Analysis Hygiene and Technology, Belgrade*contact: Petrovi? Ž. Miloš.
Analysis of the beef meat quality in a slaughterhouse in Raska districtPetrovi? Ž. Miloš1*, ?okovi? Radojica1, Vasilev Dragan2, ?or?evi? Vesna3, Dimitrijevi? Mirjana2, Stajkovi? Silvana2, Karabasil Ne?eljko2AbstractThe quality of slaughtered animals is a subject of interest, of both primary production and the meat industry. Classification of the carcasses is performed in slaughterhouses immediately after a veterinary examination and measurement of the carcasses weight. Present study examines the quality of young cattle carcasses in a slaughterhouse in the Raska district, according to the standard applied in the EU but not in Republic of Serbia. Examination has been conducted on 100 cattle carcasses (young bulls). For the meat quality evaluation and grading the following parameters according to the European standard for the classification of cattle carcasses SEUROP were used: carcass weight, carcass weight and carcass yield, i.e. the carcass conformation, development of the muscles of the carcass as well as the development of basic parts (round, back and shoulder) and the degree of carcass fat tissue coverage.Key words: beef meat quality, carcass classification, young bulls.IntroductionMeat production process has several steps and each of them is significant for gaining of safe and quality product. Consumption of beef meat is in third place in Serbia, after pork and poultry (Ostoji? et al., 2006). Improving carcass performance and meat quality traits are the main objectives of most research carried out in the beef production area. Meat quality is an important criterion that influences consumers decisions to purchase beef (Baltic and Boskovic, 2015; Djordjevic, 2016). Domestic demand is partially covered by import because domestic production can not fulfill the requirements of local market. In order to improve the current situation it is necessary to enhance and maintain agro-economic policies and strengthen the primary production. Some of the possible solutions for better production and quality are improving the quality of breeding material, nutrition and nutrition and animal breeding1 – Faculty of Agronomy ?a?ak, University of Kragujevac2 – Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade3 – Institute of Meat Hygiene and Technology, Belgrade*contact: Petrovi? Ž. Miloš. [email protected]: This research was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, Projects No. TR 31034 and TR 31001.technology (Aleksi? et al., 2011, Šefer et al., 2015). Development of production, quality and placement of this type of meat requires improvement to the quality of meat in carcasses, which refers to the contribution of edible parts, carcass conformation and the carcass fat coverage, then processing quality and sensory properties (Sretenovi? et al., 2011; Ostoji?-Andri? et al., 2012).The quality of the slaughtered animals is a subject of interest, of both primary production and meat industry. Based on the estimated value and classification of carcasses, it is possible to execute appropriate compensation to the producer i.e. to the owner of animals, but also to assess the market value and industry profit. In order to assess the carcasses quality more thoroughly (meatiness), it is necessary to include several parameters such as: slaughter weight, age of animal, carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass conformation, fat coverage, musculature length (m. longissimus dorsi) etc. Animals are classified based on age, sex, physiological status and meatiness (Stamenkovi? and Radovanovi?, 2004). Carcasses classification should be performed in slaughterhouses immediately after a veterinary examination and measurement of the carcasses weight.In developed countries, quality is taken into account through balanced approach of carcasses meat quality assessment. SEUROP classification system that used in EU countries enables prediction of the meat amount in the carcass, which is the basis for determining the selling price of cattle. Given that monetary compensation depends on the achieved quality, it is also an incentive for the improvement of cattle breeding, zootechnical conditions including hygiene, care for the welfare and health of animals in primary production. Slaughterhouses, in which over 75 animals are slaughtered weekly (annual average) are obliged to apply this classification system. The selection of the personnel involved in this activity is of great importance and requires adequate education and training. The uniformity of the carcass quality assessment is achieved by precisely defined rules that include parameters and criteria in the corresponding regulations that affect: the category of carcass according to age and physiological status (calves, elderly calves, heifers, young bulls, castrated male animals and cows), carcass slaughter processing for classification and categorization, criteria for scoring the carcass parameters of conformation and the fat tissue degree coverage. As already emphasized, carcasses meat quality assessment has its immaterial significance since it enables the payment of meat on the basis of quality achieved and therefore the SEUROP system has been further improved with subclasses within the same class in order to determine the quantity of meat in the most complete manner.The aim of the present study is to examine the young bulls carcasses quality according to slaughter weight, carcass yield, carcass conformation, and fat coverage degree, the criteria used in EU countries.Materials and methodsThe study was conducted from July 10th 2014 to August 4th2014 in the slaughterhouse in Raska district. The examination included carcasses of 100 slaughtered young bulls of the domestic Simmental breed, aged about one year from purchase.Slaughter weight was measured after unloading at the slaughterhouse, while carcass weight was determined 45 minutes after slaughter, both on the scale with accuracy of ± 0.5 kg.Carcass weight includes processed carcass without internal organs (with the exception of the kidneys), skin, head, lower parts of legs (separated in the lower part of the carpal, tarsal joints was measured respectively), large blood vessels, spinal cord and the genital organs.Carcass conformation and the fat coverage were determined 45 minutes after slaughter, according to SEUROP classification (EC No. 1249/2008). Based on the carcass i.e. conformations, carcasses were classified into six classes: S (superior), E (excellent), U (very good), R (good), O (fair) and P (poor), table 1.Table 1. Conformation of carcass, in particular the essential parts (round, back, shoulder)Conformation classDescriptionS – SuperiorAll profiles extremely convex; exceptional muscle development (double-muscled carcass type)E- ExcellentAll profiles convex to super-convex; exceptional muscle developmentU- Very goodProfiles on the whole convex; very good muscle developmentR- GoodProfiles on the whole straight; good muscle developmentO- FairProfiles straight to concave; average muscle developmentP- PoorAll profiles concave to very concave; poor muscle developmentCarcass fat coverage is estimated by numerical grades from 1 (very low coverage) to 5 (very strong coverage), table 2.Table 1. Degree of fat coverClass of fat coverDescription1 – lowNone up to low fat cover2 – slightSlight fat cover, flesh visible almost everywhere3 – averageFlesh, with the exception of the round and shoulder, almost everywhere covered with fat, slight deposits of fat in the thoracic cavity4 – highFlesh covered with fat, but on the round and shoulder still partly visible, some distinctive fat deposits in the thoracic cavity5 – very highEntire carcass covered with fat; heavy fat deposits in the thoracic cavityStatistical analysis was performed in a statistical package StatsSoft INC (Statistica For Windows, wersion 6.0 computer program manual Tulsa, Stat Soft Inc., 1995). Descriptive statistical parameters (mean, standard deviation, standard error of the mean, minimum, maximum, and coefficient of variation are presented in the table.Results and discussionTable 3 shows the average mean value of slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass yield of all 100 cattle carcasses.Table 3. Summary review of the average value of slaughter weight, carcass weight, carcass yield (n=100)ParameterParametarSlaughter weight (kg)Masa žive životinje (kg)Carcass weight (kg)Masa trupa (kg)Carcass yield (%)Randman %Mean ?Standard deviationSrednja vrednost ?Standardna devijacija518.77?55.74275.21?28.652.61?2.14Standard error5.62.8-Standardna greškaMinimumMinimum376.0210.048.00MaximumMaksimum652.0342.063.00Coefficient of variation (%)Koeficijent varijacije (%)10.7410.4-Results from Table 3 indicate that average cattle slaughter weight was 518.77 kg with a coefficient of variation of 10.74 %. The mean value of the carcass weight was 275.21 kg with a coefficient of variation of 10.4 %. By analyzing the carcass yield, it was found that its average was 52.61% and ranged from 48.00 to 63.00%.According to statistical data in Serbia, the average weight of adult animals before slaughter during 1995 to 2000 was 478 kg and from 2006 to 2011 was 504 kg. Lower masses compared to our results could be due to the fact that in those data, cattle were not separated by age and sex (Dokmanovic et al., 2014). Aleksi? et al. (2002) in their study showed that the average animal weight before slaughter was 592.7 kg, hot carcass weight with the lard was 329.9 kg, while average carcass yield value was 55.66%. Similar results have been found in the studies of Ostoji? et al. (2007) who in 477 days achieved weight of Simmental bulls of 579 kg, while average carcass yield value was 57.1%. In the same study, crossbreeds of Charolais and Limousine of younger age (446 and 443 days) achieved higher body weight at the end of the fattening (621 kg and 590 kg, respectively). Drca (2009) reported that male Domestic Simmental type cattle from three different manufacturers in Serbia had carcass yield between 54.20% and 55.40%. Similar results have been found in the studies of Mirjana et al., (2016) who showed that the average slaughter weight of male Simmental beef cattle was 586.9 kg. The average carcass yield of male Simmental beef cattle was 56.56%, which is higher than Simmental cattle yield in our study (52.61%). Results by Petrovi? et al. (2016), who have examined 54 young Simmental bulls carcasses divided into two groups, show that the average weight of the first group of cattle was 478.40 kg, the second group 569.42 kg. Average carcass yield was 51.87% (total for the group 1 and group 2), and ranged from 42.00% to 57.00%. According to research of ?iri? et al. (2017), mean slaughtered weight of Domestic Simmental bulls was 583.9 kg, while average carcass yield value was 56.32%. Similar results have been found in the studies of Petrovi? et al. (2017) who showed that the average slaughter weight of male Simmental beef cattle was 516.23 kg with coefficient of variation of 10.47%. By analyzing the carcass yield of cattle, it was found that its average was 52.37% and ranged in interval from 39.00 to 63.00%.Also, Petrovi? et al. (2017) analyzed the carcasses of young bulls (n = 80) in their study, and found that the average weight of live animals was 497.74, with a coefficient of variation of 5.83%. Analyzing the carcass yield of catlle, average percentage of 52.74% was established, with a minimum / maximum interval of 42.00 to 59.00%.Following parameters are used for cattle carcasses classification in the EU countries (EC No. 1249/2008): carcass weight, conformation, meatiness, as well as the development of the primer cuts (round, the back and the shoulders), fat coverage degree, etc. A favorable conformation (excellent) of carcasses implies that all profiles are extremely well developed and convex. Round of excellent carcasses have convex profile, back are well developed and wide and the shoulders are filled and well-formed. Poor or unfavorable carcass conformation is characterized by concave, poorly developed leg, narrow back are, straight shoulders and convex bones. Fat coverage refers to the amount and arrangement of subcutaneous, kidney and pelvic fat and residues on the inside surfaces of the chest and abdominal cavity. Fat protects the meat from oxidation, slows down the surface defect of meat, reduces the fat and contributes to good juiciness and aroma (Vukovi?, 2012). From a quality point of view, it is considered as favorable that carcass have uniform and well-distributed, continuous, but not too thick, layer of fat.Figure 1 shows the results of carcasses classification according to SEUROP classification, while Figure 2 shows the results of carcass classification according to fat coverage degree (n = 100). In term of class only two categories have been set: O (fair) (n = 41) and R (good) (n = 59). Regarding fat coverage degree three categories have been determined (2, 3 and 4). One carcass was labeled as category 2. More carcasses were labeled as category 3 (n=71) compared to number of carcasses labeled as category 4 (n=12).Figure 1. Percentage of classes O and R Figure 2. Carcass fat tissue coverage degree41%59,00%OR1,00%87,00%12,00%234Similar results were obtained by Petrovi? et al. (2016) who have evaluated class of the carcass based on the conformation as O at 77.5% of the cases and as R in 22.5% of the cases. The carcass fat tissue coverage degree was rated to be 3 at 88.75% and 4 at 11.25% of carcasses. Petrovi? et al. (2017) came to similar results by analyzing the fat tissue coverage degree. The study was conducted on 123 young bull’s carcasses. Their results show that three categories have been established in terms of the degree of fat cover (2, 3, 4), like our study. Only one carcasses was of the category 2. The 3. category was found at 107 carcasses, which is more than in the category 2 and in category 4 (15 trunks). In research by Petrovi? et al. (2017) for all the young bulls carcasses (n = 80), only two categories, in terms of class have been set: O (fair) (n = 62, 77.5%) and R (good) (n = 18, 22.5%). Regarding fat tissue coverage degree two categories have been determined: 3 (mid coverage) and 4 (high coverage). More carcasses were labeled as category 3 (n=71, 88.7%) compared to number of carcasses labeled as category 4 (n=9, 11.2%).Meat quality can be affected by pre-slaughter factors and after slaughter factors of animals including gender, age, feeding, animal handling, animal welfare, slaughter of animal, genotype of animals. In the EU, beef carcass classification for conformation and fatness plays important role in international meet trade marketing. This is why, meat price in the market depends on carcass conformation.ConclusionBased on the results and their critical considerations the following can be concluded:• The mean value of carcass weight ranges between 518.77?55.74;• The carcass yield is 52.61?2.14and it ranged from 48.00% to 63.00%;• Class of the carcass based on the conformation was evaluated as O at 41% of the cases and as R at 59% of the cases;• The carcass fat tissue coverage degree was rated to be 2 at 1%, 3 at 12% and 4 at 87% of carcasses;ReferencesAleksi? S., Petrovi? M.M., Panteli? V., Novakovi? Ž., Ostoji?-Andri? D., Staniši? N., Nikši? D., 2011. Chemical, technological and sensory properties of meat from different cattle genotypes. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry, 27 (3), book 2, pp. 913-918.Aleksi? S., Miš?evi? B., Petrovi? M.M., Pavlovski Zlatica, Josipovi? S., Tomaševi? Dušica, 2002. 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Basics of meat technology. Veterinary Chamber of Serbia, Belgrade.Šefer D, Markovi? R, Nedeljkovi?-Trailovi? J, Petrujki? B, Radulovi? S, Grdovi? S, 2015. The application of biotechnology in animal nutrition. Veterinarski glasnik, Volume 69, Issue 1-2, Pages: 127-137.Ispitivanje kvaliteta mesa junadi u jednoj klanici u Raškom okruguPetrovi? Ž. Miloš1*, ?okovi? Radojica1, Vasilev Dragan2, ?or?evi? Vesna3, Dimitrijevi? Mirjana2, Stajkovi? Silvana2, Karabasil Ne?eljko2Kratak sadržajKvalitet trupova zaklanih životinja je predmet interesovanja, kako primarne proizvodnje, tako i industrije mesa. Postupak klasiranja trupova odnosno polutki sprovodi se u klanicama neposredno nakon veterinarskog pregleda i utvr?ivanja mase trupa odnosno polutki. U radu je ispitan kvalitet trupova junadi, zaklanih u jednoj klanici u Raškom okrugu, prema standardu koji se primenjuje u zemljama Evropske Unije a koji se još ne primenjuje u Republici Srbiji. Ispitivanje je sprovedeno na 100 trupova junadi (mladih bikova). Za procenu kvaliteta i klasiranje mesa u trupovima koriš?eni su parametri, prema Evropskom standardu za klasiranje trupova goveda: masa žive životinje, klani?na težina/masa trupa i randman, konformacija trupa tj. razvijenosti miši?a trupa kao i razvijenost osnovnih delova (but, le?a i ple?ka) i stepen prekrivenosti trupa masnim tkivom.Klju?ne re?i: kvalitet gove?eg mesa, klasifikacija trupova, mladi bikovi