1. although they exist in them and motivate
1. Primary motivation :
Many motivation drives and motives are unknown to the individual, although they exist in them and motivate them indirectly.
Since these drives and motives are physically attached to people, they are known as primary motivations.
They are biological, and the word primary does not mean that these motives take precedence over other motives.
Primary motivations are basically related to human needs for psychological satisfaction. Primary motivations are unlearned and natural, relating to physiological needs.
Primary motivation may be of general types which are naturally felt by the individual. They are competence motives, curiosity and affection.
These primary motivational drives use manipulation and activity to achieve satisfaction. Satisfaction here means the fulfillment of basic human needs.
Natural motivation depends on several unknown factors such as competence, curiosity, etc. Many authors have tried to explore competence and other factors to find their impacts on primary motivation.
For example, human and other organisms have the capacity to interact with the situation. They have the capacity, very well known as competence, to understand the situation, its exploration, manipulation and different functions.
The capacity to interact with the environment has been termed competence motives by Robert W. White, who explained that competence motives receive substantial contributions from activities.
They direct, select and persist with the environment. Competence to act, interact and counteract with the environment is the basic foundation of primary motivation.
People try to have control over the environment or behave sensitively within the given environment. The competence motives vary with age, sex and education.
Competence drives help children to learn many things automatically, e.g. riding a cycle, crossing a road, the reading habit, learning the mother’s language, culture and so on.
These basic factors or natural competence are explored, developed and sustained by children and are preserved in them till old age.
The intensity of a child’s competence motive shapes his adulthood motivation drives. Based on these competence motives, some employees prefer rough and tough jobs, others like to work on sophisticated machines while yet others feel happy with table work.
While designing jobs and assigning them, competence motives are deeply considered to make the employees highly motivated to achieve their goals.
Primary motives have unlearned drives to explore and manipulate objectives. Curiosity Ii one of them, which inspires people to adopt a significant activity.
Without curiosity, one cannot desire to learn and direct his activities. Many times, students express their curiosity to perform a particular function.
Due to curiosity, they learn many new schemes. Employees are motivated, because they have a curiosity about development.
In the absence of curiosity, employees become dormant and sleepy and will not take interest in organizational activities,
Primary motivation includes affection motives; Love and affection are part of human enjoyment, which is aimed at by the employees.
People work because they want to support their families, If their family needs are fulfilled, they are inspired to work hard. Love and affection have become prime movers of people’s activities.
The primary motivation includes satisfying human needs. People work for satisfying individual and family needs of hunger, clothing, housing, education, etc.
The present and future needs need to be satisfied by working people. No one would like to work if the basic needs are not satisfied.
Social and psychological needs are part of secondary motivation. Primary needs such as the need for food, water, air, comfort, shelter and safety are the prime motivation needs. These human needs are to be satisfied or for making individuals active.
2. Secondary motivation :
Secondary motivation is learned whereas primary drives are unlearned and are as natural as feelings of thirst, hunger, etc.
Secondary motives are learned and realized as a result of development. As human beings develop and learn many new ways of satisfaction and comfort, secondary motives crop up, which prevail in a cultured and educated society?
Secondary motives do not remain secondary in a developed organization; rather they become essential for moving the activities of educated people. They become prime movers of developed people, because it is natural to feel these needs.
Many authors have emphasized the separation of secondary motivation from primary motivation to retain the identity of each. Secondary motives are always learned. They are achievement motivation, affiliation motivation and power motivation.
People are achievement oriented. A perception test has revealed that many employees work for achievement of satisfaction while working in an organization and getting satisfaction thereof.
Knowledge and learning have become helpful for developing achievement motivation. Many psychological tests have revealed the levels of achievement motivation. McClelland has devised techniques to measure Need for Achievement (NAch).
He has revealed the qualities of high and low achievers. High achievers are not necessarily risk takers. They are cautious and careful persons.
They are moderators. People believing in high achievement need immediate feedback. They find achievement an intrinsic satisfier.
The material rewards and other results are not important to high achievers. They believe in work only and care little about the results and rewards.
They are preoccupied with their work until the work is completed. They do not leave any work unfinished. However, high achievers are divided and live alone.
They like peace and solitude. They are realistic, aim for excellence and show good behaviour.
Low achievement oriented people do not bother about goals. They like to work for rewards and results and not for individual job satisfaction.
They are pessimistic. They do not like subordinates to enjoy the fruits of achievement. They do not care about people and production.
High achievers on the other hand are an asset to the organization as they feel personally responsible for action and results.
Affiliation motivation is related to social motives. People like to be recognized by the society.
Employees feel happy when they are complimented for services rendered. They get inner satisfaction while being in the company of friends and a large number of people.
They like freedom to mix with other colleagues, If an employee is associated with some social organization, he Is liked by his friends.
Thus affiliation motives help people develop. Persons having affiliation attitudes are in a better position to manage their employees.
The employees also enjoy working with an affiliation oriented manager, because the latter easily assigns tasks. He gets an opportunity to monitor work and direct work activities. Affiliation motives are useful for group dynamics.
Many people desire power in order to influence others. Power- oriented people are also management-oriented.
Institutional power is better than individual power, because the former is used to influence the behaviour of employees to make them more productive.
Qualified people prefer to seek power through legitimate means. They want leadership through successful performances.