Abstract its coding has its basis in

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The purpose of this assignment is to investigate the
use of HTML as a software tool for Web Design. The comprehensively researched
paper will look at the scientific or technical elements of HTML or Hyper Text
Markup Language. The structure of the research will consist of an introduction,
research purpose, background of the topic and the software and a literature
review. Finally, the paper will have an analysis of HTML as a Web Design
Language, a conclusion, and Future Research Works.














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HTML or HyperText Markup Languages is a markup
language of the standard type used by developers and web designers to create
different websites, web pages, and their applications. HTML tends to describe
the web page semantically, and it functions in a manner such that web browsers
receive the Hyper Text Markup Languages from local storage and a web server.
After this happens, they get rendered into MWP or Multimedia pages.  In general, HTML provides a way to develop
structured documents, through the denoting of semantic-based structures such as
quotes, links, lists, paragraphs, and headings.

Purpose of Research

The research has the purpose of determining the
exact way in which HTML functions in a website development capacity, why it is
suitable for this use and its inherent advantage and disadvantages.


HTML ranks along with CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)
and Javascript as the premier web development tools in existence. However,
unlike say the latter tool which many people know about, HTML remains shrouded
in mystery and a lot of people tend to link it or even confuse it with HTTP or
the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol. The fact that its coding has its basis in
semantics makes it a prime candidate for explaining how coding works. Also and
more importantly, thousands of websites which positively impact the way people
communicate, shop and think, get created every day. Examples of these include
E-Commerce sites and influential blogs. This fact generates interest in how web
design occurs.

Literature Review

Frain (2015) says that web design refers to the act
of creating graphics, adding content, designing the interface and authoring
using the proprietary and standardized code, in order to come up with the final
product. This product is a website which consists of multiple web pages and
links. The author says that in this regard, websites can come in two types
namely the dynamic and static websites. The reference sources also states that
the essential thing in HTML based website design is the creation of hyperlinks,
the use of syntax and the structuring of the web page. Halbe & Joshi (2015)
explains that web design uses typically a specific method, although it can also
use unconventional techniques like the use of a neural network.  Normally, it begins with a web page creation,
when the developer draws a Graphic User Interface Design and the web designers
design web pages using various web development tools (Halbe & Joshi, 2015).

Scott (2015) atates that HTML is a type of website
design software tool that begins with a documentation type declaration.
Furthermore, the central HTML entry point MDN documentation includes attribute
references and detailed elements…states that HTML forms the basic or
fundamental technology type that defines the web page structure. HTML thus
specifies whether the developer’s web content (and by extension the website)
should get recognized as a number of things including multimedia players,
images, links, headings and paragraph lists.

Firdaus, Frain, & LaGrone (2016) say that HTML
forms are a vital part of the web. They serve the purpose of providing the bulk
of the functionality that the user needs to interact with the websites. These
include such actions as sending feedback, buying products, logging in and
registering. The author does go onto add that in the process of developing
websites using HTML, the most complicated part comes in the implementation of
captions, for them to stand out on the home page of the website. Bekkevold
(2016) talks about the link between HTML and XHTML. This is regarding migration
from the former to the latter. This can occur through a series of actions
including using the empty element syntax for the elements HTML specifies as empty,
including extra space in the tags of empty elements and including content
permitting close tag elements.

Howe (2014) observes that when designing websites
using Hyper Text Markup Language, there are some things that one must take into
account. These include the display of different elements, the use of the box
model and the importance of it in the design of the interface, how to carry out
changes in the width and height of the elements and how to add borders,
padding, and margin to the elements. All these are in conjunction with the use
of inline and block level elements in the design process. The block type tends
to occupy all the width available and begin on a brand new line, regardless of
content. The inline ones tend to fill only the width required by the content
and also line up one after the other on the same block.

The HTML Arena (2014) says that one feature that
endears HTML to developers and web designers is the fact that it has the
characteristic trait of mutuality. From a coding perspective, this means that
the features of HTML allow developers to input data-heavy content such as CAD,
colorful graphics and animation lasting several seconds to two minutes or so.
That means that one can embed videos in a website if they use HTML, and the
videos will run uninterrupted without buffering. This makes HTML suitable for
websites that people access, solely or mostly for their non-interactive and
interactive video content.

Higgins (2014), on the other hand, explains that
HTML sometimes lacks compatibility when used with certain types of software.
The main ones are open source types of software such as Linux, which because of
the nature of the kernel and therefore the high-level encryption can give rise
to failure on the front end and back end applications. This essentially means
that HTML”s coding and other features, makes it possible to embed all
manner of rich content items including animation, computer-aided graphics,
charts, high-quality drawings, audio and video (Murphy, Clark, Studholme, &
Manian, 2012). Finally, the Microsoft network points out that HTML Editing can
work with Visual Studio for the creation of Web Form pages (MSDN, 2012).

An Analysis of HTML as a
Web Design Language

The first thing to note is that websites get formed
from collections of related web pages. Thus a site like Google is a collection
of millions of web pages including, Wikipedia and Gmail. This means that to an
analysis of HTML as a web design language must take into account the smaller
element in the website, namely the web page. To put it another way, to design a
website, one must develop the web pages that will be contained on the site. The
second thing to note is that anything on the World Wide Web can undergo
deletion, addition or modification using the Hyper Text Markup Language. This
means that this software program ranks as a very useful and versatile program
language, with potential uses in the creation of Wikipedia like pages. In fact,
HTML forms the basis of the creation of web pages due to its unique coding attributes
(Murphy, Clark, Studholme, & Manian, 2012).

One can verify this (that any page or website has an
HTML foundation) by right clicking on any blank (unoccupied with script area)
on the given webpage and also click the view source-of- the page tab.  This action will result in the opening of new
tab or window that based on the settings of the Windows Operating System, will
show the type of HTML code that the specific web page or website utilizes
(Vishalapr, 2016). Content-heavy sites like YouTube and Google do tend to run
on Javascript based coding, and this is because of the data usage and the need
for security. HTML as a web design language works through the use of Tags,
which in turn refer to the embedded elements in any HTML document that
provide/give coded commands for the writing of required video, audio or image
files (Vishalapr, 2016). That means, the tags give commands as to the actions
that the files must take, where the files should get placed on the website and
other pertinent issues such as the use of additional features. These could
include plugins to enable specific video formats to play.  In this type of programming language, the
tags must have the prefix “<" before them and the suffix ">”
after them (Howe, 2014). As an example, one could have an element such as
ex-. These additions make any text bold.

HTML documents also begin and end with the same
prefix and suffix and these tags serve the purpose of telling browsers such as
Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer and Google Chrome that the given file is not
an ordinary type of text file, but a webpage (Howe, 2014). Hyper Text Markup
Language as a tool, for making websites is a formidable and convenient one as
all the developer needs to do is start off with a simple document such as the
word editor based NotePad. This makes HTML a good software program to use for
people who do not have experience in web design.  Once one opens a page in NotePad, the nest
thing they need to do is create a Body and Head tag. This is a requirement for
all HTML based web pages and documents. The structure for forming these
elements and the basis for HTML consists of codes as shown below: (Web Designer
Editorial Team, 2017).

the html document)
(Starting the head tag)
(Ending the head tag) 
(Starting the body tag)
(Ending the body tag)
(Ending the html document)

coding above does not need to be case sensitive and this means that the
developer can use a mix of small letters or capital letters when writing the
codes. HTML tags have closing and opening tags and the content that exists
between the tags, provides the content with the tag command properties (Kumar,
2013). However, in HTML, it is possible for some tags to have closing and
opening tags existing in the same line. This will take the form of ex:
rather than ex: . The difference here is that there are
two elements in the code (cr) instead of one (just c). That arrangement has the
purpose of breaking the line. Regardless of the fact of where the tags exist, the
main thing is that whatever exists in the body tag, gets shown in a direct
manner on the web tag (Lingulo, 2013). The head tags, on the other hand, give
and define information on the webpage that the user cannot see when they view
that page on any browser. HTML Head tags tend to have the coding arrangement
shown below: Web Designer Editorial Team, 2017).





total, in any design of a website or webpage, there are 6 different tags
utilized for the heading (Firdaus, Frain & LaGrone, 2016). A common mistake
in web design is the use of these tags in order to increase the size of the
text (that is make it smaller or bigger). This is not a proper technique to
use, because search engines such as www.quora.com
, www.ask.com, Google and even Jeeves carry
out website definition by looking at the headings to determine the different
pages in the website. Thus, changing the font size will not add any meaningful
value and may infact hinder the web pages in the website from discovery by
search engines. This would make the website get less traffic because people will
not be able to find the exact content they desire on the web page. In web
design using Hyper Text Markup Language, there are a total of 5 tags that serve
to define the text found in the website (Manian & Liu, 2013). These are P,
BR, HR and PRE. In coded form, they appear as follows:

– which sets
out the new paragraphs

– which adds
new line breaks and serves the same function as the pressing of the Enter Key
on the keyboard.

-this is
responsible for the horizontal rule and adds lines (Lingulo, 2013).

this facilitates the appearance of everything as typed. That means that when
building the website, whatever gets typed as the content, will appear in the
exact same manner as typed. If one creates a link called "Contacts" during the
website building, it will appear the exact same way when a user accesses the
site. HTML also has a unique feature called the Meta Tags (Manian & Liu,
2013). These are head tag element types that provide a detailed description of
what the website is to the World Wide Web. To put it another way, a description
of the website content and the key words associated with the website. Thus, for
a website such as www.warbirds.com, the
key words will be the names of world war two fighter planes, the theatres of
action, or the ace pilots who flew them. The coding in this case will look as
follows: (Kumar, 2013).

websites have some sort of imagery in them in the form of pictures, photos,
memes and computer aided graphics. Imagery makes the wesbite more attractive to
the user and hence drives more online traffic. Additionally, the pictorials can
help explain complex information, such as that of advanced machinery, robotics
and aerospace topics. In this regard, HTML has a unique feature that aids in
the addition of pictorials to a website. (Frain, 2015). This is through the
addition of a tag in the design body section using the code . The image alignment and positioning in order to maximize
its value occurs through the following codes:  (Kumar, 2013).

align= "right"

align = "left"

align = "centre"

the last thing to note about website design and development associated with
HyperText Markup Language is the use of forms. The forms form a very critical
part of the website since they in effect control the way it interacts with the
internet (Frain, 2015). The forms provide the functionality needed by the user
to successfully interact with websites through such actions as buying products
(E-Commerce), sending feedback to a company through a provided link,
registering on a site and logging in. Effectively, when a developer builds a
website, they must ensure that the forms permit the client-end database type of
function. To put it another way, without the forms, one would not be able to
register on a website such as Facebook, enroll as a user, log in, access the
resources and communicate interactively with other users.

Advantages of using HTML in Web

HTML has many advantages
that make it suitable for web design. These include mutuality, improved code/
cleaner markup, improved semantics, elegant forms, and consistency. One can
also add improved accessibility, fulfillment of web application needs, the
presence of offline application caches, geo location support and client-side
database (HTML Arena, 2013).

This essentially means that HTML"s coding and other features, makes it
possible to embed all manner of rich content items including animation,
computer-aided graphics, charts, high-quality drawings, audio, and video.

Code/Cleaner Markup: HTML has much neater and
cleaner codes, devoid of the so-called lower performance div tags.

Semantics:  HTML has
elements that can dramatically improve the semantic website value, by reveling
which parts of a page (through tags) show the footers, navigation page and
headers (HTML Arena, 2013).

Forms: This refers to the fact that with HTML, there
are much better and clearer user interfaces in the websites main homepage and
thus both developers and users can carry out searches, click on links and carry
out multiple actions, without needing complex training.

Since a website has multiple pages, it is easier to transfer the code used on
one web page to the next (HTML Arena, 2013). This effectively means that the
developers and designers can comprehend the web page structure and use that
page as the template to design the others in the website.

There is greater accessibility regarding the fact that HTML allows much more
diverse content.

of Web Application Needs: This occurs through the use of
easier applications such as enhanced discussion boards in websites, wiki-like
information sources, drop tools, and front-end drags.

Presence of Offline Application Caches: With
HTML, one does not need to reestablish a new internet connection every time the
connection times out, or one is unable to view a page. HTML has a function that
specifies the files Mozilla Firefox or any other browser must cache.

Disadvantages of using HTML in
Web Design

The main ones are that
in the earlier versions, the reduced performance may require the use of further
editing using programs such as Dreamweaver. 
Other issues relate to compatibility, browser unpredictability,
complexity in the earlier versions and insufficiency concerning dynamic pages
(Higgins, 2014).

Performance: For content heavy and complicated website
building, HTML may not have the kind of capacity or performance required to
suit the task. This may force the developer to use other website design/
software packages like Dreamweaver.

The fundamental issue here is that the use of HTML in website design can lead
to problems if say the users try and access the website with Linux based
operating systems like Red Hat, Fedora, and Ubuntu (Higgins, 2014).

Unpredictability: Websites created with HTML sometimes may
malfunction when used with browsers such as Opera Mini or older Internet
Explorer versions. This renders the whole act of browsing impossible and locks
users out of the browsing experience.

in earlier versions: The earlier versions used
complex codes, and these tended to suffer from bugs that would then cause the
website to fail to download when complete. Also, some of the codes used had
complex texts. This only changed when newer versions came into the market much
later on.

when used in websites with dynamic pages: Some
websites will have pages that continuously change and get new content. This is
true of the social media websites like Instagram, Twitter, Facebook and the
Chinese site Weibo. The continuous updating with information and the
user-generated content, create a situation where the website can crash if too
many people access it and make changes. To guard against this, it is essential
when using HTML in web design to use extra programming languages such as
JavaScript, ASP, and PHP (Higgins, 2014). Additionally, the developer may also
need to add code snippets programmed with those languages to the HTML code, to
enable it to function without interruption.


In conclusion, one can
say that HTML is a markup language that has semantics, forms and elements as
its foundation. There are major advantages in using HTML for website design.
These include accessibility, consistency, elegant design and cleaner code. The
features of HTML are such that it allows easy embedding of data heavy content
such as videos and animations.

Future Research Works

is a need for future research into HTML and website design, particularly in the
context of the use of high-performance smartphones, website security encryption
and the introduction of Internet Protocol Version 6. This means that any future
research will have to look at how the use of HTML in website design can affect
the accessibility with various smart devices, the impact of high-level
encryption on user access and the connectivity with IP version 6. Other things
to look at are what will the creators of HTML 
the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) improve in HTML and how will the
software program stay one step ahead of contemporaries such as JavaScript,
Dreamweaver, and PageMaker.







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