Another minimal progress. With this it limits the
Another vital aspect to teaching is the element of feedback within a classroom, Weeden and Lambert (2006, P13) state that ‘Feedback from teachers, orally or written, is an essential part of formative assessment’.With how vital both aspects are to teaching it is important to be able to construct and analyse arguments to different theories.Formative assessment comes in many systems, one of the main aspects of this paper will to understand and query the methods of questioning within a classroom, especially the use of effective or rich questioning (Weeden and Lambert 2006, P9).Wragg (1989) stated that because teachers ask so many questions per day it is easy to slip into a habitual nature, because of this Wragg argues that lower order questioning tends to be the question type of choice that is asked to students because teachers feel safest that this level questioning allows the lesson to move freely.With this in mind it can lead to the presumption that teachers are asking questions to ‘tick a box’, these questions have little relevance and can be so low level that they show the teacher very minimal progress. With this it limits the ability to adapt and judge the students full progress in the classroom, this issue of questioning is supported by Wragg (1989), as the questions can be habitually low level it can lead to the reduction of bespoke lessons as teachers follow a set lesson plan with very little deviation or relevant progress checking.By studying and reflecting on the processes observed in lessons it will allow me to further understand the process of ‘rich questioning’ (Weeden and Lambert, 2006, P9).A second important aspect to questioning is the use of wait time, Rowe (1979) argues that increasing the wait time to a response improves results. It allows students time to digest a question and think on a higher level for their answer.Along with effective questioning, another major aspect of formative assessment as mentioned is the need for effective feedback.Hattie (1992) argues that;”the most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be dollops of feedback”Although feedback is an important aspect of teaching and learning feedback for feedbacks sake can be another tick box exercise, feedback which is given needs to be effective. Corrective rather than criticizing, specific rather than ‘tick and flick’.Cauley and McMillan (2010, cited by Young and Jackman 2014) recognise that formative assessments are recognised by teachers and administrators as one of the most powerful ways to enhance student motivation and assessment.As it is evident that the process of assessment, especially formative assessment types are so important to the classroom environment it is of upper importance to be able to attribute successful practice and theory to these aspects of teaching.The theorists stated all argue that both aspects of assessment are important, and that if used correctly effective formative assessment in the form of questioning, as well as effective feedback both promote a level of higher thinking and learning within the classroom environment.In theory the aspects of formative assessment such as questioning, and feedback are in essence vital tools to understanding the development of students’ knowledge. However, the issues with these aspects are that they can be included in a lesson in such a way that they are seen as ‘tick box’ methods of teaching.Teachers ask questions and give feedback because they have to, rather than to encourage deeper learning.If the theories and process looked at during this paper, such as wait time, rich questioning and effective feedback are adhered to and actively included in lessons it can promote a sense of self learning.I feel that if actioned correctly and effective questions are used more habitual than low level thinking it can promote deeper thinking and learning within the classroom.In Weeden and Lamberts ‘Inside the black box, assessment for learning in the geography classroom (Part of the black box assessment for learning series, Black and William, 1998) it is stated that; “Teachers can find ways to use questions that encourage the higher order thought processes in Bloom’s taxonomy; such as application, analysis, synthesis and valuation.” (Weeden and Lambert, 2006, P9).In essence they recognise that higher level questioning can be important to being able to entice students to move through Bloom’s key stages of their own accord.Bloom’s taxonomy (initially 1956, revised 2001) is the key concept that entails with students progressing through different stages of learning until they have mastered the higher levels. Once the student has mastered this they are considered to have mastered the levels below this also.Weeden and Lambert also recognise that closed questions are also relevant to geography that they do have a place in the classroom. This type of questioning assists the student in acquiring the necessary language of geography.Although closed questions can be useful it is the context that these questions are asked, relaying of facts and figured does not necessarily show an in depth understanding, nor a lack of understanding in a subject. This is why effective (rich) questioning has its benefits being alongside closed questioning.What Weeden and Lambert base their thesis on is that a rich question is something that doesn’t require an immediate response, it is a question that promotes self-learning. Questions like rich questions require the learner to complete other tasks to gain the knowledge provided before being able to answer this specific type of question.This questioning method relies on the student to link their ideas together and build on prior knowledge to spark discussion.Whereas this theory promotes self-learning students should also be given prompts in order to allow time to make these connections, rather than accepting a answer, which may have been developed by the student I believe that further enquiry further provokes cognitive thinking.Specifically, asking a student Why, or how they came to the prognosis allows the educator to see into the students mindset and see their thinking behind this.Although rich questioning is a strategy that does promote learning and advancement through Bloom’s taxonomy as previously stated, it is also a method that may force the teacher to look into their own methods of assessment in the classroom and ask why.This ability to further delve into the reasoning behind the student’s decisions enhances the learning in the classroom, this integral part of the classroom method not only allows the teacher to understand development, it allows planning to take place.With this in mind the method of deep thinking and effective questioning allows this planning to tackle misconceptions and issues that may arise later within the student’s school life cycle. This thought that questioning is integral to the classroom is also mentioned by Heritage and Heritage (2011, Cited by Trumbull and Lash, 2013, P3) Who states that ‘teacher questioning is the epicentre of instruction and assessment’.Brookhart, Moss and Long (2010, Cited by Trumbull and Lash, 2013, P3) state that feedback is the linchpin that links the components of formative assessment, with this being argued it is necessary to understand how feedback can affect the performance of a student.This is supported by Hattie (2007) who believes that feedback is one of the most powerful influences available to teaching, learning and achievement. He also argues that the impact that feedback can have can either be positive or negative, thus the need for effective types of feedback.This is where the ability to ask effective questions, as well as give effective feedback come together. Encouraging and building on peer discussion allows students and learners to put their own ideas across, this idea is discussed by Weeden and Lambert (2006, P6). It allows students to discuss and become engaged with the topic. As students develop their own understanding through open discussion it is noticeable that students will wait for cues, these cues supposedly from the teacher can break up these discussions but can allow the option to give valuable feedback.The issue with feedback is that it is primarily done by using marks to give a grade based on a student’s knowledge, Weeden and Lambert go on to state that marks should have no place in a formative assessment setting.The reasons for this is that it can lead to more negative effects than positive, the need for effective feedback is prominent when students compare grades and ignore comments set to them by the teacher, grading by marks promotes a culture of demotivation for the lower attainers, as well as the discouragement of collaborative work.Feedback is an opportunity to once again allow the student to drive further into their understanding and engage with their work once again, the opportunity to review and reflect on their work allows students to potentially see where mistakes were made, or misconceptions were made and it gives the student an opportunity to ‘close the gap’ as lambert and Weeden state.As commented on previously one way to improve teaching standards is via dollops of feedback, Butler (Cited by Brookhart, 2008, NP) engaged in studies that stated a lack of feedback not only does a disservice to students, but it also reduces motivation.Effective and regular feedback allows teachers to build on what is learnt within the classroom environment. Feedback is generally given in the classroom in many different forms, with oral feedback and comment written feedback being the most prominent models. Although both methods of feedback are used for different reasons Brookhart argues that issues regarding effectiveness are the same.Being able to give effective feedback using correct tone and focus in oral feedback allows the teacher to accurately address misconceptions, this type of feedback is broad but effective as it recognises a class wide issue.This feedback is generally provided after misconceptions have arisen in the classroom environment.Effective comments as Weeden and Lambert states are most effective when written every two to three weeks, this is more helpful than marking every piece of work. This allows the teacher to individually asses work, the most effective feedback models allow the initiation of deeper thinking with their comments. Once again closing the gap.The use of effective questioning and effective feedback in the forms of formative assessment give the opportunity to students to, as mentioned previously, act on their misconceptions and mistakes. Questioning and feedback go hand in hand, asking students to elaborate points and providing feedback, verbal or nonverbal provides insurance for the student.These two levels of formative assessment allow the teacher to plan accurately, it allows the educator to be able to adjust where needed to be able to provide an upmost service to their students.Effective questioning allows the educator to make small adjustments It prompts deeper thinking and can lead to discussions which involve the students into the ‘Bigger Picture’, whereas feedback is personal.Effective feedback can build individual confidence, students can see it as a safe place, and it allows the teacher an opportunity to give critical feedback which allows any potential gaps in knowledge to be discussed. Effective feedback entices the student to continue learning and to further progress themselves through the topic and blooms taxonomy.Along with effective questioning and feedback it is also important to remember think time, the term was first suggested by Rowe (1972 Cited by Bennett 2017). She stated that;”If a teacher waited three seconds after posing a question the results were significantly better results than the rapid-fire questioning, often one every 1.9 seconds, that is standard in classrooms”.This wait time theory is supported by Black and William (1998) they state that “One common problem is that teachers do not allow enough quiet time so that pupils can think out and offer an answer. Where, as often happens, a teacher answers her or his own questions after only two or three seconds.”.Rowe goes on to state that the length and quality of discussions increased with longer wait time, allowing students time to think deeper and provide topics of discussion. Including this into the factors of formative assessment show that effective assessment works, allowing students time, feedback and opportunities to develop their own learning is important to allow progress, this progress in turn supports the learning across the classroom. Summative assessment is the only assessment type that the public see, the fact that effective use of formative assessment is the key to how summative assessments turn out is not seen.The aim of this paper was to investigate how formative assessment methods, including effective questioning as well as the use of effective feedback can impact summative assessment outcomes.This paper has been able to look at questioning and its effects, as well as the type of feedback which is relevant in the classroom environment.Progress is the classroom is key, it is the essence to why formative and summative assessments exist. Being able to pinpoint the progress of students is vital in the long-term nature of the classroom.Black and William (1998) state that students should be encouraged to keep in min d the aims of their work, and to self assess themselves. They also state that taking on further strategies of formative assessment can only aid progress.In the long scheme of things these two methods of formative assessment allow the student to progress through Bloom’s taxonomy. With the deeper levels of thinking being achieved it is presumptuous to think that this would lead to better outcomes during summative assessments. Although progress can be identified in the classroom via the use of formative assessment it does not take into consideration several other factors.Summative assessments can be affected by a range of things, nerves, concentration and personal behaviour, some students perform better under exam conditions than others.So although progress can be seen and tracked through formative assessment there are still variables that can prevent this progress showing though summative assessment methods such as GCSE, and A-Level Examinations.Black.P, William.D, (1998) Inside the black box. Brentfort, GL Assessment.Weeden.P, Lambert.D, Black.P ed. Harrison.C ed. Marshall.B ed. Wiliam.D ed. (2006) Geography inside the black box.London, GL Assessment.GOV.UK, (n.d) Compare selected secondary schools. Online. Gov.UK. 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(n.d) The impact of the assessing pupils progress initative. Online Ofsted. Available from: < https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/379101/The_20impact_20of_20the_20Assessing_20pupils_20progress_20initiative.pdf> Accessed January 2018.Ofsted. (2017) Ormskirk school. Online Ofsted. Available from: < http://www.ormskirk.lancs.sch.uk/images/docs/parents/ofsted17/Ormskirk_School_10024273_PDF_Final.pdf> Accessed January 2018.Ofsted. (2015) Deyes Highschool.. Online Ofsted. Available from: < http://www.deyeshigh.co.uk/our-school/ofsted/> Accessed January 2018.Appendix – Lesson observations and reflections.Observation 1- Ormskirk Highschool – Mixed ability Year 8.Observation 2 – Ormskirk Highschool – Mixed Ability Year 9.Observation 3 – Deyes Highschool – Ability Sets year 8.