When did American Literature begin?
-with the Native Americans
Three dominant characteristics/themes of Native American Literature?
1. Relationship with the land
2. Belief in the Great Manito
3. Use of natural images
How did Columbus describe the New World?
-astonishing, colorful, marvelous speed of the canoes, a paradise
Identify:
-Bay Psalm Book: first book published in America
-manito: spiritual forces
-Walum Olum: painted record
-allusion: reference to something
-concrete language: short, forceful, cleaner
-conceit: controlling image
-analogy: comparison
-simile: direct comparison using like or as
-metaphor: saying it is something its not
-antonyms: two opposite words
-irony: opposite of what’s supposed to happen
-sarcasm: low form of irony
-Great Awakening: fervent revival of religious dedication
-pictographs: word pictures
Compare and contrast the literature of Puritans and the southern colonies.

-Puritans: simple, religious, practical, examining of spiritual selves,
communicated ideas clearly, explained Biblical interpretation
-Southerners: flashy, flowery, ornate, complicated, decorative
What is the purpose of A Description of New England?’ How does the author go
about meeting this purpose?
-to get people to move to New England; exaggerates the good, doesn’t mention
the bad
What does TULIP stand for? Explain each point.

-Total Depravity/inability
-Unconditional election/selection
-Limited Atonement
-Irresistible grace
-Perseverance/preservation for the saints
Identify the conceit of In Reference to Her Children’ and Huswifery’
– chickens; birds, and spinning wheel
Why was Huswifery’ not published for 210 years?
-author told his family it was too flashy, he didn’t want it published
How does William Byrd’s background reveal itself in A progress to the Mines?’
-well-educated, used french
Who was he writing to?
-the upper class, the well educated
Who does William Byrd visit? Summarize the events
Give examples of imagery in Jonathan Edwards’ Sinners.’
What was the purpose of Sinners?’ How does he go about meeting his end?
-get people to convert/come to Christ, scare people about Hell so much they
figure there’s no other way than to go to Heaven
What was the shot heard round the world?’
-first shot of the Rev. War at Concord Lexington
Define:
Stamp Act: colonists had to buy stamps for newspapers, licenses, pamphlets,
other documents
Quartering Act: colonists made to house British soldiers in homes
Townshend Acts: tea, glass, lead, paper taxed
Common Sense’when published: Jan. 1776, Thomas Paine
epitaph: writing on the grave
allusion: referring to past known circumstance
oratory: study of speech
parallelism: repetition
loaded word:
tone: emotion on paper
What effect did Noah Webster have on spelling and American Literature?
-made it independent of England and other outer influence, made a truly
American speech
What are 2 elements of an American book? How are they particularly American?
-natural wilderness (setting) revolution (great human experience)
Study the aphorisms from Poor Richard’s Almanack. What does each mean?
How does Henry use allusions in his speech? What effect does it have?
-Biblical(meaningful), flattering for them to be compared to the Isralites.

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Define and identify the value of each:
Repetition: saying some things over and over; memorable, force
Rhetorical question: assumes audience knows answer; confidence , show sarcasm,
connect with audience
Improvisation: speech with no previous thought; forceful
Explain the connection between the location and the roles each tribe and the
image of a long house.


Connection between the Social Contract Theory and the Declaration of
Independence?
-Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence based on the idea of the
Social Contract theory
Where was Bartram from? Where does the example from Travels’ take place?
-from Philadelphia; it comes from eastern Florida
What value does a reading like Travels’ have for us today? Historical,
scientific, entertainment?
-the history of science, no real value as science itself, entertaining reading
What s the difference between subjective’ and objective?’
-subjective is emotions, objective is facts
What does Crevecoeur think is so great about America?
-it is a place of enlightened idea
Identify six characteristics of Romanticism in literature
-a profound love of nature
focus on self/individual
-fascination with dark, supernatural, gothic, mysterious side
-yearning for picturesque and exotic
-deep rooted idealism
-passionate nationalism
Explain the major shift in literature during this period.

-was a hobby or business political purposes, changed to writing for art’s sake
Match the following characters with their description and place the characters
in their stories:
-Rip Van Winkle: easyk going, aversion to work for himself
-Nicholas Vedder: smoker in front of tavern
-Dame Van Winkle: married to Rip, a nagging shrew-like wife
-Wolf(dog): Rip’s dog, whipped by Dame Winkle
-Peter Vanderdonk: old sage
-Diedrich Knickerbocker: made-up author who traveled to hidden Dutch coves to
find old stories.

-Major Andre:
-Ichabod Crane: tall, skinny, gangly schoolteacher
-Katrina Van Tassel: beautiful girl that Ichabod likes, her father is rich
-Baltus Van Tassel: Katrina’s father who is rich
-Brom Bones: other guy who likes Katrina
-Gunpowder(horse): the horse Ichabod borrows to go to the dance
-Galloping Hessian: old ghost story, headless horseman who wanders around
looking for his head
-Daredevil(horse): Brom’s half-wild horse
-Tom Walker: sells his soul to the devil for Kidd’s $
-Deacon Peabody: owns the swamp, got his money from killing Indians, deep cuts
in the tree with his name on it
-Kidd the Pirate: hid his stolen gold and the devil is guarding it
-Henry March:
-Natty Bumpo:
-Lenore: woman the poet from Raven who died or left him
-Pluto: first black cat
-Luchesi:
-Fortunato:
-Montresor:
Who was Diedrich Knickerbocker? Who created him and for what purpose?
-Washington Irving created a romantic guy who listens to old wive’s tales and
writes them down.

Characterize Rip Van Winkle.

-easy going, unambitious, cheerful, followed by children and dogs, aversion to
profitable labor, like squirrel hunting and fishing with his dog.

Where does The Legend of Sleepy Hollow’ take place?
-Tarry Town: men would linger around the tavern and the wives named it that
Describe Ichabod Crane:
-a teacher, long, skinny, big nose, low forehead, strict with children “spare
the rod, spoil the child”
Why did Irving choose Puritan New England as the setting for “Devil and Tom
Walker?”
-they had a great fear of damnation
Describe the initial encounter with the Devil, wife’s involvement, terms of
tom’s deal, occupation, Tom’s fate.

Translate Thanatopsis. Summarize Bryant’s thanatopsis.

-view of death,’ Bryant’s view was deaath is one with nature, be with other
great people who have gone before, etc.

Define:
-meter: regular rhythm in poetry, unit of meter
-foot of poetry: stressed/unstressed syllables/ one stressed two unstressed
syllables
How is the Black Cat an example of Romantic Literature?
-focus on self and individual, fascination with the supernatural, gothic
Compare and contrast the following views on the dark side of humanity:
-Death Instinct/Spirit o Perverseness: Freud and Poedark side is constantly
present
-Sinful Nature: Christianitythere is a way out
According to Montressor, what are the two requirements of meaningful revenge?
-can’t be consumed by it, once you’ve taken your revenge, drop it
-don’t let the person know you’re upset with them and seeking revenge
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