(A attitude is one of the most

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(A Study in the Islamic Boarding School “MA-CI Amanatul Ummah” Surabaya)Abstract:Islamic boarding school forced the students to stay in the boarding school area and speak English (L3) to be practiced in their daily life. That is why, it is important to know their attitude toward the language because attitude is known as essential factor affecting language performance. This study is purposed to know the students’ attitude toward L1, L2, and L3 related with their language practice in their daily life. The aim of this research is also to get information about students’ attitude and their achievement in English. This research is using mix-method approach.  The technique of collecting data is questioner, interview and students’ score document. After conducting the research, the writer got the data which showed students have positive attitude toward L1,L2,L3 in term of three aspects, using L2/L3 for their language practice. The last, there is a correlation between students’ attitude and their achievement with a significance test 0.532 level.Keyword: students’ attitude, language practice, students’ achievement 1. Introduction In  Indonesia,  English  is  not  used  only  for  the  practical  purpose  but  also  for  the communication.  It is used as  the  Business  Language  as  well  as  the  Lingua Franca. It can  be  defined  as  a  language  widely  adopted  for  communication to link up the people from all around the world to share information. It is accepted that being fluent in English language is a key to success in life. Considering the importance of English, it should be taught in the schools as a foreign language.(Shams, 2008)defines factors which is in?uenced  the  learning  processing foreign language learning context,  such  as  motivation,  attitudes and learning  achievements. Moreover, learner’s attitude is one of the most important factors that impact on learning a language. According to (Latchanna, 2009), attitude is about beliefs and feelings which has  been  identified  as  one  of  the crucial  factors  in  learning foreign language. Moreover, (Kara, 2009) defines that attitudes towards learning has an influence on students’ behaviors and on their performance. Positive attitude facilitate students language learning and vice versa, if students do not have the interest in acquiring target language, this student will have a negative attitude and will not be enthusiastic in learning language. Thus, learners’ attitudes could incorporate in language learning because it gives impact on their performance in acquiring the target language. This study looks for the concept of attitude as one of the affective factors for success in learning a foreign language. More specifically, it investigates in MACI Amanatul Ummah Surabaya.MACI Amanatul Ummah is an Islamic boarding school in Surabaya that has an educational aim to prioritized foreign language learning especially English to be used in their social environment. The English learning system of this school is different, students are not only about coming to the class every morning and end in the mid day, but they learn language all day. They are forced to stay in the dorm at the school area and speak English to practice in their daily life. Many studies have been conducted to explore the students’ attitudes towards learning foreign language in general. For instance, (Shams, 2008) conducted a study to examine students’ attitudes,  motivation  and  anxiety  towards learning English.  The result showed that students had positive attitudes and high enthusiasm towards English which emphasized on the use of English in the daily life and (Gitawaty, 2010) also stated that there is a correlation between students’ attitude and their achievement in learning English. In those previous studies, it showed that attitude is related to learning and it will affect learning. Therefore, the researcher expects to fill a gap, Do the students who have positive attitude will implement their positive acts toward English in their daily life? Or do they did the opposite?. Because of this reason, this study was aimed to identify how is the students’ attitude toward L1, L2 and L3 and their language practices outside the school hours. It will also describe in depth the correlation between their language attitude and their achievement in learning English. The researcher addressed the following research questions:1. How is the students’ attitude toward L1, L2, L3?2. What is their language used out of school hours in relation to their attitude?3. Is there any correlation between their language attitudes in their learning achievement?This paper contains of five chapters, chapter I is introduction, it covers    General background, previous studies, research gap and research problem. Chapter II talks about the literature review. Chapter III describes the method and methodology which is used in conducting the research. It covers the research design, participants, instrument, data collection technique, and data analysis. The researcher will describe them one by one. Chapter IV is about result and discussion. Chapter V is conclusion of the paper. 2. Theoretical Framework2.1 Language Language is a part of human life that cannot be separated. Language is the most important thing for human communication (Whatmough, 1957). They use language to express their thought and communicate with others. It means that language has meaning which is able to be expressed by thoughts about what somebody needs. It consists of information that can be accepted by the deliverer and that receiver within dealing. It can be concluded that Language is really important for human being because it is a tool for communication between people to understand one another. 2.2 Attitude and Language AttitudeAttitude is an expression of toward a place, person, thing or event. According to (Rasyid, 2015) Attitude is a way of thinking, feeling   or   behaving   towards   someone   or something. It means that attitude is response toward something. Attitude is also measurable, it can influence the person’s emotion and behavior. If   the   students  have positive   attitude,   it   becomes a good way  for   the   learning   and   teaching process (Kara, 2009).In   general,   the   concept   of   attitude in psychology defined as an evaluation both positive or negative toward thing or people. According to (Ahmadi, 2009) there are three components that interact with the object. These components include:1. Cognitive component. It is about beliefs or thought. For instance: Their understanding in the process of language learning. 2. Affective component, refers to the emotional dimension of attitudes, emotions are associated with the object. It can be pleasant or unpleasant. For instance: students express whether they like or dislike the situation or materials of teaching learning process. 3. Behavior component involving one of tendency towards the object, it deals with the skill. For instance: it is about the way someone reacts in reaction.2.3 L1 , L2, L3 L1 is known as a mother tongue, it is the first language that we learn when we are a baby. In Indonesia context, L1 defines as language from the ethnic minority. For instance, people in east java has Javanese as their L1, people in West Java has Sudanese as their L1, etc.  Language that learners learn when they have acquired their mother tongue – or first language (L1) – is known as second language (L2) and in this term L2 can be define as Bahasa Indonesia as the official and national language. For the target language or foreign language (L3) refers to English as an international language. Many people believe that learning English will provide more opportunities for socio-economic bene?ts (Kirkpatrick, 2010). Thus, in educational context for some institution, students are expected master English well. 2.4 Students’ Achievement Achievement is the students’ ability after he received a learning experience. Students’ achievement are change include the areas of cognitive, affective and psychomotor (Sudjana, 2005). Moreover, (King, 1998) stated that “Achievement is known as energy students bring to school work to make progress in their learning and achievement.” In other words, achievement deals with students’ behavior in their knowledge, skill and attitude in learning after they have followed teaching learning process.3. MethodologyIn this chapter, the researcher describes the method and methodology which is used in conducting the research. It covers the research design, participants, instrument, data collection technique, and data analysis. The researcher will describe them one by one.3.1 Research design  This research was conducted Explanatory mixed methods design. The process was done through the quantitative and then qualitative data. According to Tashakkori (2003) defined mixed method is ‘a  types  of  research  design  in which quantitative and qualitative approaches  are  used  to analyzed the procedures. This research is called explanatory mixed method because the researcher needs to describe how the student’ attitude toward L1, L2, L3, the students’ language practice and the correlation between attitude and students’ achievement. In conclusion, the researcher considered explanatory mixed method research was appropriate for this research.3.2 Participants The population of this research was the students at MA-CIAmanatulUmmah. There were twenty students in every class then the researcher took one class and described how their attitude toward L1,L2,L3 ; The language used and the correlation with their achievement.3.3 Instruments First, a questionnaire is research instruments consist of some questions which are used to gather the information from respondents. According to (Ary, 2002) there are two kinds of questionnaire, (1) The structured questionnaire provides both questions and answers, the respondent should choose which represent their opinion. (2) The unstructured questionnaires. The respondents have to elaborate their beliefs and suggestions using their own words. This study used structured questionnaire The  questionnaire  was  adopted  from  the  Attitude  Questionnaire  Test  employed  by a Behavioral, Cognitive, Emotional Attitude (BCEA) questionnaire as cited in (Abidin, 2012)Second are interview guidelines. Interview guidelines contains several question addressed to the learners. Those questions are related to the learners. Those questions are about what their language used out of the school hour in relation to their attitude.Third, a documentary study was taken from the students’ speaking score in final test at the first semester from the teacher to know about students’ achievement in English to be analyzed. 3.4 Data CollectionFirst, Questionnaire is used to know how the students’ attitude toward L1, L2, L3. The questionnaire used in the study contains 45 items concerning language attitudes in terms of behavioral (the first 5items), cognitive (the second 5 items), and emotional (the third 5 items) aspects of attitude toward L1 , L2 nad L3. Overall, some items were positive and negative. The statements were put in a five-point Likert scale from Level 1: Strongly Disagree to Level 5: Strongly Agree.Second, interview was used to answer the second research question which deals with their language used out of the school hour in relation to their attitude. The students who were interviewed was chosen randomly based on their English competence, higher competence and lower competence. The categorization was based on their score. Third, a documentary study which is taken from the students’ speaking score is collected to be analyzed by using correlation analysis. 3.5 Data Analysis In analyzing the data, there are some steps below:a. First, The data which is related to know how the students’ attitude toward L1, L2, L3, will be got from questionnaire consisting of 15 items showing cognitive, behavioral, and emotional aspects of attitude toward L1, L2 and English as L3. The researcher will analyze based on analysis of a questionnaire and describes the result in the form of percentage and table.b. Second, the data collections of the interview about the students’ language use out of the school were transcribed.c. Third, to analyze the relationship between students’ attitude and students’ achievement, the researcher used Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis. The researcher used bivariate correlations to analyze data. Finally, SPSS software was used and Here the simple interpretation of bivariate correlationSimple Interpretation of CorrelationRxy Interpretation0.00 – 0.20 There is correlation between X variable and Y variable,but  it  is  very  weak  or  very  low.  So  the  correlation  isrejected. In other words, there is no correlation betweenX variable and Y variable0.20 – 0.40 There  is  a  weak  or  low  correlation  between  X  variableand Y variable but it is sure0.40 – 0.70 There is an enough correlation between X variable and YVariable0.70 – 0.90 There is a strong or high correlation between X variableand Y variable0.90 – 1.00 There is a very strong or very high correlation between Xvariable and Y variabled. Last, The data was interpreted and made conclusion about the result of the study. 4. Result4.1 Result of Students’ Attitude toward L1, L2, L3Concerning the ?rst research question, the result of descriptive analysis shows that the overall percentage of Students’ attitude toward three languages, L1 as their mother tongue, L2 (Bahasa Indonesia) and L3 (English) can be seen from the table below:NO. ASPECTS STATEMENTS L1 L2 L31 BEHAVIOUR When I hear a friend in my class speaking  L1/L2/L3 well, I like to practice talking with him 31 % 27% 31%2 Learning L1/L2/L3 helps me improve my personality 3 I like to practice L1/L2/L3 as do native speakers 4 I do not relax when I have to speak L1/L2/L3 5 I feel shy to speak English in front of other students. 6 COGNITIVE The L1/L2/L3 subject has content that covers many areas of knowledge 31 % 35% 30%7 In my opinion, people who speak more than one language have a very wide knowledge 8 I have more knowledge and more understanding when learning to use L1/L2/L3 9 I learned English just to pass the exam 10 I cannot apply L1/L2/L3 conversations in everyday life 11 EMOTIONAL I prefer to learn my native language rather than other foreign languages 36% 36% 37%12 I feel proud while studying L1/L2/L3 13 I do not feel anxious when I have to answer questions in L1/L2/L3 14 Learning foreign languages is enjoyable 15 Learning English makes me feel more confident BEHAVIOUR Most of students stated that they like to learn English especially in the way a native speaker does. They also interest to learn different L1 (mother tongue) with their friends for instance like learning Javanese, Sudanese because of its unique. It can be seen from the percentage 32% for L1 and L2.  Meanwhile, for learning L2 (Bahasa), the score got the lowest score between L1 and L2 (28%) because they think that acquiring  bahasa indonesia as a second language can be done unconsciously. They prefer to learn various languages which have not been known yet.  However,  it  can be  said  that  the students  have  positive  behavioral  attitudes  toward L1 and English language. In other words, they hope they can use English and L1 in outside school hours.COGNITIVE Statements 11–15 is about students’ positive and negative cognitive attitudes toward learning L1/L2/L3 with the percentage for them are L1 (32%), L2 (35%), L3 (31%).  Most of the students stated that they enjoy learning L1, L2, and English. All students agree that more knowledge, information, understanding, and help with other subjects are possible with learning L1, L2 and English. It is apparent from the data of the table that the respondents recognize the importance of learning L1, L2, and L3 in the area of communicating actively. This is indeed an expression of positive cognitive attitudes of the respondents toward L1 , L2 and L3. EMOTIONAL The mean percentage for the emotional aspects are L1 (36%), L2 (37%) , L3 (37%) which means that most students have good emotions/feelings, high importance, more proud, enjoinment, and con?dent toward L2 (Bahasa Indonesia) and L3 (English) rather than their L1 , but it still concerns that studyingL1  is  enjoyable  and  interesting  for  them. In conclusion, the majority of them, showed good and positive emotions/feelings to learning L1, L2 and L3.4.2 Result of Students’ Language Practice (outside the school hours)NO QUESTIONS STUDENT 1 STUDENT 2 STUDENT 31. Which languages do you like more, L1, L2 or L3? Honestly, I prefer to choose English that I like most because by mastering English well we can communicate with many people in the world. English because sometimes we look cool when speak English Actually I like English and Arabic because help me to speak with foreign people 2. Which language is easier? L1,L2,L3?  Of course it is my mother tongue, because I can speak it without learning BahasaIndonesia , because I am from Java so my mother tongue is Javanese and it has different structure for different people. So bahasa Indonesia is easiest one. And English is quite difficult. Bahasa Indonesia because we use it in learning process every day.3. What language do you usually use outside the school hours? Sometimes English, sometimes bahasa. We are forced to speak English rather than bahasa but If I confused and there is no ustazd/ustadzah who look at me, I prefer to use bahasa with my friend Honestly bahasa, because it is really difficult to speak English. If no one knows I used bahasa but if I speak with ustad/ustadzah sometimes I used English Bahasa , because when I try to speak English all the time sometimes my friend tease me by saying “gayamuinggrisan”. So if there is no teacher I speak bahasa4. Where do you usually use English outside the school hours? When I am in school like in the musholla, canteen and corridor of this Islamic boarding school In the classroom, in the canteen Sometimes everywhere 5. To whom do you usually use English? My ustad/ustadzah and my roommate  My roommate, my teacher All friends and teachers The interview result was taken from the students’ level which can be seen from their achievement in English conversation class. The Result establishes the finding that the students were interested to use English in their daily life especially outside the school hours. However, most of them use English if there is a teacher (ustad/ustadzah) around them. If there is no teacher (ustad/ustadzah), they prefer to choose Bahasa to communicate with others secretly.  It means that, although they have a positive attitude toward English their acts do the opposite which can be seen from their daily life of how they implement their attitude toward English. 4.3 Result of The Correlation between Students’ Attitude and Students’ AchievementThe researcher took the score of students’ attitude (variable X) by  using  15  items  questionnaire toward L3 (English) and  students’  learning  achievement (variable Y) by using conversation English scores in final test at the first semester and those scores were analyzed.To know whether there is any significant correlation or not between X variable and Y variable, the researcher formulated HI (Alternative Hypothesis) and Ho (Null Hypothesis) first as follows: a.   Ha  :  “there  is  a  positive  correlation  which  significant  between  X variable    (attitude)    and    Y    variable    (learning achievement)” b.  Ho  :  “there is no positive correlation which significant between X variable    (attitude)    and    Y    variable    (learning achievement)” Some Assumptions are as follows: a) If the result of calculation rxy is smaller than Tt (t table),  rxyTt: so the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected (Ha is accepted). From the calculation  Pearson’s  Product  moment  correlation  above,  the researcher got the result from rxy = 0.532 (it is between 0.40 – 0.70). According to simple interpretation, There is an enough correlation between X variable and Y variable.  Thus,  we  can  interpret  that  there  is  a positive  correlation  between  attitude  (as  X  variable)  and learning achievement (as Y variable).  The Test of Hypothesis After calculating rxy, the result of rxy is 0.532. The researcher determine degree of freedom (df) to get Tt  (T table).  df = N-nr = 20–2 = 18. After looking  at  the  table,  df  (18)  get  significance  5%  is  0.468  and  get significance  1%  is  0.590. The researcher concluded  thatrxy is bigger than tt or  rxy>tt = 0.532> 0.468 , so that the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected (Ha is accepted). The Interpretation of Data From  the  correlation  computation,  we  can  interpret  that  there  is  a positive  correlation  between  attitude  (as  X  variable)  and learning  achievement  (as  Y  variable).  From the calculation Pearson’s Product  moment  correlation  above,  the  writer  got  the  result  from  rxy  = 0.532. According to simple interpretation above, we know that “there  is  a  positive  correlation  which  significant  between  X variable    (attitude)    and    Y    variable    (learning achievement)” 5. Discussion The ?nding was recorded that most of students more positive attitude toward learning English in all three aspects of behavioral, cognitive, and emotional toward learning English just in line with Shams (2008) and (Kara, 2009)where the   students   have positive   attitude,   it   becomes   the   good beginning   for   the   learning   and   teaching process. However, students who has positive attitude do the opposite of their language practice in daily life. It can be seen from their attitude when outside the school hour, the students have to speak English to communicate with others but they did not do that. Students will only speak English outside the school hour if there is a teacher around them. If there is not, they prefer to use L2 (Bahasa). Moreover, Based on data analysis by SPSS calculations, the correlation is significant at the 0.532 level, it can be said that the two variables are attitudes and learning achievement have a positive correlation between  students’  learning  motivation and  learning  achievement in  English. These ?ndings is in line with the reports given by (Gitawaty, 2010) who found there is strong correlation between students’ attitude and their achievement. Thus, in this study students  with negative attitude will get  lower  score  in  English  achievement  and  the students  with positive attitude will  get  higher  score  in English achievement.6. ConclusionBased on the discussion of theoretical research data on The Students’ Attitude toward L1, L2, L3, and Their Language Practice, the researcher will conclude as follows:1. Based on the results of questionnaire aimed at students MACI AmanatulUmmah Surabaya obtained the positive attitude toward L1 as their mother tongue, L2 as Bahasa Indonesia and English as the target language in behavior, cognitive and emotional aspects of attitude. Among three languages they have higher positive value in English. 2. Based on the results of interview, the students who has positive attitude toward English do the opposite in their acts. They speak English outside the school hours to communicate with other if there is teacher around them. If there is no teacher, they prefer to use Bahasa (L2). 3. There is a correlation between students’ attitude (X variable) and the students’ achievement (Y variable) with asignificance test 0.532 level.

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