Abstract takeoff system so the shaft of

Published by admin on

– In
automotive applications conventional power take-off system has shown some
disadvantages such as capable of consuming high fuel with very minimum
efficiency. Hence, power take-off system is electrified and it is used in
specialty vehicle application which requires high gain step-up DC-DC converter.
A new emerging topology for high voltage gain step-up DC-DC converter using
resonant technology has been proposed in this paper. The converter in addition
has the capacity of peak voltage gain with long range of  input range; which a huge benefits of low
input current ripple, reducing current stress in switching devices and
transformer, ZVS in two power MOSFETs and ZCS in the rectifier diode operation
over the full load range and high efficiency. Interleaved step-up topology
helps the circuit to reduce the stress on the components while it also
decreases the transformer requirements. Series resonant tank is used to achieve
ZVS and ZCS as well as extended voltage control. Detailed design analysis shows
the impact of the transformer turns-ratio and resonant tank to the other
circuit components. The given  current
ripple input is also calculated and it is based on the range of duty cycle at
operating condition. A 2kW prototype has been built according to the design
rules. Experimental results are used to verify the circuit operation and design
analysis. A peak efficiency of 95.5% has been achieved for the prototype and it
shows an efficiency improvement comparing with different methodologies.

Keywords: resonant, DC-DC

ZVS, ZCS, low stress.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

ZVS: zero voltage switching, ZCS: zero current switching, ePTO: electronic
power take-off.


In several applications like automotive systems Power take and off
(PTO) system which refers to the system that retrieves or takes power from
engine places such that the inner combustion engine (ICE) the shaft to drive
vehicle accessories. Power takeoff system is wide employed 1in the
specialty vehicles, like utility truck, tractors, construction vehicles, etc.
In 1these vehicles, there are several electrical loads to be
driven by the power takeoff system so the shaft of the ICE is usually connected
to a generator. 1Some of the key challenges of this power takeoff 1system
include low potency, high consumption of the fuel within the 1ICE
running at idle, system maintenance and lifetime. The processed Electrification
during this power takeoff system may be a sensible resolution to address these
challenges. 1With the event of energy storage system and power
electronics technology, now it’s potential to understand the electrical power
take-off (ePTO) system in such vehicles and its application are often expanded
to alternative kinds of vehicles like automobile, long haul trucks, transit
bus, etc. that have many electrical accessory masses. The aim of ePTO system is
victimization electric power supply like battery and electrical device to drive
the vehicle electrical accessories whereas the ICE solely provides propulsion
to the wheel. it’ll greatly cut back the fuel consumptions at the work site.
The ePTO system desires power converter that will transfer the lower voltage
power from battery or electric cell to drive the high voltage electrical
masses. In this method gain of high voltage increase DC to DC converters became
a vital a part of such application. A new topology for high voltage gain DC-DC
converter with high input current introduced in this paper. 1In
this topology interleaved configuration helps the circuit to achieve a low
current ripple and reduces the current stress of the device. Transformer
turns-ratio and current stress are relatively low. 1The
transformer leakage inductance acts as the resonant inductor so 1that
it helps to relieve the voltage spike issue as well as achieve a high
efficiency. Zero Voltage Switching and Zero Current Switching can be achieved therefore
in order to maintain the over the entire load range which tends  maintain a efficiency at maximum range..


B. Lequesne et al, The price of the auto has broadened
records. Electric and cross breed automobiles are simply excellent a bit a
chunk of it, though right now the most discernible and the only getting the
most fixation in fashionable media. This paper will give attention to the
unwinding of the story, i.e., components of transportation zap as opposed to
pass breed or totally electric powered impetus approaches. Cutting-edge boost
(ultimate 10-20 years) and cutting-edge paintings at the jolt of street
transport, from case to powertrains, will be checked on with a factor of convergence
on electromechanical frameworks. within the method, the various difficulties
engineers have triumph over or have yet to decide may be featured, along these
traces representing the distinct elite strategies electrical designing is
making its test in conveying greater development, extra viable, more at ease,
and first-rate way of private transportation 1.

F. Shang, M. Krishnamurthy, and A.
Isurin, electric electricity takes-off frameworks in vehicle require the gadget
of low voltage excessive gift improve up DC-DC converter with an over the top
voltage accumulate. Analysts have assessed enhancements for prime affectivity
and minimum effort outlines. In this paper, a unique topology is suggested that
has the potential of giving a high voltage increase over an expansive scope of
yield power. It moreover has fewer extras and cuts stretch. Critical operation
of the topology had been presented and checked with the aid of activity in PSIM

X. Kong and A. Khambadkone, An
interleaved contemporary-sustained complete scaffold (ICFFB) dc-dc converter is
proposed on this paper has low input display swell to satisfy the gasoline cell
phone wishes. Via interleaving indifferent CFFB converters with parallel data
and association yield association, each data modern-day swell and yield voltage
swell may be decreased. Additionally, the scale of the appealing additional
gadgets and gift worry of the semiconductor units at the input function are
furthermore delivered down. So additionally, littler voltage score frill can be
used on the yield aspect. Only a single automatic signal processor
microcontroller is utilized to create section moved door flags and to put in
compel a fell superior manage process. The great parts of the proposed
converter are excessive affectivity, little inactive thing estimation, and
little information show swells 3. H.- L. Do et all, the manager of the
proposed converter is completed with the awry heartbeat width tweak approach.
The proposed converter accomplishes 0-voltage changing (ZVS) of all power
switches. 0-current replacing (ZCS) of yield diodes can likewise be finished.
The proposed converter can outfit excessive-voltage accomplish and the voltages
over the semiconductor instruments are simply cinched. Consistent kingdom
examination of the proposed converter is given. A lab version of the proposed
converter is produced, and its exploratory results are accommodated validation

Chen, X. Wu, L. Yao, W. Jiang, and R. Hu, the fast development of gigantic
scale sustainable force 2sources and HVDC matrix, it is a
promising alternative to accomplice the inexhaustible energy resources to the
HVDC lattice with an unadulterated dc method, in which excessive-existence
high-voltage assignment up dc-dc converters are the vital factor tools to transmit
the electric life. This paper proposes a resounding converter which is
affordable for framework connected sustainable electricity sources. The
converter can accomplish inordinate voltage get making usage of a LC parallel
resounding tank. it is described with the manual of zero-voltage-replacing
(ZVS) turn-on and nearly ZVS kill of maximum critical switches comparable to
zero-showcase turning turn-off of rectifier diodes; additionally, the similar
voltage fear of the semiconductor devices is downsize than other complete boost
up converters. The operation statute of the converter and its complete
parameter preference is offered on this paper. The operation widespread of the
proposed converter has been productively permitted by means of using reenactment
and test final results 5.


A spic and span competitor topology for pinnacle
voltage accomplish task up DC-DC converter the use of thunderous innovation has
been proposed. also to its excessive voltage get and extensive enter run, it
furthermore brings the blessings of low info display swell, diminishing modern
worry in replacing devices and transformer, ZVS in  lifestyles MOSFETs and ZCS within the
rectifier diode operation over the complete load run and inordinate

In this topology interleaved arrangement encourages the
circuit to advantage a low present swell and decreases the prevailing worry of
the tool. Transformer turns-share and present anxiety are surely low. The
transformer spillage inductance is going about because the thunderous inductor
all collectively that it diminishes the voltage spike issue inside the same
class as secure an over the top productiveness. ZVS and ZCS can likewise be
executed over the complete load variety to preserve up an inordinate talent.

Advantages are,

In case of current in terms of ripple
current is very low.

Capable of reducing the stress current in
the electrical appliances.

The ratio between stress current and no of
turns in transformer ratio are comparatively less.


Resonant converter

A type
contains power converter method which is obtained by resonant converter this is
a type of electric power converter which contains a related network consist
of  inductors integrated with  capacitors this is called a “resonant
tank”, tuned to resonate at a specific frequency. Many applications in
electronics, in integrated circuits.

There are
multiple types of resonant



with series resonant

with Parallel resonant

Type named Class
E Resonant Converter

Type named Class
E Resonant Rectifier

Converter with Zero Voltage Switching Zero Current Switching Resonant Converter

Dual Quadrant
Zero Voltage Switching  Resonant

dc-link inverter


4.1. DC-DC converter (Chopper)

makes use of high speed to attach and disconnect from a supply load. A constant
DC voltage is utilized intermittently to the supply load by way of always
triggering the vigor change ON/OFF. The interval of time for which the vigor
switch stays ON or OFF is known as the choppers ON and OFF state occasions,

are more commonly utilized in electric cars, conversion of wind and solar
energy, and DC motor regulators.

of Choppers

on the voltage output, choppers are classified as ?

Step Up chopper
(boost converter)

Step Down
Chopper(Buck converter)

Up/Down Chopper (Buck-boost converter).





Fig.1. Proposed
resonant DC-DC converter topology for high voltage gain.


Operation of Proposed Converter

The operations of the proposed converter are explained as
follows with different modes of operations.



OPERATION MODES                    

For D = 0:5


Interval 1 (t0 – t1): At time t0, present within the
resonant inductor or gradually level changes from zero in the optimistic
direction. For the period of the interval, S1 and S4 which are switched to ON
condition. The detailed description shows in the figure 2(a). for the value of
D=0.5. The current in inductor L1 rises via S1 to retailer vigor, while the
present in L2 costs C2 by way of S4. C1 is hooked up to the transformer most
important side via S1 and S4. It presents vigor via the design of resonant
circuit that weight and the predominant aspect voltage V1 = VC1. At this stage
which means end of specific interval, the resonant present iLr   attains
level 0 t1. On representing in this limit zero interval, the present in S1 and
S4 is given by (1) and the systematic waveforms output described.

Fig.2 (a) For D = 0:5


Interval 2 (t1 -t2): At instant
t1, S1 and S4 are turn off and S2 and S3 these switches are switches ON. The systematic
design of equivalent circuit is described in figure 2 (a). The designed circuit
works similarly to given interval 1. The  resonant current iLr which has certain limit
up to zero interval which goes to the negative half cycle and finish to zero at
the end stage of the interval. The primary side voltage V1 = VC2. In this
interval, the current in S2 and S3 is given by (2) and the waveforms are shown.

For D < 0:5 For D < 0:5 operations, Fig. show that there is a period when the resonant current iLr is zero. In this mode, the resonant current iLr Fig.2 (b) For D < 0:5   The following mode of conduction provides discontinuous mode of operation. The conduction mode depends up on three periodic definitions, Ton is the time period this is when the primary side voltage is not zero, while the time T0 is the time when the transformer voltage is zero. In this mode, Ton = DTs and T0 = (0:5D)Ts. Time T1 is defined as the ratio of time period when the transformer voltage zero for resonant current decay to the  zero during specific time period T0. There are six intervals in this operating mode. Using this symmetrical operation of the circuit, only the positive cycle is analyzed. The analyzed Interval 1 between the time (t0 - t1): During this interval, the circuit operates similarly to the interval 1 for D = 0:5 operation mode. S1 and S4 are turned on. The resonant current iLr rises from zero but ends at instant t1 instead of going back to zero because Ton is less than half of the resonant cycle.   Fig.2 (c) For Ton = DTs Fig.2 (d) For D > 0:5


Interval 2 (t1 – t2): At immediate
t1, S1 is become off and S2 is grown to become on. Throughout this interval, S2
and S4 are become on together. The identical circuit is shown. The current in
inductor L1 and L2 costs C1 and C2 respectively at the same time the
transformer foremost facet is shorted through S2 and S4. Resonant present iLr
decays so this tends and attains faster and attains time interval during this
interval and returns to zero after time interval T1 (mentioned by way of on the
spot t2). On this interval, the present in S2 and S4 is given and the waveforms.

Interval three (t2 -t3): S2 and S4
1these states are already in ON state present in inductor L1 and
L2 performs charging state C1 and C2. Current flow is ideal in the resonant
which means no current in resonant tank in the course of 1this
period. The burden present is furnished by using the filter capacitors. The
similar circuit is proven in Fig. During this interval, the current in S2 and
S4 is given through (4) and the 1waveforms are proven.

For D > 0:5

1For D >
0:5, as shown in Fig, the resonant present iLr can be in DCM mode just like D
< zero: 5 mode. On this mode, Ton = (1 - D)   Ts and T0 = (D -0:5)   Ts. There are additionally six intervals in this operation mode and interval 1 and 4 are the equal as D < zero: 5 modes. Interval 2 (t1 -t2): At instantaneous t1, S4 is become off and S3 is become on. During this interval, S1 and S3 are turned on concurrently. The systematic equivalent circuit is shown in Figure is described as follows in 2(d).  Both L1 and L2 retailer vigor from the source even as C1 and C2 are connected in series to the transformer as primary part and it sees zero internet voltage. Fig.2 (e) The resonant current returns to zero after time T1 (denoted by on the spot t2). In this interval, the present in S1 and S3 is given via (5) and the waveforms are shown in Fig. Fig.2 (f) Interval three (t2-t3): S1 and S3 maintain turning on and present in inductor L1 and L2 increase to retailer vigor at the same time the resonant current stays at zero. The weight present is offered by way of the filter capacitors.                     ARCHITECTURE DAIGRAM AND SIMULATIONS 5.1. PROPOSED CIRCUIT: Fig.3 Simulation of proposed resonant DC-DC converter topology for high voltage gain. OUTPUT VOLTAGE WAVEFORM   Fig.4 Output voltage waveform 5.2. EXPECTED INPUT AND EXPECTED OUTPUT Here the Input given to the circuit is 24V DC and the output got is 350V DC   5.3. ADVANTAGES Ø  Induces less and very low ripple current. Ø  Device  strain current is reduced  Ø  Comparatively low transformer turns to current stress ratio.     5.4. MOSFET GATE DRIVER The high And Low side Driver (IR2112) is an excessive voltage and current, high speed energy MOSFET and IGBT driver with unbiased excessive and 4low side referenced output channels. Proprietary HVIC and latch immune CMOS technologies enable ruggedized 4monolithic development. Logic inputs are suitable with common CMOS or LSTTL outputs, all the way down to 3.3V good judgment. The final efficient output for drivers for feature with a high pulse that present buffer stage designed for minimal driver go 4conduction. The mentioned propagation delays are specifically matched with reference also tends to simplify use in excessive frequency functions. 1The floating channel can be used to drive N-channel vigor MOSFET or IGBT within the excessive part configuration which operates as much as required volts in between 400v to 600v. The motive force circuit is used to pressure the bi-directional converter switches where in this assignment the converter acts as a shunt energetic filter (2-quadrant) for harmony vigor factor operation and the dc voltage legislation.             Fig.5  Mosfet gate driver   VI.       APPLICATIONS •      In industrial photovoltaic and fuel Cell •      Generation and energy storage Systems •      High-Intensity Discharge Lamp (Hid), •      Source with Dc Back-Up Energy Systems used for storage. •      Hybrid and Electric Vehicles. VII.    CONCLUSION A better performance for specific applications which consumes low input voltage and also with high current for transportation appliances which has capability of with stand in high rang of voltage gain that have very low transformer turns to ratio and the current strain on the transformer is greatly limited by the usage of an methodology by interleaved step up design. It makes and leads to a reduced copper, iron loss and also with simple design of flux design, etc. In additionally for designing simplified transformer design with low turns ratio. In our project we implemented the proposed design of resonant technology which helps in achieving Zero Voltage Switching in the active switches and Zero Current Switching this posses active switching with increased efficiency by reliving rectifier diodes and switches. This method not only increases  efficiency also it is help to convert EMI relieving issues under frequency at high peak. Beside to low voltage strain with low voltage rating devices which tends to conduction loss decreases significantly less. Our prototypic experimental setup achieves higher efficiency of 95.5% respect to input voltage and load range. From the measured characteristics of the proposed topology, it can be concluded that this topology can be well adopted in the ePTO system for various hybrid electrical and industrial applications.   VIII.   REFRENCE 1Fei Shang, Geng Niu, Mahesh Krishnamurthy. "Design and Analysis of a High-Voltage-Gain Step-Up Resonant DC–DC Converter for Transportation Applications", IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, 2017 2 B. Bilgin, P. Magne, P. Malysz, Y. Yang, V. Pantelic, M. Preindl, A. Korobkine, W. Jiang, M. Lawford, and A. Emadi, "Making the case for electrified transportation," IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 4–17, June 2015. 3 B. 1Lequesne, "Automotive electrification: The nonhybrid story," IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 40–53, June 2015. 4 1F. Shang, M. Krishnamurthy, and A. Isurin, "A novel high gain step up resonant dc-dc converter for automotive application," in 2016 IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC), March 2016, pp. 880–885. 5 X. Kong and A. Khambadkone, "Analysis and implementation of a high efficiency, interleaved current-fed full bridge converter for fuel cell system," Power 

Categories: Paintings


I'm Iren!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out