1.1 “media effects” debate which to a great
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDYThe social media, most especially youtube and facebook have gradually become a part of our daily lives, and sources of information, education and entertainment have been described as the primary functions of the media. Lasswell (2008) as cited in Folarin (2005, p.74) assigns three functions to the media:i. Surveillance of the Environment (the news function).ii. Correlation of the different parts of the Enviroment (the editorial function). iii. Transmission of the cultural heritage from one generation to the other (the cultural transmission function).The focus of the researcher in this study is not only on the entertainment function of social media, but the role social media plays especially in lifestyle stereotyping among undergraduates in the society. Stephenson (2007) a British psychologist, as cited in Folarin (2012, p.170), divides man’s activities into work and play. The former involving reality and production, while the latter deals with entertainment, relaxation or self satisfaction. He further says that people use mass communication more as play than as work, more for pleasure and entertainment than for information and serious work. Folarin (ibid) corroborates this view by saying that one constant criticism of social media in Nigeria is its focus on entertainment rather than on development purposes.There is no doubt that the impact of the media on young people’s lives is broadly considered within what is referred to as “media effects” debate which to a great extent focuses on the potentially negative impact of the media on young people’s lives: video violence, gambling, educational performance, mass consumerism, etc (Miles, 2000). Steele & Brown (2005) identifies three main reasons why media influence should be given a closer look:1. Young people spend more time with the mass media than they do in school or with their parents.2. The media are full of portrayals that glamorize risky adult behavior such as excessive drinking, luxurious lifestyle and sexual promiscuity.3. Parents and other socialization agents have arguably shirked their responsibilities when it comes to directing youth away from risky forms of behavior; thereby allowing the media a more fundamental influence.In the context of this discourse, many commentators opine that by the age of 18, an individual will have spent more time watching television, youtube and facebook than any other activity besides sleep (Miles & Anderson, 2009). However, Miles (2000, p.73) is of the view that:It is widely assumed that young people are affected more directly and negatively by the media than any other age group, research actually indicates that young people between the ages of 14 and 24 actually form one of the groups who currently spend the most time on social media. This is a paradox that has often been neglected in the literature. Ironically, the mass media itself has a vested interest in exaggerating the impact it has on young people’s lives because media-hype simply makes good ‘copy.’Regardless of the actual time young people spend in watching television and using other media, there is no doubt that the mass media have played and will continue to play an important role in structuring young people’s lives in some shape and form in a period of rapid social change (Miles, ibid).The amount of media products consumed by young people has drastically expanded in recent years, allowing them to compose their own ‘media menu’ with their own preferences and likings. The youth itself is undergoing a period of rapid change, likewise the ways in which young people use the media. The advent of android, IOS devices in recent years has aided easy access to musical videos (Johnsson-Samaragdi, 2004). Osgerby (2008) further points out that the post-modern age brought with it the proliferation of media and information technologies which challenged traditional conceptions of time and space, symbolized most apparently by the global cultural flows and images evident in the programming of Music Television (MTV). MTV is well known as an entertainment television that airs not only music videos, but reality TV shows and other entertainment programmes. In this era, youth do not focus on television but can get any music or entertainment program through their mobile devices especially music videos with celebrities displaying expensive lifestyles that attract interest of the youth. In this research work the influence of lifestyle stereotyping on undergraduate youth especially in private universities in Ondo State will be examined. 1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENTIt cannot be over emphasized that the music videos have taken a center stage in our daily activities especially in the 21st Century with the emergence and consolidation of different songs and their high profile videos on different social media platforms and how youths want to live up to such publicized lifestyle. It has been observed in cities that satellite and cable television stations and mostly social media have a greater amount of audience than the local television stations.However, this study wants to examine lifestyle stereotyping, with particular attention on music videos, and how youths want to live such flamboyant life. It is evident through previous researches that with social media at their fingertips young people spend more time online. A conservative estimate has being given of an average American teenager who spends 2.5 hours per day on facebook and youtube. The young people spend an average of 16-18 hours live streaming videos per week (Wakefield, et al, 2003).Furthermore, from previous researches carried out on the effects of lifestyle stereotyping on youth, it has been discovered that most of the programmes teenagers watch are entertainment-related, for instance movies, musical videos, soap operas, etc. The influence of these programmes on youth may not be immediate or outrightly effective due to some other variables like family, social group, peer group, etc. Nevertheless, the influence might be insidious and lead the youth to building false ideals and negative social behavior by wanting to live such displayed expensive lifestyle. The more youth get involved in constant music video activities, tendencies of wanting to live such lifestyle increases which might involve using all means to get the resources and most of the celebrities are not able to afford such live on the real sense. Therefore, this study attempts to examine how lifestyle stereotyping is influencing youths with much focus on undergraduates. 1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS1. Do private university undergraduates watch or use the media?2. Do private university undergraduates watch musical videos?3. On what media or platforms do they watch musical videos if they do?4. Do they or have they gotten their lifestyles influenced through musical videos?5. What is the extent to which they have gotten influenced through musical videos?1.4 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES1. To know if private university undergraduates watch or use the media.2. To know if private university undergraduates watch musical videos.3. To know the media or platforms through which they watch musical videos if they do.4. To know if they have gotten their lifestyle influenced through musical videos. 5. To know what extent to which they have gotten influenced through musical videos.1.5 HYPOTHESIS TESTING1. H0: Private University students in Ondo State do not get their lives influenced through musical videos.H1: Private University students in Ondo State get their lives influenced through musical videos.2. H0: Private University students in Ondo State do not get involved in immoral activities just to live a celebrity stereotyped life.H1: Private University students in Ondo State usually get involved in immoral activities just to live a celebrity stereotyped life.1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDYThis study is designed to give a critical examination and analysis on lifestyle stereotyping in musical videos and influence on private university undergraduates in Ondo State. The research work will pay much attention on undergraduates in Private University students in Ondo State.1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYIt has been observed in recent times that social media in Nigeria is blossoming especially with the usage of live streaming features for music videos, movies, etc and youth showing interest in living such ways of life they assume celebrities live due to their fancy and expensive displays especially the major cities (Lagos, Abuja, Port Harcourt, etc). Therefore, this study seeks to draw the attention of media practitioners, owners and youth (especially social media) to the vital role they plays as an agent of socialization. A research into how entertainment television shapes the social behaviour of teenagers/youth whether positively or negatively appears novel, especially through social media. This is a contemporary issue which scholars in the field of media studies have paid little or no attention to. Therefore, part of the uniqueness of this study is that it will be of immense significance to researchers in the academia in the 21st Century. It does not only aim at contributing to knowledege but also providing a foundational basis for further studies into the socialization role of social media world.Nonetheless, youths who are the at the heart of this study will understand fully the positive and negative roles entertainment television/social media plays in contributing to shaping their social behaviour in their immediate environment. It will also avail counsellors viable information on where and how youth draw inferences for their social behaviours. This is because youths might not only behave in a certain manner because of mere peer influence, but also from what they watch on television and social media, especially from people or celebrities they see as role models. It is also believed that the findings of this study will be an added resource to available literature and will be used to promote informed decision-making and policies by the regulating bodies of the broadcast and entertainment industry.1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMSLIFESTYLE: Lifestyle is the interests, opinions, behaviours, and behavioural orientations of an individual, group, or culture.STEREOTYPING: a stereotype is any thought widely adopted about specific types of individuals or certain ways of behaving intended to represent the entire group of those individuals or behaviors as a whole.MUSIC VIDEOS: A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, and produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are primarily made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings.ELIZADE UNIVERSITY: Elizade University is a private university in Ilara-Mokin, Ondo State in Nigeria. It was founded by Micheal Ade Ojo.ACHIEVERS UNIVERSITY: Achievers University is in Owo, Ondo State Nigeria, the university is a private-sector initiative, established in 2007 and accredited by the National Universities Commission.WESLEY UNIVERSITY: Wesley University of Science and Technology is located in Ondo, Ondo State Nigeria. It was founded by the Methodist Church, Nigeria.UNDERGRADUATES: An undergraduate degree (also called first degree, bachelor’s degree or simply degree) is a colloquial term for an academic degree taken by a person who has completed undergraduate courses. It is usually offered at an institution of higher education, such as a university.1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDYThe report is organized in five chapters as follows: In the structure of this study, chapter one will be the Introductory section, which will deal exclusively with the background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, justification of the study, scope of study as well as limitations to the study. The Second chapter will review relevant literatures on the subject matter. Chapter Three of the research work will focus on the methodology for the research, sources of data, method of data collection etc. Chapter Four of the study will be devoted to analysis of data, its presentation and analysis while the Fifth Chapter will discuss the summary of the research work, recommendation and suggestions for further studies.REFERENCESFolarin (2005). Models and theories of communication. Maryland: African Renaissance Books Incorporated.Folarin (2012). Nothing sells like teen spirit: the commodification of youth culture. In Mallan, K. & Pearce, S. (ed.), Youth cultures. London: Praeger Publishers.Johnsson-Samaragdi, (2004). Generation on hold: coming of age in the late twentieth century. London: New York University Press.Lasswell (2008). Living with television: The dynamics of the cultivation process. In J. Bryant & D. Zillman (eds), Perspectives on media effects (pp. 17–40). Hilldale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Miles & Anderson, 2009). Television, family and society: the social origins and effects of adolescent TV use. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell.Miles, (2000). Models of change & stability in adolescents media use. In Rosengren, E.K. (ed.), Media effects and beyond: culture, socialization and lifestyles. London: Routledge.Osgerby (2008). No sense of place: the impact of electronic media on social behaviour. 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