3.3 determine the relationship between the risk factor

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3.3 A case control design is a study that compares patients
who have a disease or outcome of cases with patient that do not have the
specific disease (controls), and looks back with hindsight to compare how
frequently the exposure to a risk factor is present in each group to determine
the relationship between the risk factor and the disease. These types of
studies are observational because no help or intervention is given to alter the
course of the disease. The goal is to retrospectively determine the exposure to
the risk factor of interest from each of the two groups of individuals being
studied, which would be the case and the control. Some advantages of case
control studies are that it is good for studying rate conditions or diseases,
less time is needed to conduct an experiment because the specific condition or
disease has already occurred, it lets you look at all the risks, and it answers
questions that can’t be answered through other study designs. An example of
this would be a study to investigate if the exposure to zinc oxide is a more
effective skin cancer prevention measure. This study involved comparing a group
of former lifeguards that had skin cancer on their noses and cheeks to a group
of lifeguards without cancer. They then assessed their past exposure to zinc
oxide and/or absorbent sunscreen lotions.

 

Cohort studies are a type of medical research that is used
to look at the cause of a disease and link them to being risk factors that lead
to health outcomes. These look at data that already exists and try to identify
risk factors based on that. These are usually prospective studies that gather
data going forwards, rather than retrospective Cohort studies that look at data
already collected. An example of Cohort studies would be a study considering
the factors that affect the health illness of populations.

 

3.6 The primary methods of collecting data are self-reports,
observations, and biological measurements. Whether a patient decided to
participate in the research is what differs the three methods. Self-reports are
surveys and interviews that are done in different settings that have different
variables and controls. Observations are used to gather data on physical data
such as characteristics that are sense upon observing the patient. Biological
measurement is separated into 3 different subjects. Biophysical assessments
measure the physical characteristics. Biochemical methods measure chemical
constituent in the fluids of the body. Microbiological methods evaluate microorganism
in bodily fluids that are present in the individual.

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