Antioxidants coffee, cocoa, fruit juice and wine

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Antioxidants are substances that would promote delay or inhibition of oxidation of biomoleculessuch as lipids (Murdiati et al, 2015). The human body as well as all living organisms has this very common trait which helps our body fend off diseases which are antioxidants. These are naturally occurring substances that the body produces. These substances are glutathione, alpha-lipoic acid, coenzyme Q, ferritin, uric acid, bilirubin,metallothionein, L-carnitine, melatonin, enzymatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (GPXs), thioredoxins (TRX) and peroxiredoxins (PRXs) which scavengereactive species. (Bruno Moukette et al., 2014) There are a lot of studies stating that common active natural antioxidants can be found in plants with chemical compounds like polyphenols(Can-Cauich et al., 2017). Polyphenols, such as phenolics, flavonoids, and phenolic acid, are the most abundant antioxidants in the human diet, and are common constituents in food. These constituents are found abundantly in most commonly ingested fruits, vegetables, cereals, olive, dry legumes, chocolate, and beverages, such as tea, coffee, cocoa, fruit juice and wine (Engida et al., 2014). The phenolic acids which are commonly produced in variable amounts is part of the body’s multifunctional defense system against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. These harmful entities would include bacteria, pollution and other species that could possibly harm plants. (BinXiaoFu et al., 2017)These compounds have redox properties which permit them to act as reducing agents by donating their available electrons. As an aftereffect, they can scavenge free radicals, preventing and terminating radical chain reactions and chelating transitional metals. These would contribute to its possible health benefits like repairing or preventing cell damage cause by the reactive oxygen species (ROS)(Can-Cauich et al., 2017). The presence of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in highly abundant amounts such as superoxide anion (O2•?),hydroxyl radical (OH•) and peroxyl radical (ROO•) produced could be extremely reactive and harmful to the cells (in vivo) (Gouveia-Figueira et al,. 2014).  Studies have shown and indicated that the human cell is exposed nearly 1.5 x 105 oxidative substances a day from very reactive species, such hydroxyl radicals and other reactive species. The production of various reactive free radicals is closely associated with the reaction of redox-active metals. The release of free iron in the oxidation process is due to the help of oxygen, and the free iron ions would now help in a reaction called Fenton reaction, this would then produce highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The oxygen radicals which are produced by a metal would lead to an attack on the DNA in the nucleus and also other cell components are affected as well. These components of the cell would include the polyunsaturated fatty acid residues of phospholipids, which are very susceptible to oxidation. Lipid peroxidation is commonly seen in the deterioration of polyunsaturated lipids, and this would include reactive oxygen species and and other transition metals, resulting in the production of various cytotoxic products, in which most are aldehydes, like 4-hydroxynonrnal (HNE) and malon-dialdehyde (MDA). The oxidative processes by these free radicals would also affect proteins by reacting with carbonyl groups that would lead to the production of protein-centered alkyl groups. (Bruno Moukette et al., 2014)Oxidative stress is known to be very much relevant as the contributing factor to the pathology of several chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, and tissue damage in rheumatoid arthritis, as well as a major contributing factor in the induction of neurodegenerative diseases and aging (Engida et al., 2014).      Epidemiological studies have tested and indicated that a diet loaded in fruits and vegetables are associated with drastic decreased in the risk of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers. These health benefits have been particularly identified as the constituent responsible for the said effect  and these are the presence of phenolic compounds in dietary plants, which may result to their characteristic activity which is antioxidant properti. It is just one of the many plants which posses polyphenols, specifically flavonoids in Chrysophyllum cainito L. (Sapotaceae), commonly known as caimito or star apple in the Philippines, it  is also a neotropical tree praised for its ornamental quality and delectable edible fruits. Aside from the commonly used in culinary, its leaves are very much used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and many other inflammatory diseases (Meira et al., 2015). As indicated in the studies that most antioxidant compounds are extracted by using suitable solvents or your solvent of choice and followed by evaporation methods to concentrate the product. The physical characteristics of the desired constituent should be considered as well such as solubility and the extractability of the phenolic compound that are present in food. The polarity of the constituent and the nature of the compound, as well as the chemical properties should be considered. The composition of the food matrix and its interaction with the compound and several factors such temperature, solvent to sample ratio, size of particles, time, the number of extractions done on the sample, and as well as its solvent type should be considered. (Issis et al., 2017) As stated in a research and testing, the leaves were screened for its major secondary metabolites through phytochemical screening (flavonoids, essential oils, tannins, glycosides, alkaloids and resins) these certain chemical test were done and carried out by performing preliminary phytochemical tests (Shailajan et al., 2014). As time pass by and new research were made, a variety of spectrophotometric assays has been conducted and analyze to measure antioxidant capacities and capability of foods, the most popular being 2,20-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. For more specifications about the current spectrophotometric assay, the ABTS assay is based on its ability to produce a blue/green ABTS+ that can be reduced by antioxidants; whereas the DPPH assay is based on its capability to reduce the purple DPPH to 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine. The assays are both efficient in their application in determining antioxidant activities and therefore commonly used and well known; however due to their use of non physiological radicals they are limited (Floegel et al., 2014). As stated in a research, it is said that ABTS assay is better at determining and identifying the antioxidant capability and capacity of foods, such as vegetables, fruits and beverages.These studes indicate that ABTS assay is way better than DPPH assay when used to test antioxidant properties of various plant foods containing hydrophilic, lipophilic, and high-pigmented antioxidant compounds (Floegel et al., 2014).  

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