A teaching sessions in lectures. Firstly, there is

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A teaching method comprises
the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning. These
strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by
the nature of the learner. For a particular teaching method to be appropriate
and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner
and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about

in thermodynamics, a
closed system can exchange energy as heat or work but not matter, with its
surroundings. An isolated system cannot exchange any heat, work, or matter with
the surroundings, while an open system can exchange energy and matter. However,
for systems which are undergoing a chemical reaction, there may be all sorts of
molecules being generated and destroyed by the reaction process. In this case,
the fact that the system is closed is expressed by stating that the total
number of each elemental atom is conserved, no matter what kind of molecule it
may be a part of.

In thermodynamics, a
closed system is important for solving complicated thermodynamic problems. It
allows the elimination of some external factors that could alter the results of
the experiment or problem thus simplifying it. A closed system can also be used
in situations where thermodynamic equilibrium is required to simplify the

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To improve teaching and
learnimg method for the Closed System,we has to improve the quality of slide
presentation , and how to conduct and  presentation
styes. We also can use fasilitator ,tutorial and activity styes. In addition we
also can use group discussion styles








            Those are various problems that will
arise when it comes to teaching sessions in lectures. Firstly, there is less
interaction between students and lectures. Such as, no activity during class
which can attract students to stay focused for throughout class time. When
there is a lack of interaction between lecturers and students, these show that
the learning sessions are less encouraging. 
Hence, some things need to be fixed for overcome this problem. Besides
that, teaching skills are needs when students are confronted with problems that
require critical thinking and analysis of ill structured problems through
development of hypotheses and analysis of data link the new knowledge into
their thinking and decision making.

            Many students have difficulties in
learning thermodynamics for decades. Even after get the instruction; students
retain significant misconception about thermodynamics principles. Besides that,
many students face difficulties in understanding basic concepts in
thermodynamics. They have misunderstanding or misconceptions about terms such
as work, heat, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, first law of thermodynamics
and their use for concrete applications. Furthermore, most students were
confused about how to properly determine the state of pure substances. Stated
that, there was a perception among engineering students that thermodynamics is
an impossibly difficult and most hated subject then, it was reflected in poor
final examination results of the students.

            After that, students in engineering
at universities tend to underperform in subjects such as thermodynamics. Other
than that, there is a stated that both the learning and the teaching of
thermodynamics were no easy tasks to be done. There is because, students also
face obstacles in mapping abstract, theoretical understanding of thermodynamic
principles on to plant operation. Furthermore, topics in thermodynamics are
abstract and difficult to visualize. Moreover, with traditional
teacher-centered educational approach engineering students sometimes learn
theories that they cannot transfer to real situations, or have experiences that
they cannot explain with the knowledge they have already obtained.

            Also, someone stressed that students
lack intuition and treat thermodynamics problem as abstractions divorced from
practical application. Besides that, students also face difficulties in
retention of knowledge when traditional teaching method is used. That’s why;
student’s learning through traditional approach is not effective in the
twenty-first century. Students also have trouble in solving thermodynamic
problems. Indicated that some students cannot properly build an image of the
problem and do not know how to start, therefore they struggle everywhere in solving
the problem. There will make such common pitfalls associated with problem
solving can result in difficulties as problems become more complicated.




















The goal of a classroom presentation for example the Power
Point is as an aid in effectively conveying information in a way that allows
students to remember what they learn. Unfortunately, for some reason, the
presentation becomes a crutch, and they begin to rely on the slides to tell the
topics, rather than to help them
tell the topics. Even worst, some statements stated that power
point in lecture make student more stupid and lecture more boring are likely to
generate a lot of debate.

analysis of closed systems slides 13



would argue that if the lecture Power Point presentation looks like the slide
above. This is because it looks too pack and some points is hard to understand.
But, the problem is not with the presentation software. Power Point is a tool,
and how useful that tool is largely depends on how familiar they are with the
software. Therefore, improving how to use a tool is the better approach.


the best advice we will ever get when it comes to presentations is the Power
Point must keep it simple. The explanations are important but do not let them
distract from the main content. The other reason to keep it simple is that the
more complicated the explanation make the more chance there is for something to
go confuse. Keep it simple, but unique and the content will explain itself.


also works for the content and makes the difference between a presentation that
is driven by content to one that is guided by content. If there have too much
information in the Power Point are not creating as many opportunities for
improvisation in class. If there have too little content also cause losing
opportunities to offer support and help to the students. Between those two
extremes there is a happy medium. Enough content that the students know the
concept are guided by it, but not so much that feel the student can not deviate
from it and the presentations will generate conversation


The real application images
should be shown in the polytrophic process and work boundary in a closed system


photos, figures and videos work as visual memory triggers. It will help the
students remember what they learn. Any time the slides should be add a visual
that helps illustrate or reinforce the points in the slides. But, the great for
showing images and videos is on the real situations or applications for
engineering students. Creating presentations can be time consuming and often
seen as a low priority because the time could be used better to do something
else. However, there are a lot of different activities that might use pictures
and videos. The picture dictations
able to make student describes an image to a partner or videos, where the students can try to
construct the real imagination what they learn about them. They can also be
used to generate a discussion or lead in to a topic. Therefore, this will have
turned out the students to be a faster way catch the topic they learn.

Categories: Decision Making


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