophical works. His studies play an
important role in the early history of chemistry. Aristotle was the first
person to propose the idea of atoms matter and other grand ideas.

Aristotle made the first major advances in the field of philosophy of
nature. He saw the universe as lying between two scales: form without matter
and is at one end and matter without form is at the other end. One the most
important aspects of Aristotle’s philosophy was the development of potentiality
to actuality. That can be explained as something possibility in terms of its
accuracy. The actual state compare to the potential state is demonstrated in
terms of the causes which act on things. The four causes include material cause,
efficient cause, formal cause, and final cause. First the material cause is
also defined as the elements out of which matter is created. The way in which
matter is created is known as efficient cause. Formal cause is called the
expression of what the material actually is . The last cause, appropriately
named final cause, is for the end of the substance.

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An example, actual compared to potential, can be as simple as bronze
statue.The material cause is plainly the bronze. Its efficient cause is the
sculptor . The formal cause is the idea of the statue, as the sculptor
envisions it . The final cause is the perfection of the statue . These four
stages of creation through termination exist throughout nature. Aristotle’s
vision of early chemistry created a strong foundation for the chemists of today .


Works Cited
Aristotle (Internet Encylopedia of Philosophy). (Online) Available
http://utm.edu/research/iep/a/aristotl/htm
Aristotle’s Page. (Online) Available http://eng.ox.ac.uk/jdr/aristo/html
Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia. 1995 Compton’s NewMedia, Inc.


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