ABSTRACT:Aim species that form part of the microbiota

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ABSTRACT:Aim : To do a research on the in-vivo antimicrobial effect of coconut  (Cocos nucifera ).Objective : The antimicrobial property of coconut, the presence of lauric acid, and the ability to extract antimicrobial peptides from coconut has drawn attention on its effectiveness in normal consumption. An in-vitro experimental study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of coconut.Background : Halitosis,also known as bad breath, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant odour is present on the breath. Halitosis is the third most common reason that people seek dental care (after tooth decay and gum disease). The most common cause of bad breath is poor dental hygiene. The bacteria responsible for halitosis is lactobacillus. The treatment depends on the underlying cause.Initial efforts may include tongue cleaning, mouthwash, and flossing. This research is done to check if coconut (Cocos nucifera ) is effective against microbes.Reasons : This research was done to prove the antimicrobial effect of coconut(Cocos nucifera )Keywords: antimicrobial, bacteria, halitosis, coconut ?INTRODUCTION:Oral health is essential to the general well-being of an individual and relates to the quality of life. There is a considerable evidence linking poor oral health to systemic conditions particularly diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. The link between oral diseases and the activities of the microbial species that form part of the microbiota of the oral cavity is well established. Dental caries and periodontal diseases are two major oral health problems and are a major cause for the loss of teeth. Dental caries is caused by acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria, primarily the mutans Streptococci, Lactobacilli, and Actinomycetes, which metabolise the teeth, causing decalcification and eventual decay. Similarly periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivitis, the Actinobacillus species, Prevotella species, and the Fusobacteriumspecies. The prevention strategy of these oral diseases and efforts to improve the oral health mainly involve approaches that reduce the oral microbial load.For thousands of years, medicinal plants have been used as traditional treatments for numerous human diseases in many parts of the world. The natural products derived from medicinal plants have proven to be an abundant source of biologically active compounds, making them effective source for alternative medicines. Numerous traditional medicinal plants have been evaluated for their potential application in the prevention or treatment of oral diseases particularly those of microbial origin. A number of studies have investigated the activity of plant extracts and products against specific oral pathogens. Antibacterial chew sticks such as meswak and neem, which are plant-based alternatives for oral health, have been successfully promoted and they have been advocated by health agencies. An ethnomedicinal survey conducted by the authors has identified the rich knowledge of people in the rural areas of the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka, India, on indigenous plant materials for oral health and diseases. One of the common traditional practices identified was the use of the husk of Cocos nucifera (coconut) as herbal ‘chewing sticks’ instead of plastic bristle brushes, for daily cleaning of teeth.The coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.) belongs to the Arecaceae family, is native to the coastal areas of Southeast Asia . A thorough review of literature has revealed few studies on the antibacterial activity of the husk of C. nucifera against the Vibrio species. Earlier studies have also noted the husk of coconut it used to brush teeth.As there are studies on this aspect, the present study was designed to find scientific evidence on the antimicrobial activity of coconut on lactobacillus(treating halitosis).?MATERIALS AND METHODS: An in vivo experiment was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of coconut milk.preparation of coconut milkA large-sized coconut was obtained from the local market. Fresh coconut milk was extracted and collected in its natural form in a sterile autoclaved steel bottle. The total volume was made up to 1litre. It was then refrigerated until used.participants: Informed consent were obtained from healthy human subjects.collection of saliva: Saliva sample was first collected in sterile plastic vials and labelled” before”. They were then asked to gargle 20ml of coconut milk each. After five minutes saliva was again collected and labelled “after” and refrigerated until use.culture media: Nutrient agar was used as a medium. Glass petri dishes were used for growing the colonies. Nutrient agar media was freshly prepared, autoclaved, and transferred to the plates.experiment: 2 ml of saliva was micro-pipetted into a sterile glass test tube which already contains 20ml of saline. This was then inoculated in the plates and labelled. It was then incubated for 10hrs at 37 degree Celsius.counting: Each plate was divided into 4 quadrants using a marker. One quadrant was counted and multiplied into 4. Average of all the valued were calculated and reduction value was derived. ?RESULTS: The reduction value of coconut milk is 72.78%. Which shows that coconut milk has a great antimicrobial effect and can also be used to cure halitosis.IDISCUSSION :   From the study it is found that the reduction value of coconut milk is 72.78%. Earlier researches were done with chlorhexidine and iodine which has reduction values 86% and 80% respectively.But chlorhexidine and iodine cannot be used in long run as both of the mouthwashes causes discolouration. Long term usage of chlorhexidine also causes blistering, burning, itching, peeling of gingiva, redness, swelling of face hand and feet. Most commonly reported side effects include toothache, tongue coating, etc. It cannot also be used by patients undergoing periodontal treatments. Use of iodine mouthwash also leads to brown discolouration, nausea, vomiting ,etc.  Since the reduction value of coconut milk is almost close to that of chlorhexidine and iodine, coconut milk can be used as an alternative for the chemical mouthwashes. Coconut milk has no harmful chemical agents present in it and hence can cause no harm to the individual .  

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