·        
There is no
association between demographic data and leisure engagement.

·        
There is an
association between socioeconomic and leisure engagement.

·        
There is an
association between household related and leisure engagement.

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·        
There is an
association between health related and leisure engagement.

·        
There is an
association between leisure engagement and sleep quality.

 

1.6 Significant of the study

     This study is expected to classify the interest
of leisure activities among teachers in Sekolah Kebangsaan Kubang Kerian 1 and
Sekolah Kebangsaan Kubang Kerian 2, Kelantan. One of the foundations of
occupational therapy is prescribing functional and purposeful activities to
rectify and maintaining function. In order to suggest these activities, it is
important for occupational therapists to know their patient’s interest so that
they can develop an individualized treatment plan (Klyczek, Bauer-Yox &
Fiedler, 1997). Health service providers can also play a role to frame leisure
as a beneficial everyday activity for patients (McQuoid, 2017). By knowing the
association of demographic data (e.g., gender, age), socioeconomic (e.g.,
occupation, education), household related (e.g., marital status, number of
children) and health related (e.g., perception of health) on leisure
engagement, any strategy can be establish. School authority can play a major
role such as improving school environments (e.g., employ more pre-professionals
to handle many of the non-core tasks which now done by teachers, reduce the
class size) so that teachers’ well-being and students’ success can be enhanced.
Teachers with good wellbeing due to engagement in leisure activities will
benefit the school administration. The literature highlighted that workloads in
teaching profession can lead to stress (Simone, Cicotto & Lampis, 2016)
thus sleep can be disturbed. The involvement of an individual in leisure
activity is also important because it can promote better sleep quality, reduce
fatigue due to not enough sleep, and avoid teachers from being sleepy and
dozing during perform the job. Hence, teachers’ performance can be improve and
enhanced.

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Leisure activity                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Parham & Fazio (1997, as cited in “Occupational Therapy
Practice Framework: Domain and Process (3rd Edition)”, 2014), leisure can
be define as “a non-obligatory activity that is intrinsically motivated and
engaged in during discretionary time, that is, time not committed to obligatory
occupations such as work, self-care, or sleep”. Leisure can also be as defined
humanistic activity and it gives experiences and good emotions in terms of
enjoyment and happiness to the individuals who are engaging in the leisure. The
activity is freely chosen and it promotes enriched and meaningful life. Broad
aspects of human functioning including physical, cultural, social, spiritual,
and emotional can be enhanced by engaging in leisure activities (Iwasaki,
Coyle, & Shank, 2010).

Ruiz-Contreras et
al. (2012) divided leisure into three different types which are physical
leisure activities (e.g., jogging, cycling, gardening, hiking, dancing,
swimming), cognitive leisure activities (e.g., reading books, reading
newspapers, writing, read poems) and social leisure activities (e.g., attending
theatre, visiting friends, volunteering activity, support groups). The study also
highlighted that leisure activities provide experiences and positive emotions
such as enjoyment and satisfaction that can make an individual’s life become
more meaningful.

According to McQuoid
(2017), leisure composed a different and complex category of activities that can
be divided into two which are casual leisure and serious leisure. McQuoid (2017) defined casual leisure activities as “immediately,
essentially rewarding, relatively short-lived enjoyable activity requiring
little or no special training to enjoy such as talking with friends or
strolling in a park. In contrast, serious leisure
is a steady pursuit of an amateur, hobbyist, or career volunteer activities
that fascinate the participants with its difficulty and challenges such as when
an individual committed as a volunteer in an organisation.

As a conclusion, leisure
activity is one of the important occupations in daily life that should be put
as one of the priority. Individuals who are not engage in any leisure activity may
undergo declination in his or her quality of life, increase the depression
level, no life satisfactions, and do not have any enjoyment and amusement in
life.

 

 

 

 

2.2 Leisure and Health

Leisure activities
are always is an important source to an individual’s health. According to World
Health Organization (WHO), health individual is an individual that have complete
physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or
infirmity. Altintas et al (2017) have been emphasized in their research that
engagement in leisure activities can promote better well-being, enhance life satisfaction,
reduce depressive symptomatology, promote successful aging, and establish
better adaptations to life events such as impairment of health. Leisure physical activities are associated with lowering
mortality from many physical disorders, associated with a rising of life
expectancy and also can reduce risk from having mental illness (Toyoshima,
Kaneko, & Motohashi, 2016). When an individual failed to engage in any
meaningful and valued activities such as leisure, it may affect how people with
chronic disease perceive their health, the symptoms and general physical
functioning because there are an association among leisure activities with
short and long term health (McQuoid, 2017). Based
on research made by Ruiz-Contreras et al. (2012), by participating in varieties
of leisure activity, risk of having dementias and other illnesses later in life
can be lowered. When an individual engaged in
physical leisure activities (e.g., walking, for 24 weeks) or in intellectual
activities (e.g., playing video games), their language, memory, attention, and
praxis are all enhanced. Study conducted among children who involved in yoga
training for ten days were shown to have increase spatial short-term memory
recall. Although not all types of leisure activities are associated with
cognitive abilities such as reducing risk of suffering Alzheimer’s disease and
other dementias, the fact is that participation in physical and cognitive
leisure activities are correlate to improve cognitive performance
(Ruiz-Contreras et al., 2012).

 

2.3  Leisure &
Socio-demographic data

Demographic data (e.g., gender, age),
socioeconomic (e.g., occupation, education), household related (e.g., marital
status, number of children) and health related (e.g., perception of health) are
having influence on leisure activity. Gender is an important factor in leisure
engagement especially in physical leisure activity where men are less likely to
engage in the activities compared to women but men can spend more time in the
activities compared to women (Cheah, 2011). It was supported by Cheah, Azahadi,
Phang & Hazilah (2017) where male participation in physical activity is
2.9% less likely compare to females. However, number of studies conducted in
other countries yielded inconsistent findings about gender disparities on
leisure engagement. Engagement of men in leisure activity is because they have
more time flexibility while engagement of women in leisure especially physical 

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