Abstract— ciphers designed for betterperformance in hardware with

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Abstract— RoadRunneR-128 is a recently invented light weight,Feistel-type bit slice block cipher with a block size of 64 bits andkey length of 128 bits. RoadRunneR is specifically designed tooffer a better performance in resource constrained 8-bitplatforms. This cipher is highly optimised for implementation on8-bit CPUs with proven security against linear and differentialattacks. The paper deals with design and hardwareimplementation of a soft IP core for RoadRunneR-128 on FPGA.The paper then discusses the performance, resource utilizationand estimated power consumption of the design on ALTERADE1 cyclone II FPGA. It is inferred that the implemented designof RoadRunneR-128 is well suited for light weight platforms, andperforms at a maximum clock frequency of 272.18 MHz,throughput of 65 Mbps, and an efficiency of 0.081 Mbps/slice.The work presented here, evidently outperforms its previoushardware implementations, since the invention of the cipher in2015. The implemented cipher is found to be lighter, and theperformance and the security are comparable with itscompetitors like AES, PRIDE and SPECK.Keywords— Bitslice cipher, Block ciphers, FPGA, IP core,Lightweight cryptography, RoadRunneR-128.I. INTRODUCTIONLOCK ciphers are the most popular ciphers used incryptographic applications. They have always beenproved to be more secure and reliable than stream ciphers.Designing complex and highly secured algorithms requiremore resources in terms of memory, computational capabilityand speed. Designing block ciphers targeting resourceconstrained 8-bit CPUs is a challenging problem. There aremany recent lightweight ciphers designed for betterperformance in hardware with low computing capability.There is a lack of security proof or low security margin in thecase of other software efficient light weight ciphers. Hencethere is a need of a block cipher, which is efficient, highlysecured and has proven resistance against cryptographicattacks. RoadRunneR is an encryption algorithm developed in2015 by Adnan Baysal and Suhap Sahin. This light weightblock cipher is targeted at 8-bit platforms and its security isprovable against integral, differential and linear attacks 1.The paper structure is as follows. Section II describes the toplevel structure of RRR-128 (RoadRunneR-128). The algorithmdesign and the detailed structure are presented in section III.Section IV presents the design and hardware implementationof the cipher. The cipher’s RTL design was done in Veriloglanguage. The details regarding the software, developed fortest vector generation and validation of results, are depicted insection V. Section VI presents the results regarding thethroughput, area, resource consumption and power dissipationof the implemented design on ALTERA DE1 CYCLONE IIFPGA.II. TOP LEVEL STRUCTURE OF RRR-128RoadRunneR-128 is a bit slice block cipher with 64-bitblock size and 128-bit key. 12 rounds of operation are requiredfor the encryption of a plain text. Fig. 1 represents the top levelstructure of RoadRunneR-128.Fig. 1. Top Level Structure of RoadRunneR-128Design and Implementation of IP Core forRoadRunneR-128 Block CipherMitha Raj1, Shinta Joseph K, JosemonTomy, Niveditha K S, Anna JohnsonDept. of Electronics and CommunicationJyothi Engineering CollegeThrissur, [email protected] RScientist ‘C’National Institute of Electronics andInformation Technology (NIELIT)Calicut, IndiaMitu RajCentre for Development ofAdvanced Computing (CDAC)Trivandrum, IndiaBThe encryption algorithm of the cipher is performed in the dataprocessing unit. The data processing unit takes in a plaintextand a master key as its inputs. The n-bit block cipher willencrypt n-bit plain text into n-bit cipher text. Key generationunit will generate the whitening keys and round keys forrespective rounds. The initial and final whitening key of 32bits, and round keys of 96 bits are generated. The round keysfor each round are derived from the 128-bit master key.Fig. 2. Figures of the Feistel Structure in RoadRunner-128, Internal Structureof Round Function F, Internal Structure of SLK Layer.A. Detailed StructureFig. 2 shows the Feistel structure of the cipher, operationsinside the Round function, and the internal of SLK layer. TheRound Function (F) of RoadRunner-128 has anSPN(Substitution-Permutation) structure of 4 layers. Itconsists of three SLK layers and one S layer. For each Roundfunction, round keys of 96 bits are generated from the 128-bitmaster key by the key generation unit. The SLK Layer consistsof Substitution layer(S), Diffusion layer (L) and Key addition(K). The permutation of bits is done before and after enteringthe S and L layers as shown in Fig. 2 to make the algorithmmore non-linear and thus ensuring more security. A roundconstant Ci is XORed with least significant byte of the wordafter the 2nd SLK block function as shown in Fig 2.1) S-Box Layer (S):Bitslice S-boxes are widely used in light weightcryptography to reduce the size of look-up tables. Blockciphers such as PRESENT2, SEA3, PRIDE4,RECTANGLE5 and NOEKEON6 use bit slice S-boxeswith different S-box layer design strategies. The brute forceattack on various combinations was done and the 4×4 S-boxgiven in 7 was selected for RoadRunner-128 by theinventors, since it provides the least linearity or correlation.2) Diffusion Layer (L):The linear function used for diffusion is given by:L(x) = (x<<

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