Annotated BibliographyHavvanur KorkutUNI 124 & 05Gök?en Sevde?er ElibolResearch Question:Discuss the role of media in the introduction and development of Turkish arabesk music.    IntroductionMedia is a visual and aural art, which has the power to influence the masses across the world. It has been active even in the 60s and 70s of Turkey and has played a major role in the development of intellectual, philosophical and sociological approaches as well as development and expansion of arabesk music. Since music is included in important communication tools such as radio, television etc., there is absolutely a contribution of the media to the birth and adoption of the arabesk music. Arabesk music is not limited to music alone. It has manifested itself in every aspect of the media, such as cinema, newspapers, magazines, due to its specific lifestyle and thought. Arabesk music mostly consists of themes such as love, hate, death, fate, the sufferings and isolation of the poor, social inequalities of the urban life, displacement, and poverty. It has always been a way of self-expression of the migrant culture at the beginning and then became an art form that appeals to everyone. Arabesk is very important in Turkey’s political and sociological development from its beginning in the 1950s with massive urban migrations to the cities. The purpose of my research is to identify the effects and contributions of media in the development and emerging process of arabesk music. The topic will be investigated, as firstly, the term arabesk will be defined in the conceptual framework. Secondly, there will be periodization to understand and have a clear idea about its historical significance. What do we understand from the media? What do we mean by written/visual media or kinds as cinema, radio, television? For example, besides the music cassettes and radio, Ye?ilçam also has helped spread arabesk music. In addition, many arabesk musicians have found places in the film industry. These are some of the main elements, which will be mentioned throughout the research paper.     Annotations1)    Özbek, M. (1997). Arabesk Culture: A Case of Modernization and Popular Identity. In S. Bozdo?an & R. Kasaba (Eds.), Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey (211–232). University of Washington Press.In this article, Prof. Meral Özbek from the Near East University examines the arabesk type music, which emerged in the modernization process in Turkey after it has gained speed in the 1950s, by addressing the song lyrics, the music genre, and its social meanings. Opening with the general characteristics of arabesk, the story of its emergence, how it was subjected to an ideological articulation, in addition to being a popular cult product are the main elements she discusses in her article. The aim of the article is to try to examine Turkish modernization around arabesk music phenomenon. Believing that arabesk music is an important concept that characterizes Turkish modernization, Özbek focuses on arabesk music stars who have a great interest and affection from millions of people. In Özbek’s mind, the emergence of official cultural policies in the “republic” period and the emergence of arabesk music inevitably resulted in the proliferation of free culture, the emergence of a progressive technology and culture industry and suddenly changing conditions of life. The article is useful to my research topic, as Özbek suggests that as an end result of the capitalist system, the limitations and possibilities of the media, affect the development of arabesque music which also supports my argument. Özbek (1997) concludes by raising up questions such as “What has stayed the same in people’s physical and symbolic travel along the capitalist modernization path, from the Ottoman Empire to the republic, from the village to the city?”(p.14) The main limitation of the article is that it mainly focuses on the modernization history, which restrains to find detailed information more about media itself. Her argument on how arabesk music dealt with the censorship and reached different sets of the audience despite the fact that it had limited access is useful for contemporary research. This article will mainly form the basis of my research; it will be useful supplementary information for my research on the political climate and technology’s effect on the rise of arabesk.2)    Özgür, ?. (2006). Arabesk Music in Turkey in the 1990s and Changes in National Demography, Politics, and Identity, Turkish Studies, 7:2, 175-190. DOI: 10.1080/14683840600714616A professor and an educational consultant, ?ren Özgür begins her article by presenting how the arabesk has become the most popular genre of music in Turkey, which also states the article’s main aim. Then, she outlines the process of “Westernization” in the 20th-century Turkey that created a distinct perception for the arabesk genre. The author’s main idea further explains how arabesk has become an appropriate form of music, which once was discredited and now is so popular. She argues that ” Turkish elites, originally the bastion of anti-Easternism in their country, are now embracing arabesk at a time when they feel more than ever estranged from “the West,” or at least at a time when they have become doubtful of “the West’s” commitment to them”(Özgür, 2006, p.176). This article will help to understand more the history of the arabesk’s role in the east-west conflict in Turkey. While examining the flourishing of the arabesk music in the cities, reasons why arabesk succeeded around social and political dimensions, Özgür references to Meral Özbek, Martin Stokes and Nazife Güngör who will be my main sources too and which makes it a reliable and diverse work. As my research’s topic cay be investigated in many types, I ought to understand the reasons behind the popularity of the arabesk in order to establish the role and the effect of its existence today. This article provides not only a history of arabesk music but also the conflicts occurred between the western and eastern cultures at the time. However, Özgür needed to discourse more on her argument by using more explicit statements and explanations.3)    Solomon, T. (2005). ‘Listening to Istanbul’: Imagining Place in Turkish Rap Music. Studia Musicologica Norvegica, 31, 46-51. Professor at the University of Bergen, Thomas Solomon wrote this article in which he revealed the musical aspects of globalization by focusing on music and place. He deals with the role of music in the construction of identity and relation of music genres today with the concepts like indigenization, localization, glocalization, reterritorialization, and domestication. In “‘Istanbul Songs’ and Arabesk –Musical Imaginations of the Globalizing City” part of the article, Solomon introduces the ways of representing the city of ?stanbul in song and impact of globalization on the city, presenting arabesk as one of the factors. But then proceeds deeply on to investigating rap music on its own characteristic practices. On the contrary, within the related part of his work, he also discusses the relationship between the resurgence of urban interest and the desire expressed in arabesk music and culture. The article contains diverse ideas and detailed information about the rap music and its impact on the globalizing city. However, the article goes on in philosophical and etymologic researches whereas my research needs more of a historical and sociological source. Despite that, taking advantage of such an article can’t be denied.4)    Yarar, B. (2008). Politics of/and Popular Music. Cultural Studies, 22(1), 35-79. DOI: 10.1080/09502380701480402Betül Yarar provides a historical analysis of arabesk music genre, aiming to examine its social meaning within the concept of modernization of Turkey. The aim of the paper is to study the new socio-cultural dynamics that emerged in the 1980s and the 1990s within the context of arabesk music in Turkey (Yarar, 2008, p.35). Opening with a general theoretical framework, the article continues with the process of modernization and focuses on the political significance of popular culture. Through a series of historical analysis on the relation of music reforms, arabesk genre and impact of neo-liberalism, Yarar traces the musical composition and content of Orhan Gencebay’s songs. She concludes by stating the transformations occurred in the formation and adoption of arabesk music in the mid-1980s. Although it may not differ very much by its point of view and contents from other sources, this article will be very beneficial for my research in such a way to identify the mechanisms through which the changes and transformations occurred. ConclusionArabesk music that we can take up to the times when the Turkish music culture was changing with the western cultural trends, is one of the important aspects of popular culture, which has been effective on Turkey’s society and acted as an imp element to express the life perception of the rural area people. As a conclusion, in order to understand the conditions and place of media of the time in my research, I will be dealing with the economic turbulence in society, the conflicts of social identity and political events, the dissociation of the peasant-urban cultures and the breakdown of class differences. As they are the main factors in the formation of Arabesk music and of course such an understanding, which started in the 1950s, lasted until the 1980s.    ReferencesÖzbek, M. (1997). Arabesk Culture: A Case of Modernization and Popular Identity. In S. Bozdo?an & R. Kasaba (Eds.), Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey (211–232). University of Washington Press.Özgür, ?. (2006). Arabesk Music in Turkey in the 1990s and Changes in National Demography, Politics, And Identity, Turkish Studies, 7:2, 175-190. DOI: 10.1080/14683840600714616Solomon, T. (2005). ‘Listening to Istanbul’: Imagining Place in Turkish Rap Music. Studia Musicologica Norvegica, 31, 46-51. Yarar, B. (2008). Politics of/and Popular Music. Cultural Studies, 22(1), 35-79. DOI: 10.1080/09502380701480402

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