Africa’s longest-running civil war ended in July 2011
Africa’s longest-running civil war ended in July 2011 when South Sudan became an independentnation.
This was a result of an agreement made in 2005. Prior to that, Sudan used to be the largestcountry in Africa; however, it had always suffered from ethnic and religious conflicts. This was becauseSouth Sudan was inhabited by a Christian majority while North Sudan was mainly Muslim. As a result,Sudan was divided into two states marking it as the first time in recent history where a Christian territorywas separated form an Islamic State. According to BBC news, 99% of Southern Sudanese voted to splitfrom Sudan.At the time, its independence was considered a huge success; however, South Sudan hasvirtually no infrastructure. It is considered one of the poorest countries in the world and has struggledwith ethnic conflicts.
South Sudan is also highly fragmented, militias, and suffers with frequent outbreaksof violence. Its government’s capacity is very limited, and its economy is dependant on a single resource;oil. Oil represents approximately 98% of the country’s income. The relationships between Khartoum andJuba are tense as the citizens lack nationalism. This is because the same forces that helped SouthSudan separate itself from Sudan, caused them to divide themselves based on their tribe or ethnicity.
For this reason, they formed militias which came together as the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement(SPLM).Two and a half years after South Sudan’s independence, on December 15, 2013, violence brokeout in Juba (South Sudan’s capital), when the troops in the presidential guard started fighting each other.The violence erupted after President Salva Kiir accused Riek Machar (his ex-Vice-President) , of plottingto overthrow him. It spread to other parts of the country until a ceasefire was signed in late January.
Asof late February, the ceasefire was violated and conflict continued to disseminate. As a result, SouthSudan has experienced one of the world’s most devastating civil wars since World War. The war officiallyended in August 2015 when President Salva Kiir signed the “Compromise Peace Agreement”.In July 2016, an attack on the President takes place in Juba and the conflict is renewed.
Hundreds of people were killed and thousands fled to neighbouring countries. Currently, faminethreatens almost half of the 11 million citizens in South Sudan. According to Human Rights Watch, “TensDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24th – 25st of February 2017Page 2 of 10 | Research Reportof thousands of people are still sheltering in United Nations compounds, too afraid to return home.Military and political leaders on all sides have failed to make any serious attempt to reduce abusescommitted by their forces, or to hold them to account.”Definition of Key TermsSalva KiirHe’s the current president of South Sudan.Riek MacharDuring the north-south conflict, Riek Machar switched sides multiple times in hopes ofstrengthening his position and the position of his Nuer ethnic group. He was named South Sudan’s vice-president in July 2013. In December 2013, he had a fallout with President Kiir which led to more than twoyears of conflict.
He was removed from office but was sworn in again in April 2016.NuerNuer is an ethnic group locatedin the Nile Valley of South Sudan. Theyaccount for approximately 16.2% of theSouth Sudan population. During theSouth Sudanese Civil War, the nuerpeople of eastern and central Sudanallied with the SPLM-IO and foughtagainst the SPLM.DinkaDinka is an ethnic groupsituated in the Bahr el Ghazal Nile basin region of South Sudan. It is composed of approximately 11people, which accounts for 36.
4% of their entire population. They make up most of Sudan’s People’sLiberation Movement (SPLM) with the first President of South Sudan, Salva Kiir, of Dinka ethnicity.AbyeiIt is an oil-rich area between north and south Sudan, that played an important role in the north-south civil war. Settling the status of the Abyei region is one of the fundamental strides Sudan and SouthSudan need to take in order to guarantee long-term peace in their countries.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24th – 25st of February 2017Research Report | Page 3 of 10Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Act (SPLM/A)The SPLM was originally established as a a rebel force forced on 16 May 1983 in the South. AfterSouth Sudan gained its independence, it emerged as the ruling party of South Sudan During the SouthSudanese Civil War (2013-2015), SPLM was a major belligerent against the SPLM-in-opposition (SPLM-IO).Sudan’s People’s Liberation Movement-in-Opposition (SPLM-IO)Riek Machar (the first Vice-President of South Sudan) established the SPLM-IO in 2013 tooppose the Sudan People’s Liberation Movemnet (SPLM).
It was composed of mainly Nuer, and was amajor belligerent in opposition of the SPLM.Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA)It is an agreement signed on January 9, 2005 by SPLM and the government of Sudan. It is whatbrought an end to the Sudanese second Civil War. It proposed the development of democraticgovernance, the share of oil revenues, and called for the government to withdraw its troops fromsouthern Sudan.
It also establishes a schedule for South Sudan’s referendum in 2011.South Sudanese refugeesAfter the 2016 Juba clashes, approximately 26,000 South Sudanese refugees fled to Uganda.The number of Sudanese refugees has exceeded one million after the renewed violence in Juba forcedthousands of South Sudan’s people to flee their countries, creating one of the world’s worst humanitariancrises.Ethnic cleansingMass killings of people of one ethnicity and/or religion by another. South Sudan’s second civil warhas the largest number of human rights violation which included ethnic cleansing.
Civil WarA war between organized groups within the same country. Because Sudan has long sufferedfrom ethnic and religious intolerance, it struggled with two civil wars until South Sudan gained itsindependence in 2011. In 2013, South Sudan also had its own civil war that went on for two years.Background InformationSudan’s first Civil WarDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24th – 25st of February 2017Page 4 of 10 | Research ReportThe first Sudanese civil war, from 1955 to 1972, was between the Southern rebels and thegovernment. The war started when Sudan became officially independent and the majority of the Britishpower was transferred to Northern leaders.
The war lasted for 17 years, during which the rebels foughtfor greater autonomy in their region. The war ended with the Addis Ababa Agreement in 1972, whichallowed significant regional autonomy and natural resources to southern Sudan.Sudan’s Second Civil WarThe second Sudanese civil war is one of the longest civil wars in history. It lasted for 22 yearsand had devastating effects on Sudan. In the late 1970s, as the North’s violations of the Addis Ababaagreement started to rapidly increase, unrest spread in the South. In 1982, the Sudanese governmentabolished the Addis Ababa Agreement and decided to divide South Sudan into three regions.
ThePresident of Sudan decided to transform Sudan into a Muslim Arab State. As a result, uprisings tookplace throughout the South and rebel forces grew. John Garang, forms The Sudanese People’sLiberation Army (SPLA), in Ethiopia. Soon, Civil war erupted through the South and the SPLA continuedto fight government forces. Villages in the South were destructed and slavery became a very commonact.
Consequently, many Sudanese people decided to flee to UNHCR refugee camps in Kenya.Afterwards, the Sudanese government sent in militiamen to wreak havoc in Southern villages. Thus, theDarfur conflict rose and a genocide occurred in the region. Thousands of Southern Sudan’s people lefttheir villages and towns to join the new movement. In that same year, the SPLM manifesto waspublished, and its leadership was established. At this point, the history of Sudan took a sharp turn, as theeffects of the civil war were everlasting.CPA and South Sudan’s independenceMany negotiations of South Sudan’s independence took place during Sudan’s second civil war.
In2002, the Machakos Protocol was approved, and granted the South the right to vote. TheComprehensive Peace Agreement officially ratified a new constitution and the South’s independentgovernment became operational. As a result, Islamic law was followed by the north while the South’slaws were decided regionally. In 2010, after 20 years, Sudan held its election where Omar Hassan al-Bashir became president of Sudan and Salva Kiir was announced president of the government of southSudan. On July 9, 2011, South Sudan officially became an independent nation.
South Sudan’s Civil WarIn December 2013, two years after South Sudan’s independence, a civil war broke out in the region. Thiswas a result of President Salva Kiir’s accusations of Vice President Riek Machar. Multiple cease-fireagreements were signed and violated before the former Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-in-Opposition (SPLM-IO) logistics chief, Gathoth Gatkouth, and the rebel commander, Peter Gadet,declared their split from Riek Machar as they rejected the ongoing peace talks between him and thePresident. They believed that the President (Salvar Kiir) and Machar are symbols of “hate, division, andDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24th – 25st of February 2017Research Report | Page 5 of 10failed leadership”. After the release of this statement on August 2015, President Salvar Kiir signed apeace agreement called the “Compromise Peace Agreement” mediated by IGAD + that reinstates RiekMachar as Vice-President. This was what marked the end of the civil war as it proposed the developmentof a democratic government throughout the country and the share of oil revenues between South Sudanand Sudan.
Major Countries and Organizations InvolvedSudanIn 2011, the Sudanese government – containing Arab Muslims – approved an autonomous SouthSudan. In comparison to South Sudan, Sudan’s government is very stable. Currently, it is struggling withthe situation in Darfur and the oil revenues. Be that as it may, there are still tensions between these twostates as there has been a continuous conflict between their borders. The North-South civil war resultedin the death of 1.5 million people, and the ongoing conflict in Darfur’s western region has already drivenover two million people from their homes.
South SudanIn January of 2011, the majority of the South Sudanese population voted for South Sudan tosecede and become a new country. Shortly after its independence, a power struggle between thepresident and deputy president of South Sudan embarked it into crisis. This was what started the SouthSudan Civil War (2013-2015). Following the war, were the 2016 Juba clashes.
On 18 November 2016,the UN Security Council released a press statement urging the need to address the increasing hate andethnic violence in South Sudan. Currently, South Sudan is struggling with the ethnic and religiousintolerance within its state as well as the Abyei dispute. That is because although South Sudan’seconomy has long been based on agriculture, it is now highly oil-dependant.The UN High Commissioner For Refugees (UNHCR)Approximately 500,000 individuals fled to neighbouring countries after the overwhelming violencebroke out in the capital of Juba in December of 2013. UNHCR staff helped the 4.9 million people were inneed of humanitarian aid. Currently, UNHCR staff have been providing humanitarian aid in 23 refugeecamps and five transit sites in South Sudan.United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS)UNMISS is a United Nation peacekeeping mission in South Sudan.
As of 2015, it comprises12,523 total personnel, and its headquarter is located in Juba, the capital of South Sudan. It has a clearmandate on supporting the consolidation of peace and developing South Sudan. The mission formed toDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24th – 25st of February 2017Page 6 of 10 | Research Reportprotect the civilians of South Sudan and help promote long-term economic and social development in thenation. Currently, UNMISS is struggling to assist IDPs in South Sudan.Timeline of EventsDate Description of event1820 Egypt conquers northern parts of Sudan1955 Start of first civil warJanuary 1, 1956 Sudan becomes an independent nation1972 All rebel groups join the Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM)1978 Oil is discovered in Southern SudanJune 1983 Sudanese government officially abolishes the Addis Ababa agreementJuly 1983 SPLA forms In EthiopiaMid 1980s Second civil war arises1992 UNHCR starts accepting refugees2001 Famine affects three million Sudanese citizensFebruary, 2003 Darfur conflict beginsJanuary 9, 2005 The CPA is signed granting a six-year period of trial independence to SouthSudanApril 2010 Sudan holds its first national election in 20 yearsJuly 9, 2011 South Sudan officially becomes an independent nationAugust 2011 As a result of ethnic clashes, more than 600 people are killed in the state ofJongleiJanuary 2012 100,000 people flee the state of Jonglei and South Sudan declares it a crisisDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24th – 25st of February 2017Research Report | Page 7 of 10August 2012200,000 refugees become internally displaced within South Sudan to escapeviolence between the Sudanese army and the rebels in Sudan’s southernborder statesDecember 2013 Civil war erupts in South SudanJuly 2014 The UN Security Council describes South Sudan’s food crisis as the worst inthe worldFebruary 2015 General elections are called off because of the ongoing conflict.April 2016 Riek Machar finally returns to JubaRelevant UN Treaties and EventsLatest Resolution by the Security Council• 27 June 2011 (1990)• 11 July 2011 (1997)• 14 December 2011 (2024)• 22 December 2011 (2032)• 2 May 2012 (2046)• 17 May 2012 (2047)• 16 November 2012 (2075)• 29 May 2013 (2104)• 25 November 2013 (2126)• 29 May 2014 (2156)• 14 October 2014 (2179)• 3 March 2015 (2206)• 15 December 2015 (2252)Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24th – 25st of February 2017Page 8 of 10 | Research Report• 2 March 2016 (2271)• 7 April 2016 (2280)• 12 May 2016 (2287)• 31 May 2016 (2290)• 29 July 2016 (2302)• 12 August 2016 (2304)Previous Attempts to solve the IssueThere has been many resolutions that aim towards resolving conflicts in South Sudan. TheSecurity Council adapted Resolution 2046 (2012) at its 6764th meeting, on 2 May 2012.
This particularresolution was based the border violence between Sudan and South Sudan.The Security Council agreedthat both nations must immediately resolve all conflicts, implement previously agreed security councilresolutions, and withdraw their forces. SC also agreed that the SPLM should cooperate with theIntergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) to decide on security arrangements. However,South Sudan violated the agreements made by SC which resulted in continuous conflict between theirborders and Sudan’s borders.Resolutions continued to be written but not implemented in South Sudan. After the end of the civilwar in 2015, hope was born and a possibility of a new South Sudan didn’t seem so far-fetched. However,after the 2016 Juba clashes, UN chief stated: “The renewed violence is outrageous.
It is yet anothergrievous setback. It deepens the country’s suffering. It makes a mockery of commitments to peace.”South Sudan’s situation has not improved. So far, all attempts made to resolve the conflict in SouthSudan haven’t been beneficiary.Possible SolutionsThere are two general methods that could be used to resolve the situation in South Sudan: short-term and long-term policies.
Given the multitude of opposing sides in South Sudan, a ceasefire, a short-term solution will be extremely difficult to reach as emphasized by the failure of previous ceasefiresalready. However, the implementation of a ceasefire could be arranged if done by the right broker.As for a long-term solution, South Sudan’s insecurity and political instability is partly affected byrelative deprivation and by conflicting identities, which include political and tribal allegiances. This is whyDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2017 | 24th – 25st of February 2017Research Report | Page 9 of 10focusing on resolving ethnic conflicts within the region could help in prevening ethnic intolerence withinthe region. Although this issue is very complex, delegates must find a general consensus on what thefuture of South Sudan should look like.