1) scenes that support the idea of two
1) Fabula and Syuzhet originates from Russia, and both have a relationship in explaining how the narrative of something (in this case Memento) is constructed. In Russian, Fabula means story, while syuzhet is the plot of a narrative. Although they both combine to form a story/narrative, fabula is more of the order of the events and how they form the story, while syuzhet is more of how the narrative is formed. In the case of Memento, fabula and syuzhet is at play in everyone’s interpretation of Memento. More importantly, the fabula in memento is open to our interpretation, and we must use this to determine the syuzhet which is what Christopher Nolan intended to create the film and what narrative he was trying to achieve. In Memento, the film opens up with Leonard shooting Teddy, and for the rest of the movie, the narrative involves trying to figure out what led to the murder. The combination between plot and narrative in this movie is very unique, and requires some serious analysis in interpreting the story. The norm for many movies that lead off with an event, it is usually explain through the film and what lead to this. However, unlike many films, Memento’s syuzhet and fabula are not in sync which is the difficult part in understanding Memento, as it seems there is two narrative occurring in conjunction. The movie’s syuzhet is presented by a multitude of blocks of scenes that support the idea of two narratives leading to one ending. Within each block, time goes forward as normal, but after it ends and new block begins with the narrative prior to the current events we saw. As the movie progresses, we begin to see that the syuzhet begins with the ending of the fabula, this is where the double narrative is discovered. Overall, the understanding of Memento’s narrative is that as the film progresses, syuzhet approaches its end, while fabula approaches it’s beginning. 2) Two film elements that Yumeji’s Theme expresses in In the Mood for love are sensual emotions and sorrow. Everytime the theme is played throughout the movie, the current scene and scenario is illuminated by the theme music, which is that they are being brought together because of their spouses affairs. Yumeji’s theme really takes the role of forming the love and sensuality of Mrs. Chan and Mr Chow, but also comes about from a violation of moral code, infidelity. According to Marchetti, Yumeji’s theme is composed of Chinese opera, 1940’s Shanghai pop music, and Nat King Cole with a latin rhythm (Marchetti 972). When Yumeji’s theme comes throughout the film, the scenes in unison are slowed down to match the tempo and speed. It also creates a different perspective of the movie, as something as simple as eating noodles or smoking is sensualized by the theme music. Another key aspect that the music brings to the film is that it creates a perspective that seems to show the building tension and love between Mrs. Chan and Mr. Chow as time slows down when they come in contact or in frame of each other. However, this can come down to reason that it is against chinese morals to commit infidelity, this could be reason why we never see passionate or sensual scenes between the two. Instead, the director uses the non-diegetic sound of the theme music to showcase emotional tension and attraction between the two. After Mr. Chow finds out his wife is having an affair, the music first appears and we see him full of sorrow and depression, the combination of slow motion shots and music brings the the idea of forgetting about time and everything when we experience something difficult. The biggest role of the theme music itself is to showcase the tense emotions of the characters while also the depicting their attraction to each other, but they can never indulge in a relationship. 5) Michael Haneke’s Cache, is about a family in France who is being terrorized by someone sending surveillance tapes of their home and them, essentially following and stalking them with the intention to strike fear as there is always a drawing attached to the tapes. A good amount of the scenes involving the home and family are played through the videotapes, and it is the use of these videotapes that creates a dilemma for the viewer, or we watching a tape or a actual scene. From the first viewing, in the first scene all of the audience expects this to be like any ordinary scene, however after a couple of minutes we hear commentary of Georges wife and realize it’s them talking over a tape with footage of their home. This is sort of like metacinema as we are watching the family watching a surveillance tape of their home. This cinematic use of employing outside scenes in the form of “tapes” is something that is done in order to confuse the viewer, and also his willingness to change aspects of a film to focus on certain things. This is supported by Kevin Sherman as he states, “Haneke is quite willing to slow down his narrative to allow emphasis on small, seemingly contingent but significant moments of mean-making” (Sherman 1007). Similar to Cache, Rear Window also has cinematic elements that confuse the audience. This confusion is seen, through Jeff’s point of view throughout the film, since he is in a wheelchair and can only see what’s outside of his window and doesn’t know much else. This is supported by Cowie, ” motivating the view by implying a characters optical point of view introduces perspective” (Cowie 524). Because Jeff is in a wheelchair, we are unable to see everything that’s going on outside of the windows, like Cache we are unable to know the full scope of the story, as were are limited to the tapes only. 6) Orson Welles and Gregg Toland work in Citizen Kane can be encompassed by the use of the deep focus shot in many scenes. A deep focus shot uses aperture and focus with a combination of deep space which allows for action on different planes in focus (Villarejo Ch. 1). The use of the deep focus shot was sort of the common theme throughout the film, in order for the audience to not only focus on the main subjects of a scene, but also the underlying details happening behind them. The use of deep focus in Citizen Kane was actually a complex process, that today would be easy to do with modern technology. Naremore explained this “some of the so-called deep-focus shots were made not by simple photography but by matte printing” (Naramore 324), this meant that two separate scenes/shots were merged into one. The use of the focus shot are done in order to portray a narrative aspect in the film, this can be related to the mise en scene as there was a reason for how the scenes were shot and where characters and props were placed on set. In deep focus shots there are many things going on screen at once, but once you are able to identify this, you will be guided to the director’s intend point of focus, this is evident is several scenes throughout the film. One scene where the use of deep focus is employed is in the scene where Susan attempts to commit suicide. The initial focus shot is on the props which were the cup, spoon, and bottle of medicine. However, after Charles arrives, a depth of field is employed but Charles is behind the props but still in focus, while Susan is no longer in focus. Another scene where deep focus is utilized is the scene where Mr, Thatcher is making a deal with Charles parents. Although the deal is the main focus of the scene and should be the main part of it, but in the background you are able to see Charles playing in the snow, this is done as almost to feel sympathy for a young boy who is about to leave home. The use of deep focus in Citizen Kane is a pioneering in cinema, and can be seen in other works like The Rules of the game in order to show a multitude of things happening at once. The use of deep focus ultimately asks to pay attention to everything on the screen.