AIDS it. Researchers are trying to find out

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AIDS in Africa
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the most deadly
viruses in the world. No country in Africa has escaped the virus. Some have been
effected more then others though. The spread of AIDS in Africa is because of
poor medical treatment and a lack of education on the part of the people.

HIV is the virus which causes AIDS.(Aids in Africa,1994) HIV stands for
Human Immune-deficiency Virus. The virus attacks the bodies immune system
and weakens it. Scientists have wondered about the origin of HIV ever since the
epidemic emerged.
Experts believe that the virus was contracted through Chimpanzees. (AIDS
came from Chimps, 1999) Perhaps when someone was bitten by a chimp, or a
hunter was exposed to contaminated blood while field dressing an animal. (AIDS
came from Chimps, 1999) Tests were done by Dr. Beatrice Hahn of the University
of Alabama. Her studies tracked HIV back to a virus that infects four sub-species
of chimps that live in Africa. (AIDS came from Chimps, 1999) Hahn and her team
studied frozen tissue from a chimp that died of complications at childbirth. In
this frozen tissue their was the chimp version of the AIDS virus, called SIVcpz.

The genes in SIVcpz are genetically similar to the AIDS virus. (AIDS came from
Chimps, 1999) Chimps who have probably carried this virus for thousands of
years do not get sick from it. Researchers are trying to find out why chimps are
not effected by this virus, because it may lead to a cure. (Aids in Africa,1994) This
productive finding about the virus wasn’t found until 1997 when testing started.
(Aids in Africa,1994) If it would have been found sooner maybe the massive
spread of AIDS could have been prevented.

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Since the start of the epidemic an estimated 34 million people living in
Sub-Saharan Africa in 1998 were infected with HIV. (AIDS,1991) This is due to a
lack of education on the part of the people in Africa. They are not taught about
the virus as we are in the United States. In this country the public and media
educate the people about AIDS, including how to prevent the disease. Without
embarrassment, Americans openly discuss methods in which the disease is
transmitted. However in African cultures confronting sexual issues that cause
AIDS and HIV is very uncommon.(AIDS the epidemic,1994)
In Africa AIDS has become the number one cause of death, overtaking
Malaria.(The AIDS Reader,1991) The U.N. AIDS/health experts say more than 40
million people contracted the disease in 1980’s and nearly 12 million of them
have died in Africa. (The AIDS Reader,1991) If the people in Sub-Saharan Africa
were educated about preventing the spread of AIDS and HIV maybe the statistics
wouldn’t be so dramatically different from other countries.
In the African countries good medical treatment can be hard to find. The
United States has a better economy, and more highly trained professionals then
Africa. The lower quality of medical treatment in Africa has contributed to some
of the spread of AIDS in the past.(The AIDS Reader,1991)
Unfortunately the cost of drugs to slow down the disease can cost
$10,000-$20,000 per year per person. (The AIDS Reader,1991) This keeps most
infected HIV patients from getting the needed drugs because they cant afford
them.. This amount of money would cover the annual health care for 200 people
in Zimbabwe.(The AIDS Reader,1991) A family in Sub-Saharan Africa might
spend between $600 and $1,500 to care for a person living with AIDS.(The AIDS
Reader,1991) This money could be used for a college education or other basic
necessities. This country was hit so hard with AIDS that more then one-quarter
of working-age adults are infected with HIV and are forced to use money for
health care.(AIDS the epidemic,1994)
Zimbabwe was the hardest hit country of AIDS or HIV. In this country
about half of all hospital beds are filled with patients who have AIDS and AIDS
related symptoms.(AIDS,1991) Even if we stopped AIDS now the millions of
people already living with it would make the disease continue. In Zimbabwe 25
testing sites were set up to test pregnant women’s blood for HIV virus. At two of
these sites less then 10% were infected, but at the remaining sites almost half
were infected.(Aids in Africa,1994) All pregnant women with the virus have a risk
of passing it onto the baby.

One other major problem in the spread of AIDS is through rape and
sexual abuse. In Africa these kinds of sexual actions are never discussed by

Categories: United States

AIDS(Acquired AIDS is a disease of the

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AIDS(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is a deadly disease for which
there is no cure. This disease was first recognized in the mid 1980’s. The
cause of AIDS is the HIV virus, and is most commonly spread by venereal routes
or exposure to contaminated blood or blood products. This disease weakens the
body’s immune system, allowing other diseases to occur. The most common
treatments available for this virus are the drugs called AZT, DDI, and DDC which
interfere with HIV’S ability to reproduce itself. These are the only known ways
to slow down the production of the virus.

This virus is spread through the exchange of body fluids {semen, blood,
and blood products} this virus can stay in the body for as long as a decade with
no symptoms. People who have AIDS have to go through a lot of complications and
anxiety.The most common anxiety is that they have to go through their life
knowing that they are going to die from this disease, another is the pain and
suffering they know they will have to go through. The difference between HIV
and AIDS is that HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, and AIDS is a disease of the
immune system and unfortunately at this time there is no cure for.

Category: Science

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Categories: Articles

Aids which course of treatment is best.

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Aids by sean ross
How is HIV Diagnosed?
You can get tested for HIV in a number of locations — including public clinics, AIDS organizations, physicians’ offices, and hospitals. Many locations give the test for free. You can choose between anonymous tests, in which you do not give your name to the HealthCare provider, or confidential tests, in which you do give your name. Test sites should provide trained counselors who can offer you support and guidance, no matter what the test result.(Balch-97)
An HIV test looks for the antibodies your immune system creates in response to the virus. These antibodies may not appear in your blood until three to six months after HIV infection. Therefore, a negative test for HIV does not necessarily mean you aren’t infected. That’s why if you are at risk for HIV infection you should get tested periodically in addition to practicing safer sex at all times.

T-cell counts
If you test HIV-positive, you should have frequent blood tests to determine the levels of healthy T cells. These cell counts help indicate how quickly the infection is progressing and which course of treatment is best. Normal T-cell count is 800 to 1,300 cells per cubic millimeter of blood. In the first
few months after HIV infection, T-cells may decrease to 400 to 650. As infection progresses, T cells drop to a second level of 200 to 499. At this stage you can expect to have late symptoms, although this too is variable. The most life-threatening AIDS illnesses happen when T-cell levels fall below 200.(Berkow-97)
Early Symptoms
Once HIV enters your body — through semen, vaginal secretions, blood, or human breast milk — it generally takes a month or two before creating symptoms, if any (not everyone has symptoms at this stage). These initial symptoms are similar to the flu and can last three to 14 days:
-Night sweats
-Skin rashes
-Swollen lymph nodes (immune system organs
easily felt in the neck and groin)
-General discomfort(Hurst-96)
Within the several months following HIV infection, you may have repeated episodes of these flu-like symptoms. After that, an average period of five to seven years will pass without another sign of HIV infection — though that delay can range from a few months to more than 10 years. However, even when you don’t have symptoms, the virus is still multiplying in your body, and you can spread it to other people.(Tierny-98)
Later symptoms (months to years before onset of AIDS)
Symptoms may include:
-Mild weight loss
-Frequent fevers and sweats
-Swollen lymph glands
-Persistent yeast infections
-Persistent skin rashes
-Pelvic inflammatory disease that does not
-respond to treatment
-Short term memory loss
-Frequent and severe herpes infections
causing mouth, genital or anal sores
-Painful nerve disease (shingles)
At this stage, you may have other disorders resulting from HIV infection: severe dermatitis, personality changes, intellectual impairment, peripheral neuritis (inflammation of one or more peripheral nerves), pneumonia, myocarditis (inflammation of the middle muscular layer of the heart wall), nephritis (kidney inflammation), and arthritis. (Taylor-98)
As chronic HIV progresses, the immune system grows weaker and weaker until it can no longer prevent diseases and/or opportunistic infections those that would not usually happen in a person with a normal immune system). These include: Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii HIV infection of the brain (encephalitis with dementia) Toxoplasmosis of the brain (a protozoan infection) Cryptococcosis infection (a fungal infection) HIV wasting syndrome (chronically active HIV infection) Candida (yeast infections of the vagina, mouth, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, or lungs) Kaposi’s sarcoma (a form of skin cancer) Tuberculosis and related infections Cryptosporidiosis infection of the intestine (a protozoan infection) Herpes simplex virus infections of mouth, esophagus, and lungs Lymphoma (a cancer of the immune system) Cytomegalovirus infections of the retina and other organs(HIV
Conditions That May Be Mistaken for HIV and AIDS
HIV and AIDS may involve virtually every organ in the body. Therefore, many conditions can be mistaken for HIV/AIDS, including: Cancer, especially lymphoma (causing malnutrition or weight loss) Senile dementia Gastrointestinal infection (especially parasitic) Colitis Inflammatory bowel disease Depression.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS. HIV not only attacks and destroys the white blood cells that are key to fighting infection (T4 or helper T cells), it actually uses the T cell’s genetic material to multiply itself. Eventually, HIV cripples the immune system, making the infected person vulnerable to multiple infections, diseases, and nervous system problems. One of the reasons AIDS is such a fatal disease is that HIV is an extremely resistant virus, mutating constantly to survive the immune system’s attacks.(San Fransisco Aids found.)
Theoretical Causes
There are very rare cases of transmission among family members living together with no identifiable source of transmission. No one knows the cause of transmission in these few rare cases.(Gay mens health crisis center)
How is HIV Transmitted?
Unprotected sex,Sharing of hypodermic needles for injection,drug use
From an HIV-infected mother to her baby,especially as the baby passes through the birth canal (the baby has a 25-30% chance of being HIV positive if not treated duringpregnancy),Human breast milk
Accidental needle sticks, which are a risk among HealthCare workers (about a one in 300 chance),Blood transfusion and coagulation products (although this is very rare, with the modern blood-screening systems in use since 1985)(Bennet-96)
No one knows how to cure HIV or AIDS. However, there are many therapies, both conventional and alternative, that effectively prolong and enhance the quality of the lives of people with HIV and AIDS. The goals of treatment are to: Slow the replication rate of HIV Prevent and treat opportunistic infections Relieve symptoms and generally improve quality of life.(Noble-96)
Treatment overview
If you have HIV/AIDS, the standard of care in the United States is to provide you conventional drug therapies, especially if your T-cell count has fallen below 500. You will take most HIV/AIDS drugs in combination, to most effectively reduce viral blood levels, increase helper T-cell counts, and decrease the AIDS death rate. Because combinations of HIV/AIDS drugs are as important as the individual drugs themselves, it is extremely important that you stick to your medication regimen:
Take drugs at exactly the prescribed times of day
Never skip doses
Never skip drugs
For surveillance and routine management, you won’t need to stay in the hospital. Some more severe complications will require a hospital stay.
Drug Therapy
Anti-HIV drug therapy attacks HIV at various stages of its life cycle. Although the drugs have improved the side effects, including nausea, stomach cramps, diarrhea and abnormal body fat redistribution.(Hardman-96)
American Foundation for AIDS Research
120 Wall Street, Thirteenth Floor
New York, NY 10005
Phone: 212-806-1600
Fax: 212-806-1601
The Body — An AIDS and HIV Information Resource
Centers for Disease Control
National Prevention Information Network
P.O. Box 6003
Rockville, MD 20849
Phone: 800-458-5231
International: 301-562-1098
TTY: 800-243-7012
Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation
2950 31st Street, Suite 125
Santa Monica, CA 90405
Phone: 310-314-1459
Fax: 31-314-1469
Email: emailprotected
Gay Men’s Health Crisis
119 West 24th Street, 6th Floor
New York, NY 10011
Phone: 212-807-6655
TTY: 212-645-7470
Fax: 212-337-3656
HIV Anonymous Testing & Counseling
Howard Brown Health Center
4025 N. Sheridan Road
Chicago, IL 60613
Phone: 773-388-1600
HIV Insite — Gateway to AIDS Knowledge
University of California, San Francisco
Centers for Disease Control National HIV/AIDS
800-342-AIDS (2437)
San Francisco AIDS Foundation
P.O. Box 426182
San Francisco, CA 94142-6182
AIDS Hotline: 800-367-AIDS (2437) (toll-free in Calif.)
Phone: (415) 487-3000
Email: emailprotected
Balch, James F. and Balch, Phyllis A. Prescription
for Nutritional Healing Garden City Park, NY: Avery
Publishing, 1997.

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Bennett, J. Claude and Plum, Fred. Cecil Textbook
of Medicine, eds. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders,

Berkow, Robert. Merck Manual of Medical
Information, Home Edition. New Jersey: Merck
Research Laboratories, 1997.

Fauci, Anthony J. et. al. Harrison’s Principles of
Internal Medicine, eds. New York: McGraw-Hill,

Hardman, Joel G. and Limbird, Lee E. Goodman and
Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics
eds. New York: McGraw Hill, 1996.

Hurst, J. Willis. Medicine for the Practicing Physician
Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange 1996.

Murray, Michael T. Encyclopedia of Natural
Medicine. Prima, 1998.

Noble, John. Primary Care Medicine ed. St. Louis:
Mosby, 1996.

Physicians’ Desk Reference. Montvale, NJ: Medical
Economics Co., 1998.

Rakel, Robert E. Conn’s Current Therapy eds.

Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1998.

Taylor, Robert B. Family Medicine: Principles and
Practice. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1998.

Tierney, LM, McPhee, SJ, and Papadakis, MA.

Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment eds.

Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1998.

Categories: Management


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