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The objective of this study is to analyze Jinnah’s speeches after the establishment of Pakistan through employing the method of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). The study attempts to determine the underlying power pattern and notion of equality in these speeches. This further delineates Jinnah’s ideology of the kind of power he wished to assume for Pakistan. The approach towards the study is qualitative that acquires qualitative data from the samples of ——– speeches of Jinnah. The present study has opted for the CDA model given by Norman Fairclough. The data was analyzed qualitatively by using the same model. The results of the study show that Jinnah’s power ideology was democratic and based largely on the related notion of equality. This research might help further in finding a relationship between Jinnah’s power pattern reflected through his discourse, and the tenor of progress in Pakistan after its establishment.

Keywords:  Critical Discourse Analysis, Power Pattern, post establishment

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This research is based on the post- establishment speeches of Muhammad Ali Jinnah the founder and the first Governor General of Pakistan. The aims are to study the equality and power pattern in Jinnah’s speeches. Primarily the general background to the research is discussed than the time frame of the work and the methodological framework of Critical Discourse Analysis, presented by Norman Fairclough henceforth CDA, the power pattern in Jinnah’s speech and the critical study of the pronominal features is shortly mentioned and to conclude the chapter an overview of the thesis is provided.

1.1              The Background of the Proposed Study

Pakistan is a developing nation, who fought for its freedom and won. It has struggled through and still is trying to pave its way towards power and success. The Pakistani governments have always been unstable and a proper democratic rule could not be established due to internal wars between heads of the state and heads of army resulting in the decline and suffering of the nation. It is high time that the stagnant political system of Pakistan undergoes  a massive  change breaking the circle of the significant political parties and look through the pages of the past reviving the honesty and truthful guidelines of its  great leader Muhammad Ail Jinnah.

Pakistan is suffering at the hands of uneducated and unethical leaders. Our political system is a disappointment to the Islamic Ideology on which Pakistan was based, people need to view at things from a new perspective with an idea that was provided to us by the leaders in the past i.e. Muhammad Iqbal, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah (henceforth Jinnah) is attributed with many names such as Quaid-e-Azam (the Great Leader) and Baba-e-Quam (The Father of the Nation). He was one of the greatest leaders of the 20th century and is still considered to have no equal to him in vision, hard work, dedication, wisdom, intellect, insight and persistence. Jinnah as a leader, even after his sad demise, has a very high prestige and prominence in the subcontinent. His titles were not just names given to him but indeed suited him in the truest sense of the word. He is considered to have worked wonders and carved out a separate state for the minority Muslims of the sub-continent namely Pakistan, in just a period of seven years although he previously was a staunch supporter of Hind Muslim unity and had made huge efforts for their united freedom he soon had come to realize Muslims were never going to gain the same freedom as that of the Hindus and would remain under their rule.

Jinnah was considered to be gifted with the power of speech and that is why whenever he spoke, the words would be strong, honest, heartfelt, fact-based and humble. His words carried a deep-rooted meaning as he had such emphatic ideas, representations, identities and ideologies which left an unforgettable mark on the minds of people.

The study intends to highlight and emphasis his ideas on the human equality and his view of how it is to be established among the people in a state. His remarkable and unique perspective of power and the ways in which his views can help cure the plagued society.



1.2              Justification for the Study

As stated earlier Pakistan is a developing country and for the progress of a country, it needs a strong and independent governmental system. A law abiding system which consists of a strong democratic ideology and beliefs. In recent years, ever since Pakistan has taken a downward spiral, the idea that we have deviated from Jinnah’s Pakistan has started emerging as a strong feeling in the public and academic discourse. Every few months, a new evidence unfolding what type of Pakistan Jinnah actually envisioned. Such articles typically unleash a furious debate between those that see Jinnah’s Pakistan to be secular and those that see it as an Islamic Republic, there are multiple articles and research papers on  it whereas none on his views and vision of a peaceful and prosperous democratic state where economic and political advancements are achieved by justice, freedom and equality. The thesis aims to fill the research gap and bring out the democratic inclinations and his extremely distinct concepts and views of power.


1.3              The Objectives of the Study

·         To trace the nature of the underlying power pattern in Jinnah’s post-establishment speeches.

·         To find out how the use of particular pronouns  in his speeches  create  the impression of unity

·         To review the relevant existing literature.

1.4              The Problem Statement

1.      To review the existing literature in order to identify the ideology regarding the post-establishment of Pakistan and seeking out the power pattern features using CDA and making tables to provide in depth understanding and produce a  theoretical framework.

2.      To investigate the pronominal features that reflect the power patterns in the post-establishment speeches

1.5              Research Questions

Following are the research questions to be identified:

1.      How does Jinnah’s post-establishment speeches create his ideology regarding the power patterns?

2.      How does the use of pronominal features create power pattern in the post establishment speeches of Jinnah?

1.6              Proposed Research Methodology

The present research uses qualitative research on the speeches by Jinnah which will be critically analyzed using the content analysis approach presented by Van Dijk for analyzing the data. The choice for this approach being used is because it allows “subjective interpretation of the context of the text data through the systematic classification process of coding and identifying themes and patterns” (Hsieh and Shannon.). It goes beyond merely counting words or taking objective content from texts. It may prove to be helpful for researchers to understand social reality in a subjective but scientific way.

1.7              The Significance of the Study

The purpose of the study is to analyses the power pattern in Jinnah’s speeches, his definition of power and how it stands different from other national and international leaders while applying Van Dijk’s model the study also aims to his emphasis on unity and uniformity of a nation as a whole. The study is a contribution in the field of CDA. The research aims at contributing the critical understanding of the people towards the political discourse which are generally perceived as the divine words by the masses. Moreover, the significance of the present study is its influence over the public; and most of the people quote the speeches of Jinnah.   The underlying assumption in the study reveals how the political discourses are used to bring the people together. This study will provide the useful insight to make people conscious of the current power pattern and Jinnah’s power that the masses related to and instead of manipulating the society through political speeches they should be motivated and united.

1.8              The Scope and Limitation(s) of the study

The study is a qualitative research focus on the post-establishment speeches of Jinnah, where the universe is all the speeches by Jinnah. The sampling is done through simple random sampling.

1.9              The Organization of the thesis

The thesis is organized as follows the First Chapter of this thesis is the introduction consisting of the background of the study along with the research questions and aims of the study. It also gives a brief overview of the proposed research methodology. The Second Chapter is the detailed literature review of the related things. Third Chapter consists the research methodology of the thesis. The Fourth Chapter presents the data analysis (Qualitative Data Analysis). Fifth Chapter is the analysis and discussions the results acquired which are grouped under three sections as frame work i.e. Textual Analysis, Discourse Practice and Social Analysis. The Sixth and the final Chapter consists of the overall summary, conclusion and recommendations of the current study.




In this chapter, the reviews of literature on theoretical and conceptual background have shown which includes the theoretical background of the study and the brief explication of major concepts such as discourse, discourse event, discourse and power, political discourse, discourse analysis and critical discourse analysis

2.1 Discourse

Discourse is anything beyond a sentence it may be called a discursive formation which is basically communication both written and spoken, a discourse may have many interpretations of meaning in accordance to its context. Van Dijk (1997) maintains discourse is spoken from of language used for speeches and sharing of ideas and thoughts. According to Van Dijk (1989) in relation to discourse studies the term discourse is used for a particular type of language used and a type of social interaction and social communication such as interviews, speeches, letters, diaries and contracts etc. (Van Dijk 1981)

Van Dijk says discourse studies are “an alysts…want to include some other essential components such as who uses language, how, why and when”  thus according to him this is what differentiates discourse from grammar studies as discourse goes beyond syntax of language although they may interconnect at some places. Discourse focuses on the context, the grammatical structures, linguistic and literary devices used, presentation manner and the interactional traits (Van Dijk) He explains three major magnitudes of discourse as “language use; 2) the communication of believes (cognition); and 3) interactions in social situations” Discourse tries to explicate the relation between language, beliefs and social interactions and thus explores the dimensions of society, cognition and perception.

Discourse is a tool which has immense power that has the potential to influence, inspire and manipulate people which may or may not always be detectable. Therefore, when analyzing a political piece of work one must look into all aspects of the text to detect whether or not it is used for the right purpose or not or if it is being used to create unrest, conspiracy and propaganda.

2.2 Discourse event:

According to Norman Fairclough (1989, 1995) for every discourse events there are three sides the first is the text itself, then the interpretation and practice of the production of discourse which is a social practice in itself. Fairclough gave a three-dimensional framework to analyze the relationship between text and social practices (Fairclough 1995) in respect to this framework a text is inclusive of some social actions, social relations and identities.

2.3 Discourse and Power

 ‘Power is everywhere’, diffused and embodied in discourse, knowledge and ‘regimes of truth’ (Foucault 1991).The power related to discourse refers particularly to social power which is understood as the relationship between groups. Power is a crucial element that needs to be taken into account when referring to discourse since dominant groups will certainly have more control over the weaker ones( Van Dijk,1997) he says that a powerful group needs apart from discourse specific sources that can be summed up into socio-economic, legal or political power to dominate other groups.

According to Van Dijk Discourse is a powerful tool that can influence people without them being aware of the potential consequences hence the abuse of power presents many problems because it can be late human and social rights of people.

2.4 Political Discourse

Political discourse a sub class of a discourse which may be supported on two levels: purposeful thematic. The political speeches square measure the results of politics created traditionally by politicians and it’s traditionally and culturally determined. It thematic within the sense that topics square measure in the main connected with political activities, ideas and acts Fairclough (1995). Political activities, acts and speeches embody several ways and techniques to push the ideologies of the speaker. These techniques square measure vital to grasp, so as to urge clear understanding of the political discourse. One in all the ways is rhetoric strategy in political speeches that is that the art of speaking in the main utilized in political speeches.

2.5 Discourse analysis:

Discourse analysis is a flexible term which is dependent on the epistemological framework being applied on it. Discourse analysis can be defined as a cross discipline which has contribution from many established disciplines. (Fairclough, 1989 language and power)

2.6 Critical Discourse Analysis

Critical discourse Analysis is a knowledge domain approach to review language use as social follow. CDA aims to own a crucial approach to discourse analysis amplified by the linguistic and social analysis Van Dijik (1993). The foremost problems that CDA focuses on are the power relations, dominance, inequality and the way social power abuse are enacted, resisted and reproduced by the text and talk in social and political context.

According to Van Dijik (1993) CDA may be a paradigm that is characterized in deciphering the ideologies and power through organized analysis of language. The task of CDA is to consistently investigate the relation between the structures of the discourse and therefore the structures of ideologies. CDA additionally focuses on however socio-political discourse manipulates, propagates, persuades and presents the ability relation in an exceedingly society through political discourses. Hence, closing the discourse-power circle, finally this suggests in gift study to grasp however those teams World Health Organization management most important discourse, even have additional probabilities to regulate the minds and actions of others.

There are several reasons for learning Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). One of them is taking it as associate degree interest in social and cultural problems, and the way these problems have an effect on society. One more reason is that Critical Discourse analysis (CDA) permits you to appear at topics during which you’ve got a correct trust. Finally, viewing CDA in additional depth can offer you newer tools with that to review language, not simply academically, however in daily life too, for instance, once reading newspapers or magazines, or looking the news. It’s going to be capable to reinforce you vision.

 Critical discourse analysis (CDA) additionally seeks to look at language as a variety of cultural and social observe, associate degreed is an approach that permits the outline and interpretation of social life because it is diagrammatical in speech and texts. CDA focuses significantly on the link between power and discourse, learning the method during which “social power abuse, dominance, and difference area unit enacted, reproduced, and resisted by the text and speak within the social and political context” (Van Dijk, 2001). The essential approach to discourse aims to challenge social orders and observe that we tend to settle for as ‘natural’, however that area unit, in fact, “naturalized”. In casting light on this method, Critical discourse analysts ask for to create visible the “common-sense” social and cultural assumptions (0r ideologies) that, below the extent of acutely aware awareness, area unit embedded altogether varieties of language that folks use (Fairclough, 2001).Fairclough and Wodak (1997) group the main principles of CDA as follows:

1. CDA addresses social problems

2. Power relations are discursive

3. Discourse Constitutes Society and Culture

4. Discourse does ideological work

5. Discourse is historical

6. The link between text and society is mediated

7. Discourse analysis is interpretative and explanatory

8. Discourse is a form of social action

2.7 Scope of Critical Discourse Analysis

The scope of CDA can be analyzed based on Fairclough and Wodak (1997), Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is a fast growing vicinity of language. It views discourse as ‘a shape of social practice’ and takes attention of the context of language use to be critical to discourse (Wodak, 2001, stated in Wang, 2006). It is especially inquisitive about the relation among language and power. CDA can be described as Neo-Marxist; claiming that cultural and financial scopes are critical in the generation and upkeep of power members of the family. It’s also agreed that CDA cannot be organized as a single method however is as a substitute seemed as an approach, which includes extraordinary perspectives and special strategies for analyzing the connection between using language and social context (Wang, 2006)

2.8  Political Discourse Analysis

Political discourse analysis. as a result of this study aims at analysing speeches of a political nature, it’s a requirement to introduce some necessary data regarding the definition of political discourse analysis and the way political speeches and even texts are often analysed, taking into thought that analysing political texts is dubbed in linguistic literature as political discourse analysis (henceforth: PDA). As indicated by Van Dijk (1998), electronic device focuses on the analysis of “political discourse”. He claims that electronic device is each regarding political discourse, and it’s additionally thought to be an essential enterprise. What’s necessary here, is to state that within the spirit of up to date approaches in CDA; this is able to mean that critical-political discourse analysis deals particularly with the copy of political power, power abuse, or domination through political discourse. per each Fairclough’s (1995) and Van Dijk’s (1993), such AN analysis deals with the discursive conditions and consequences of social and political difference that results from such domination. Additionally, one in all the observations that must be created regarding political discourse is that it’s not a genre, however a category of genres outlined by a social domain, specifically that of politics (Van Dijk, 1998)



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